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Full text of "Franz Kobler Collection 1909-1965"

Bn ^m 



ffif'^tM Ko6iii9~ tcuuecjnL-o^i 



h^ 



"^90 



^ I20 WeiAlJG^'R ^ orro u^hf\re 



u 



Otto ¥eininger, Ta^chenbudh und Briefen 
eine i^reund 

Herausgegeben von -^^riborrGerber 



:'ien 1921 



70-1 



München (Löwenbrau) 
^9. Juli 1902 



Lieber -^'reund! 



Mir geht- '? ein biichexi bef^^er, wenig- 
sten? tue ichxa so, als ob. Auch macht 
eich bereits der sarifre, a^er unwiders tehli 
che Einflu.i des Münchner Bieres bemerkbar. 
MünchfiB hat noch Keien großen Mannhervore- 
gebracht: Alle angezogen, iieinen gehalten.- 
■t^omrae evben aus der Schack-Galerie , 
Dort hängt eine Kopie des großartigsten 
Bildes der Welt, des »^eremias von Michel- 
angelo. Ich habe bisher nicht gewußt, da^ 
es So et/.as geben kann, da^ von einem Bilde 
^^^>tauss trahlen Kann. 

Unöer Abschied hat auch auf meinen 
Veg einen ^chatten geworfen. 

Und Du? F^ -^iCi^^ilt: BezöOime Deine 
Leidenschaften sans phrase. ^an hat auch i 
So noch genug Schicksal, wenriman wer ist. 
Heil Dir! '■ 

Deij Ott U. 

Nürnberg, Dienstag 

abBiide . 
(5. Aug. 1902, laut Postst. ) 



71-2 



Lieber, herzlichgeliebter Freund! 



72 



Eins möchte ich Dich bitten: Verlang*! 

nicht zuviel von mir über mich zu erfah- 
ren» 



leininger 2) 



Für micl. i?t*e eine ?ehr schlechte Zeit, 
schlecht wie kaum je« Nicht mur groie 
TJnfruchtbariezt, nicht nur lauter humpelnde, 
von mir "rücken verlangende Einfälle, und di 
?er weni^- genug; auch ganz andere? . Vitlieic. 
werd' ich Dir e 1 nma l davon erzählen. Ich 
führe neben dem 
immer zwei , 



r.ek.en, das Du kennet, noch 
drei andere, die Du nicht kennst 
Darauf mach* ich Dich aufraerKsam; m^hr kann 
ich Dir nicht sa^en, hotte Die aber nicht 
nachzuforschen, in iceiner Weise 



7i 



liber Freund! 



Dein OtLD W. 

Bayreuth, ö, August 190*d 
11 Uhr abends 



Ich hoffe, da j Dir aie schöne Karte 
Vergnügen bereitet hat. Zwar habe ich n )ch 
zwei ande en Menschen ÄiJtx^ÄisJiÄ die sei. e 
Ansich geschickt, aber es war für mich nicht 
der gleiche Akt. 

Die ""/orte, die Wagner vor sein Haus ^: 
geschrie ctn hat, werden -Diene Gedan^cen z,j 
Dir seluer zurücicge führt ha^em. 

Glaub' nicht, dai ich Dein Leiden nicht 
voll verstehe, Nut weil iches verstehe, kann 
ich Dir nicht darüber i>.und dagegen schrirben. 
Ich weij, da j für Dic:. im AugenbÜcic auch 
jenseits der ^tatsprüfung nichts liegt als 
endloser, freudloser NeLerl uonst würdest Du 
ja doch lernen können, ,. 

Dir fciilt etvvas zur vollen Gröje, das 
ist richtig; und hattest Du dies, so würae 
dies allein Dich a^ch hindrrn, soviel an 
Deine Zukunft zu denkene. Denn das ist das 
Unglück mit Dir. lüs gubt Kenschen, denen es 
nach den inneren und auoerene Bedingungen 



'.7eininger 6) 

ebenso Schlecht ^eheri ijiüjte wie Dir un die 
doch nicht ^o ungiückiich eirid, V/ae jjjr fehlt ,! 
i?t eben das Religiöse oder Philosophische 
oder ^/[eta^jhi^siFche. Du feas t in Dir eine 
firchbare, glühende Sehnsucht, eine ^ehnsuchtJ 
derenGegen? tand Du nicht kennet und nach dem 
Du doch verlangst, verlangst. Nacii Deiner 
Heinat sehbßst Du Dich und ahnst nicht, da^ 
Du Sit nur in Dir trägst. 

Ich haoe nichBto etwas an Dir zu ver© 
richten. Ganz fehlt Dir aas andere nicht, 
das wei . icn von jener Nachther, über die 
wir nicht wieder ges^j rächen haben, ich wäre 
g lücklich , wßnn ich nach .meiner Rückkenr 
dazu beiügK. tragen iiönnte, diesem ande.n, dem 
einzigen Ouell einer möglichen C-emütsbef ri e- 
digung für den I,!eiiSciien, ?um I'^liejen zu 
verhelfen. 

Ueuer .i^ayreuth und den Parsifal sciireib' 
icn Dir nichts. Denn dar wirst Due erst dann 
vees tehen. 'Torgei. f ah * ich nacn j^esden. 

je in O.'.V. 

Viel zu sehexx, '^eäiig Zeit, auch wenig Lu; 
zum Erzählen, uane r iceine dicicen Briefe, 



88 



( Leipz g ^o, Lepteaber 
Li euer i<'ifcudii! 19)^ 



Lies deii "Det^ar G:/nf' in einem Zuge, 
fäar erste Mal wenigs ,.ens : der 7iricub^ we^en, 
an die Du Lange zurücicdeiiicen wirst, wie ich 
galube. 

I^ier wirst ju auci.den -ci.merz finden 
und die Ve rzweif lu ;.t^. Un fast aliü 



. (-4.C li u e 



in und au,rii;alL üe; .lensciien vereinigt ^.auf 
eihem bchu-.p]iä.^2, 

Uiid weniiDu ihn elese.. naet, dann ^oIl' 
Du did ^-taat s^rüfun^ machen. 

Tc..grü'.e Didii xierziichst Otto '7, 



"Weininger 4) 



91 



Wien, 50. ]J[d.r2 i9öo 
(In der Trainwa:y' ) 



Der Braumüiler druckt mein Buch! 
"Bis wird wohl ppatePtens' ^]nde Mai lertig 
Fein. 

T^ills^t Du Freutag mit mir tur Du^e als 
Hedda Gabier gehen? Y/enn ja, po will ich 
zwei Sitze be-orgen. 

Auch ich habe einen Monat Tag und Facht 
zu tun. 

yeininger 

26. April 190Ö 

Al^o endlich hinter Dir! da^ freut micn 
Fehr, noch mehr, was jettt ionimen wird... 

UebrigenF habe ich noch fürchterlich zu 
tun, Fchwimme in einem I-Ieer von ersten, zweit« 
dritten Korrepicturen und shcriebe gar nicht 
mehr mit Blut, nur mehr mit roter Tinte 
( ein v.ratiihese rietzFcnes ), 

Dein 0,^, 



-yraju: 



10. August 
190O 



TchwiiiQFche durc au? -.u hören, inwiefern e? 
Dir jetzt besonder? ^chlect geht. Deine 
Furchr, bei nir ein te? .dere? Gefühl der 
Glücker ider der Gehouenrieot dadruch zu 
Ftören, i^t unbegründet... 

Jen üitte ')ich, ecnrt^ibe mir recht bal d ! 



über CJGeFchlecht und CiiaraKter'*; u..a i- ^.g 
mir vor aiLem Deine ..ahre Meinmg üoer dne 

daniC- 
Fehr 



''Vert 



deF Ganzen ; 



barer, 
viel daran 



ich Ware ^ir umso 
je früher eF käme.:* 



[ir liegt 



'Veininger 5) 



^.^ 






.-tatt in Ancona auf ein Schiff lange 
zu warten, bin ich über Rom, Neapel, 
:MeF^ ina, Taormina ( eihen aer scnön-ten 
Punkte der 3rde ) hieher gereift, . 

Jn Rome hörte ich den Tr^vatore - 



In dem die -:ro^'/artif.^;^te Dar^ teüun^ 



de^ I-erzechlags Eich findet. 



'o 



un d bi n me hr a I e je de r ^fe i nu ng , da '• Ve r a i 
ein Gen e gewesen i^t; hier hörte ich 
vorcS^tern alnd^ in einer zauueri- cuen 
Ge^'end, ama Strände de^ mOi-dbe-chienenen 
ionischen ",!e ar r e s , z v^f c un e r i der j aj.j;y r ü r - 
be^tandefib-n Hueile ^'rethu^a und den i-egei^ 
^chifien de'- Isafen-, die G )r^o-Miii tär- 
^'^u-i K die CavLLerja rj^tican ^piieietn, 
AI? er die rchiieL,, darnal!3 war vAaSca ni 



(ir-) 



■erxeide mich al.er nicht zu ?e:ir, auh vvenn 
^ich v;aE ich Jialihier rcnrübe, noch ?o 
?ehr mit i-ehnsucht erfüllen tollte! 

i^^;>raicur irt die ei^,en thumli c rce Ce^.cnu 
dei ".'elt.Hier ;;an ich n .. r ge oren vveruun 
oder J^ieroen - iebeii nicxit.,.. 

bcnrii'b mir doch ui.er Dich und da?^ , wa^ 
'ju thuPt, Du haste? versprochen una bisher 
nicht gehalten. Zur beschäftig w^ ird t 
setthoven rathc ic:- :-».. r n r senr. ^r $at 
das absol.. te '^egentheil ^haices^jearex' s , 
una i-haKespear oder die LhaKes^jeaic- 
AehnlichiCei t ist, v;iu icn irruner mehr 
B2ü)tJBKJiiä^ s ehe , e tvvas , v; o rü üe r j e de r 
Grö jere hinauskomm^ri muss uiid hinauskoinmt. 
'r'.ei »^haKes^. earehat die 7elt keinen ^iitüel- 
p^nkt, be Bcetnoven hai Fie einen, 

Al^o, icnrechne auf -^^achricnten. Prob^s 
hof! 'Jnd grü je auch i^^chiffmann! Otto. 



'"/eiriinfi;er 6 ) 



Regt^io (rCaiabritri / , 

2^. A-.gust 190Ö. 



Die i^ei lagen, au^er der gTsöhniichen, 
aber guten Ansichtskarte ( Du mujt Dir nur die 
Häuser ganz gelb v/ie Lchönbrunn, da? Meer 
vollkommen blau und ac^olut wokeniosen Himmel 
vorstellen xjutä) Pind: 

Zwei Blüten einer Papj ru?? taude , ein 
Ctiicjchen "^a? t au^ dem Stamme der^^ulben, was 
Diil dem Umstände zuz^chiuiuen hat^', da.o doe 
Lchifi'er de? -.Ruderboote?, auf weichem ich den 
papjrü?-und barribü?be? tandenen I^lu. ^inapo bi ? 
zur '^.ueile, der berühmten Cyane, fuhr ( wae 
ich Dir und zwar euenfaii? im 3ootJ unbedingt 
binrate, wenn Du nach i-yraku? kommet ^, gegen 
meinenauPdrück-lichen ^Villen und oime mein V/i?? 
eine pflanze au^chnitien. 

Die andere An?icht?.!.carte i?t eben^au? d 
de^i hier wachsenden Papyri? ?elb?t hergestellt 
und bietet eine rehr rchlecnte An?ichl> der 
Ruinen de? alten griechischen Theater?, jener 
Ltätte, wo der Sonnenuntergang untera al-en 
^unicten, die ich kenne, am efee?feen zu ertragen 

^' ' Lje? endlich den '•Peer Gynt", tue miria, 

Dir ?elü?t nich, die?en Gefallen, 
nämlich exnie:^" ^^^ '^j^^^ ^^^ ^^^^' 



■»/^enn schon 
Du köniite?t 



wickeln lernen, wa? inDir nur 

Lie? aucliJ^ :':ai?er una Ga 

hier ?ind großartige Stellen ( 
andern nicht zu vergleichen! ) 
".'enn Tb?en weiter ?d) 

wie in ''Peer ^.ynt'.er wäre - 

.• e w r d e n ; ich ha be 



?ehr ?c.Avacn i 
liliier! Auen 
a^ei mit dtn 



GrCD je 
rö j e r 



wollen hatt( 
al? Goethe 



yn t ' I ex yyr^xv-, i^ 

selten e.n ^Ver^c .cenaCx. 

weni 



a-elernt, wo ich im Laufe der Ztit so 



:JCi. 



de cen Loue zurucicgenormrien 



von de tri i?irri ge 

hä 1 1 e 

T^r verE^t übrit^en? L-chwuche, nichts le?' 

en zu woxlen, um nicht ceeinfluot zu werden 
durcii Lektüre, nicht das Umgekehrte. 



'"einigger 7) 



Ich Vi/erde Jetzt längere Zeit nichts 
Fcnrei ben. Adrepee: Betigio, (juibrie, ferma 
in poPta. Dagegen könntest t Du mir endlich 
ein ausführliche Kritiic von "aefchlecht und 
Charakter" schiclcen. In der Letzten Zeit 
find einige derart niedrige veröffentlicht 
;\orden, die .mir der Braümüiler zuschickte, 
daj ich darnach ^^edürfni!? habe. 



^Vchreibe mir, wie*? Dir geht. 



Otto 7/. 



95 



o 



7 , Augur t 190o. 



An?ichtkarte au^ ^-oriiento 



Ich möchte Dich nochr^.al? auf da?^ aufmerk- 
ram machen, war ich Dir über '^ecthoven udna 
L hake^^jeare ^chriebvt, Dj oe-ch.uf tigr t Dien 
nämliCii au? de:a-eloen Srunde ini t dein 
'■'illen?proble!ri, au? de;»'. i-naKcr^jeare den 
Hamlet ^chrieu. Der *'ili-e i?l das, was d^r 
Zeit eine Hichtuni,, gibt, das heijt: 
Yer,-;ani^enhei t ujd Zukunft voneinander schei- 
det. Daher hat C,hakespeare erst in '•Hamlet" 
den "'inri des Lebens jnd der Zeit ^^ewonnen, ., 

^3. August 190o 



C!e qualche cosa in disoraine teco! 
( !!i disjiace molto, ch*io non so 1^. cau' 



fc la stesram c;. 
prduttivo. Cred 
un azzadista: t 
regalato dal de 
Sjjerato troppo 
vudile la soli tu 
ta d'altr 
di Le, c 
^^ues Lo in i ta ti 
potrebue le,:-,er 
danke ich ßir f 



c 1 e 

SU 



piu 



e ti probisce di esiere 

0, che ti häi qualche coaa di 

u vaoji tropiJ come domo 

stino. Tu hai mesro tro^j^^o e 

daLl! amore di donne); ci 

dine ^üu che La fuga in 

ui; e bi^^pgn;,^ jshe tu pensi ^ji 

on corag,_^io sem^re e dovunque| 

ano, jeruiie alt ragen te 

la cartolina. In übrigen 
ür Deinen ^rief una die 



Teinin^^:er S) 



^ >_. 



Ko j i e 



de^ Liedt;^, Ich hate rciion Montag 
I';;ttIaLrien veriaFren uriü \än heute in Vt'<^./^1 
an^jeJcomiiin. ( Put^tum - »--a,! . in ;-iv.'ic;-if i- 
^, orrento, ^ 

CrediiF.e unuomo cone to o io non e 
^jroduttivo, non s:i deve aF^jetta-re il momentoj 
che venga di nuovo, ma cercare la ragiont; 
c » e - emp re u na c o Ipa. 



99-130 



Brsif V, i-vtrindber 



Herr Doictor! 



Ich habe den geetoribenen Freund 
verr taiiden,und ichdanke Ihnen 



C>enden ^-ie mir die Biograohie und aller t - 
Hi che ring Schrie u mir bem Todesfälle^ 
"^^eininger hat deinen Glauben mit dem Tode 
besieglet. " Jaw ohl . 

Ich war nahe, da? reuLe tu tun um 1880; 
allein mit m-. iner ".'»Intdecicung ". Li^ i?t ^ceintl 
Ansicht, ^"ie i^t eine indüc^cung und 7/einj%er 
war ein "!<]ntdoc icer". 

^ar neue L-akulum Scheint mit neuen 
"'ahrheite.. zu kommen; die zo )log.D?c..e 
'Vettanschaunn^ enedete mit der Veterinär- 
^?;ychlogie, 

"'VJ r Strebenden buchen v/ieder die un^tero- 
li he LeeLe und rind de?Vvegen religio? 
genannt. Ich bin*?; abe eine Ironie?' ion 
kann ich nicht mitmachen. Tenne mich 
"Christlicher Freidenker'*, bi? ich Be?' ere? 
finde! 
Ein unbekannter Freund in der Ferne 

Augu?t Strindberg 
otocichora, deii 22. Oktober 190 j , Karelvögen 

4). 



"/einiriKer 9^ 



Brief von^ trindber^^ 



103)-2 



o 



Herr Doktor! 



Der relt-ame, räirei afte MeiiPch, der 
Weiriiriger! 

;?.Ti t LchuLd geboren wie ich! Ich lin 
nämlich in die 'Veöt ij;ekQminen mit bö^ura 
Gewirr eri; mit Furch vor allem, mit An^^ t 
vor Menf'cheii und Leben. Ich ^^iaube jetzt, daüJl 
ich Bö^es getan, "bevore ich geboren war. 
^Va? hei^t darf Die Theospphen allein haben 
Mut, die x.ntwort zu leifern. 

Ich bin auch wie 7/e minder religio? gewor| 
den aus Furch, ein Unmen-c. zu werden. Ich 
vergöttere auch Beethoven, habe ?ogar eiaan 
BeL thoven-Kluh gestiftet, wo man nur Beetho- 
ven Spielt. Aber ich habe beEirict, da^ Fogena) 
nannte gute Menschen Beethoven nicht vertragej 
Er ±^t ein Unseliger, Unruhiger, der nicht 
himnili^clix genannt v^/erden kann; LiberQrdiS"ch 
gewi j . 

''»■eininger*? Lchick^alt Ja, hat er die 
Geheimnisse der Götter venateii? J? yeuer 
ge^ tohlen? 

Die Luft v;ard ihm zu dick hienSbiden, des- 
halb i?t er ereticict? 

Die? zynische Leben war ihm zu zyni^ci.? 
Daj er weggegangen i^t, bedeutet fiir mich, 
dao er allerhöchste Erlaubmis dazu hatte, 
i^on^t geschieht ?o was nichc. 
S? war ? ) ^esclirieüen, 

Ihr 
August C^trindberg. 
Stockholm, B. Dezember 190ö 
x^.^, Drucken Sie meine Briefe nicht 
vor meinem Tode. 



'^eininger /v^ Taxchenuuch 

28 

?i^ gibt nur Psycho the ra^jie , freilich nichtl 
jene nur mangelhafte Psychotherapie von 
au jen , wie wir sie heute haben, wo der 
faremde '';?ilie eines ^ugge^t^r^ voiibriugen 
mu^, wozu der ei^.en aiizu Pchaach ist, nicht 
eine he terononiische , sondern eine autonjinishe l 
Hygiene und therapit., wo jeder sein ejgei.er 
Diagnostiker und damit Qben auch sc..on 
Therapeutiker ist, mn jeder mui sich selbst 
icurieren und sein eigener Arzt sein, Wenn er 
dar will, wird ihip Gott helfen, i-onst hilft 
ihm niemand, 

ich glaube, dai sicher meine Geisteskräfte 
derartige sind, da^ ich in gewissem Sinne 
Löser für ai.Le Problemem geworden wäre. Ich 
glaube nicht, dai ich irgendwo lange im 
Irrt m hatte bleiben können. Ich glaube, da^ 
ich den-^^amen des Lösers mir verdient hätie, 
denn ichwar eine Lösernatur. 



66 



^ille immer 



Was 



ichbehaupte ist: Qa^ 
und 



der 



ist 



da 



j es gar iceinen 



Willen zum ^^ösen ]^&X&iiXKaLjm . oder bösen 
Willen geben kann. 

Da Böse ist der Verzict auf dne Willen 
und das '"erdne des T riebes aus dem V/ill en 

66'6A ES ist gar nicht wahr, dai alles 

menschliche Handeln nach der Lust geht. Alles 
Handein des guten l-I^nschen geht nach dem, 
was man den Wert oder d-^e Exis tenz oder 
das Leben nenen kann. 



59 Judisches, Gemeinheit und Dummheit. 
Der Jude ist moralisch das, was die Dummheit 
intellektuell ist. Er isr die Flieg, die den 
Esel ülutog schiüdet. 

Reisen ist unsi ttllcli. ^^dl es Aufhebung 
de s Raumes im R^ume ^eiil -^^^^ 



39 Der Jude als -Parodie des Greise^. 

43 ... der Fiac/.kopf ochilieraa* 

44 Daö man den rafaleschen Drecic neben 

Mi heiangelo ha n^nne icennefi, begieiie ich; 

man wird dies wohl immer t^m, denn Rafaei 
is't ^anjohne. ^li^heia elo nur durch Genie 
zu Verstehen. . . . 

62-63 MäbU Die innere Viiedeutigkeit des 

Juden ist nicht mit dem Chaos des Verbreche 
ers zu verwechsein. 

Und «er es dennoci. auch jetz nicht 
wüite, was unjüdisch und way jüdisch ist, 
der versenke sich in den eben zum Leben 

erwachenden Adam des Micheiangenio ( in das 
von der A'Harwand an gerechnet vierte Bild 
der mittleren Rtthe in der Sixtinischen Ka- 
pelle 1, In jenen Menschen, in dem alle noch 
alP Möglichkeit liegt, aber auch alle Möglich- 
keiten wirklich liegen o mit Ausnahme der 
einen- des Judentums! 



63 Der Jude ist von Anfang an; un doch 

kann er auch kein Ende bedeuteü. Er ist 
z w i de he n An|ang und ü^nde, Anfang und Ende 
aber hei^enai '^ Tat ". l>er Jide kennt darum den 
Handel, nie .t die Tat. 

ler Jude ist zudring l^ich gegen 
C hris tu s . Christus ist nichtumsonst auf 
einem ^jsel geritten . Bselskuli bei den 
Judfcn, Der Jude ist die Züchtigung des Esels;| 
er Sit gar nich dumm. Da^ die Juden tiicn 
in Deu schland gleich inkarnieren, hängt 
mit dem*3iichel'' zusarar.aen . Der Jude hat alle 
bösen Eingenschai ten noch in dmx^OöanuQliÄit 
eine gewissen Form: Er lächelt wie die Dumm- 
heit, deren ethisches Korrelat er ist. 



IfT 



eininger 12) 



Die Dummheit 1 röchlet über üie veisheit: 
üer Jude Lächelt über ajite. Sr stellt -ich 
hiemit heben G üte« Er zeigt wie auch noch 
Lächelrijunsi ttlüch Hein icann. 

( Einleitung con A,G. 1 
Ecce Homo! 
5x Da Jahr 190Ö ist daß Geburt^ ah der 
modernen CharuKterologie : Im Mai dieses 
Jahre: hat ^tto Weinin er sein V/erk "B,u,Ch" 
ve off entlieht. .. »Die Zunft schwieg. 

W. iuhr nach "^ Lauen. Er wartete. Kein 
''Vort der Anerkennung, keii.e ernst, gerechte 
Stimme über da Buch kam aus der heimat. . . 

Vier Monate nach dem -^x scheinen des 
Bgchse^ tötete er sich durch einne Revolver- 
schusr iiis Herz. Da ward es plötzlich offenbaj 
Eine Gemeinde war ihm enjts tanden, gewjiit, 
Zeugensc .ait für ihn abzulegen. Friedrich 
JodI grüite das ^Verk durcn den Ausspruch, 
dao in der Diskussion über die Psychlogie derl 
Geschlechter dieses Buch nie mehr werde 

übergangen werden 

... höbe Auflagenzoffer, wie schon lange 
keinwQSEenschaf tl^hes "Werk.,.. 



Tf ^ 



A 

10 



Vie er mit ganzer Kraft und gancffr 
Leele, so Lebte er auchsein -^eLen mit 
^anzer Kraft und Lede... Er geno . nie in 
untcitogem 3ehagen. Er nahm den :^indrucic nie 

paF^iv auf, er erfaßte ihn aktiv ::r 

eriebte -^enscheu und Kunstwerke eoenso v.ie 
Ereignisse. ..er durchlebte ihren Gesamc- 
korajlex. Da nannte der aus tiefstem Grunde 
still bescheidene lAeuSch: Verstehen. 

exx^K»Ä:ÄXflUiwix&JBBlKÄkÄJi:if.xjsi.aLX>^ftxx5iÄ4n| 

Mit weichem ^rnst betonte er jedes einzei. 
seiner Erlebnisse: '•ich bin Protestant 
geworden am Tae meiner Promo tipn! '» "ich 



¥eininger lö) 

bin in Bayn. uth gewesen und hafee den Pars'ifai 

g hörtr»» -^,r regi^triete geradezu alle 

wichtigen "^.indrück^ die das Leben und dieWeit 
ihn zu geben hatten, 

11 W. als "^rauenha^Ter erklären hei^t: 
ihn als -^enschen vollständig mißverstehen. 
Denn sein^ntifeminismus ist das ^eraue 

"cgenteil vonHi geweeer, auch wenii die 
^dtze, die er^Cürieb so hiclangen. OlV/. koHü 
te nichthas^- em.Er hatte nur ein e.nziges, 
ihn voll behiM schdiide , überiptiiischntngro ^ec 
Gefühl in sei er »-eel, u .- das war Lieu. 
./-! Pflanzen Tier^. . Auf alten meinen Wegen 
habe ich kcinenz^Ae ten MenScnen ^^^^finden, der 
So nut zut Liebe fähig war wie er... 

Man Suche in den hier veröff ein L.li , 

Triefen , .auch nur eine eii.zi^^e Stelen, aie 
sich als Hao gegei. irgedetwas deuten lie^e 



15. "^ie seine ^tel ung gegenüber dem Juden- 
tum nichtHaj war, sonderii nui Leid darüber, d 
da er es i sich nocii nicnt überw^döen 
hatte, '^~o kann auch seine l^teliung gegenüber 
der Frau nich t las wirkliche , e.hter Ha^ 
gedeute werdem, wenn^^uch die Lockun^. zu 
dieser bequement Auffassung unleugc^oar 
vorhanden ist. 

beis ilose Güte und i^ang.mut. Verzeihen 
konnte er wie keiner, xaux&r, . . .V/axs er für 

Recht Xnx hielt, teertrat er miteiner üi^er gt 
seine Jugend hinausgehenden Energie. 

DuClI 1Ä901 oder 1901 ...jlr duchsc;.lug 
dem Gegner die Tempi ralia, Llieu auer 
sllbst unverletz t. 

X^m 16 Am ^0. ¥.0 \v. 190^ ( Vater 

neunrug hi^.t zu G. , Kampf zwis^iien 

uns , . . . lan^.e nac i^lit ternahc i. gäbe er nachd . 



^eininger 14) 



"Ichweij, dai ich der geuore..eii Verbrecher 
bin, Tch bin der geborene Mörder." 

2^ schoi. war e? iats Tag geworden. .. ichfühi te| 
micher^chöüf t ..noch einige Wort von letten 
^n t^chidung^kraf t. Ich wein , und meine 
■" Pc ütterun^ bewirkte, was mein V/orte nichtzu 

er. eichen vermoc ten. """r hatte seine Hand auf 
meine, ^titn gelegt, in s^ien Augen standen 
Tränen, Mittiefer ?eiriichAeit -a^,er dann: 
'*Ich danke Dir! Er woilw am Leuen bäiieuen 
21 

^^r begaiin ••G,u,C-^^ " zu fio^racn. 
In wenigen 'Vochen v;a. die letzte j'aeeung 
de? Tiuches vollendet. Sin "/iener wi'^-enrc.ati. 
Verlag lehnt ab. .nde März 190o schireb ¥, , 
daj ■'■raumüli.er es uatxgajnommcn haue. Am -^^^ 
Mai bra hte er mir das erste jixeiiijjlar. . • 

• • • • 

Un die Mitte Juli verlier er Y/ien und 
bliei. bis in das letzte Drittel des ^ e^temuer 
ir. der ?rene. Dai.n icam er KiüäjB-r, aiiSchienend 
ohne Sich erh olt zu ha^en. Da^ er j^iedr mit 
^elns tmordplänen trugm, ahnte ddih '^ nicht, 



irrimer »viedi ^ßot^chaf t- , er könne more_ n: 

nicht kommen und kam trotzdem und traf mich nie. 

Das wiederholte sich durch eine Reihe von lagexi 

...vi eicht h ffte er und wartete,; und glaube 

darin ,da er den freund veriehlte, einen Fiiig 

gerzeig zuXRkanerkennen. 

ni 4. Okt. 190*i, um halb eof Uhr vorm. 
astarb er im 'Vien i AI lg, Krancenhaus , w hin er 
nachts in hof irn-nglsem Zstand ^^erfvnrt vvoideri 
war, 

25 ( auch66 ) Zeilen von ungeheurer 
Tragik, die Licht werfen auf das ganze 
LeLensschicKsal dieses einzi t^artit^en lienscher] 
Thie ^ chrif tzeichen lassen erkennen, da" 



24 XJU ly. Sit wie gea^t, in 
Papier gworfen: 



rasenaer Hast uafs 



^eininger 15) 

"'71e kanuich ^chlie jj-ich den ?raueri vorwerücii 
daj Fie auf deri"~aniiwarterij Der i^ann vviii.aucJi 
nicht? ariderec ai? f'ie, E^ gii-'u kiiiütn Mann, 
der -ich n chtfreune würde, werin er auf eine 
'Frau sexuelle 7/irkung aus^vOt, Der lla^ ge^-en aj 
7rau iet nichts? ixadere? ale iia^ gegen die 
eiene, nch nicht iiber denen ^ey uali t, t, '* 

VerfgiPiche GuC^; Die ?rau ist n ur sexueiL. 
der ^ann i^t auc h sexuell. "' ...^er tiefe t- 
Ptchende ^/[ann^teht nocyi unendi ch über dem 
höchst the n ^ e n V/e i Le , <- . 



.. V Leiech in diesen le.^ten Worten schJ 
uei; e^in.i n^uer'Ve^e, vie ieicht dei üertii?! 
exs.Xy. "'ideri uf seiner fr nerem G auuen... 
aler "^Vert der evvi^en ^endanke 'V,'? 

voiiFeiner ^laitung im ProbUni der GefchLcUer 

ui.aLhangig , , , 



Luclca ^iiil. Otto ^7eitiic.Jr, der :;I n^-ch und 



• ein .V '^ 



rk , VieaDii l'.'^Ot 



veim.c:. 1311 

T^^clcL. in ?;.ckü.! oct.Ll, l^:)4, Der Ta.- J-n o, 
l'^Oö 

aeor. surren, 0..v., aer ?rei.^.n, ^eiu 7er.. 
und "e : ii Lti-eu , vienuu l ^-^ 

OLt.3 7.^ . Vi^xnu- IQ.:V. 



Abrahan^en 16<J 

in ^crap irob. He wa^ born ä-t Kaldy , Boheniia, 
18:31 ana war married to 'Ueonore M-t^üil^nt G 
C r ü nvv a L d . b o t n w- z e n i t z , f i u n^ a i' \' , a a u ^ i 1 1 e r 
Adt^lheid ( Ht)F !^other ) o ^rrf AjrillO , LS57 

■1 1 1 uo rn 2xj r i l j , 16 öO 

Umi l Lucka, :i:rinnerung an Leopold ■'"eiiiint_^er, 
Der '^a-, Viem.a Januar^' ö, 19^:^ 



L'^. 



9 The elaer '-V. liad a ^en^itive rnind, fuli of 
parion and feeii^jt;, but hi •' exLer.'or vv;^^ 
clo-ed, aiiü Lucica wa- Led to reiruiriC ti.al there 
w CA r F e t h, i n^- ^.s l o o rrij a n ci - c c i' e t i v e in ii .i - 
Renai^'a^ance face, li'' ii' 'he .„ore a beeret in 
h i r- r u l . ^K* V; 1 u 1. d o f 1 1; ri l a Lk , bu t a Ivv a ^^ ^r a 

^mali r.rrii Le c)vereü tne ^^^urierinti within hi:n, 
^ivint^ the imprer^ion tiiat oni;,' va tn the 
^reate^t e^ertion of v;il.LpovA. e r v»ar jt i'jrceu 
back.'' L.T, di^^-ui^ta hi ^ inner LiTe. ""e 
vvitl:dre,v f i orn Die out'^ide worlu into Ciic ^hj L.n 
Ionel\ ^ecLj^ioix )i h: ^ o\.n tho,:^i;t^'. 

.. .t) jud.^e iro.'-i hi^ l^t^er^' und frD;: ai^ 
c r;. '; ti ■)ri^' , ne '.v^.- a^^ :'iüua ar, o^rjur-ienta ^ j ve 
artir-t a^' :.. ^unritive c r;...i t":':L_n. :ic t:-^;i\.^ •ed 

hi ^ tr >e n:;.türt; i n hi 
hec- rt -^na ^oui, 

.v^ lie c;i^^^'^ ^-^ tunea hi? 
:nore and nore, 
o,.rter "• irld '"-.r 7 hc 
a!, Liacteo ti hi? '.vz , atto _ 
lor hi? worh ca-ie frora :^n-,i -nd ana tj.e laxjteü 

täte?. 'Ii? lo?? of interu?t ?e -lea t^ Lt ajc 

''tD a ^:Io)ri ^.hhc; c ven ti^ai l^ 
w l'ip i e j e r ? ."■ 1 1 ■■ ^ i j tj , 
?..ih>rea for'i ccaiCcr :ii thu uLi-d .. e r „ . . 



art; hcrt. ne ojer^eu iii 



'<-*■ ^_. e n a. g 



►^ C („, J ■, 







io rla 



i— i— 



one nac; , " lit ?:.id. 



l 



c 



aii.i l 



n nLr:.t.ia) j? ru lue? L? 



^li" 
Luc 'a-: ?cr, ? , 

jene tr:.^.t'"- ■ 



ni^ 



ur 



er 



. . . i ti nJi red ^. ooüt c .^i.c; v. i' t? ana li?bena.. to 



thea liven u^) l.o ai ^ La? t -qo aen!. a, A^.rii 1,132:3 



Abrahcv-n^en 15) 



Letter XVI 



Ro^a 1. Ttinin^er to A. 



ü - -^ ' - o 



2li T^ hau thoü^and^ Utter^ fron !;v futiier| 

\/::D wrote; uvei; '.>a^ , oTctn tvret tii'if^ a aa^ . 

1-, . <-" . ■• ■"» 

V'- - . . 



;:! 



j 



XXJTI 






. \. » ' • o J 



T\ 



- ) 



'/er de^^r Dootsr: 



X,. "^othCi ;vv-^' ^ii::! , duL]C::te, ^-i:JJ. , 
o v/ar^^i ji^j^'ian incii . d'.ia. L , a bcai^ ;. if ;.il wonaix 

r>-t ner cle;it}'i 'v/:i.^ not ga^ . ^!'^ «Vc^r x, -> - (--^o- 
ct;iitriG; "lit; ^va- a^oia rioii.ur, a ^)iä woi^ian, 
'ut in ^^ice of all zhi"" raarriwa lil'c )£ 
iny jt^i'ci/.^' V,;;.- n 3 1: jt :.i.: t x'ui . '"'Lä.t *vaT l; je tdi 

critic.-'a , and nid^ ^v^ul deri^^nd'^ ^j'-^'- ^^-^' 
fani Iv .'"'e chiidrtni lot Motner ^^.oil u^ , v.t; 



G 



3 n Tide d in 1 1 e r , bu t t o j ^ '7a Li: e x' •- 



L..e 



':■•' fatner had, Tor Puid tcaiica L rti-^on^, 
never deceived 'V(v nnther; '^^. ther anü ''Otdur 
L4 live^ a vtia c-rolic lifw. T!e iDVc-a^icr acc^i'L^ a' 
a -.voraan and "ne Irvtd hi':n, du l^ hirn. '^u t cntrt^ 

in tiieii Life whicü d^a-Keneo ojr 



v^tii'c ^tor'i^ 



'j 1 ü t n . 



6 '^ . "' . ' ^ f i>- 1 h e 1 , L e 3 o o l e d ' V . v; a. ? b o rn Jan ., c. i' l^. 
bl , 18b4, in Vienna, ni^ father -o. Lotion v: , 

wa^ a nerchan, froia '"raai^cri ^ draai-c 1 ..countv 

Fuetia, bu ..^.arj' ,hi- motlitr /lurol i.a d-Iua wa- 
botn inT^ikol?b..ir[i . 

7 ) 1 1 "/ ' ^ " i a. t e i'na 1 [^ r an d f ;>.. t n e . v; u ^ 



JoFejh t: 



'Tev 



» Cl 



^^e^ ' 



^t'r 



The Mind and Death 
of a Genius 



"T 



i-'V &'f ,' ♦. , / t '■/'>, 



By David Abraham^en, M.D, 
D^^partment of Psychiatr^ , Columbia Unoverlit:/ 

1946 
Columbia Unaver^it^ Pre??», ITew Yarric 

6 ...Hi- Personality was manifold, twistend, 
fantas tic . 

O.W,*s father was born afanuary öl, 1854 in 
Vienna, His fatiier, -olomon "■Ha. was a mercixac of 
V/radisch, county "^TeutrajHune^^^ry , hi mother 
•Ca )line Blau was üjrn inNiicolsburg. , Jewish 
7 maternal grandfather Josef Frey, a dealer in 

J'crap iron. Sirn in 1829 at Kaicdey , 3oh. 
married to Eleonore Grdnwaia, from >-zenitz, Hurig. 
19Ö7-I.975 ..oldest dau^ihtc r Ade Lheid. :0t uo *s 
mother, born 1857 

F&tt her . , .corcespondent, later handicra 



^ • 



lö 



59 



dihijaware and late± as ci goäldsmith ..mairiüd 1889 
sev n ehi tdren Otto i^orn Aprilö, 1880.. 
-rt i^tic Sicillof LW "Benv. Celiini" va,ued 
through Europe and L.iaerica.. Ex^^erie. in rauseums 
musical talent... visited several tcfames -'ayrtiuth 

L.W, disguised his inner life, He wi thdrew 
from the outsiede world into th shy an lonely 
seclusion of hj own thoughts,,, ambiguity., 
died 1902 

Mother . . . typicaldomes ticwoman 
Ottos llebre name .-hlomoh 

disharmony between the parents , . . 0. triel 
ii-dentofy h mseif with his father und deve,o^^a 
- unc./ scious- hostiiity toward h^s mother, 

'^is enthusiasrn for psyciiology expres-^ea itsell 
by his journey to attend the Conference of 
Psychology ) IVe Con^res international de 
Psychlogie ) at Paris in l!00..0tto attrac ted 
public attention to himself for the f i rs t time 
Otto expressed his idea of using inros^e tion as 
research method in psychiiogy , ,He finis .ed with 



Abrahamren 2) 



tht folLowibij; word? : To reach the goal of pp^chlo; 
gy we need an intro^^jec tiori ?o refined that we zu] 
hardly can vi^ualite iL? today,." 

40 Intro^^jec tion as he diS'cuP^ed j i t at the 

Conference he app].ied to him^elf . , 

Thus , there i? good reason to believe that 
even at fimtx&x an early age U, thoi^ght he ^9 
pQFseP^ed the pow- r to become a great ... 

4B 7/i th thi? feeling of ^uperiority he returned to 
Vienna frorn Pöiri^. About a raonth later ^omdä^ning 

happened tohim whcxt became a corner- 

Ptone of hir work One eveneing in October, 1900, 
he me t hi? friend uwoboda, who had just had a X 
zallc with ?reud about the problemF of bi^exuaiity 
During thi? diFcu^rion I^'reud had toid Swoboda 
that the dualiPrn pre^en. in man couid oe ex^iaine 
by the bi^uexual di^po^ition of each human and 
tliat thi^ wa? po^^ihle becau^e of the n^-ture of 
hü an anatoiny. 

45 Fronn the moraent that W, becarpe^sw»: aware 

of the problera if bi^exuality, he began coiiectln 
hi? mat rial The theory of bi^exuali ty ied him to 
bei je V that there wae in everj indi ividuc^-l a 
mixture of raad-cuLiue abd feminie -ub-tance.i. 
Th 5, he reduced all difference bewetn man 
and woman to one Single principle, the sex 
difference, but in doing ^om he piaced more vaicue 
on man thari on woman, indeed 3a&x he reduced 
v.ornan' s po^ition in absurdum 

,.he became antimetaphys cai 

46 a'di^cuF'ion group...cxt bottoiu in di?cord 
wit their view?...he became a ? tron^ adherent of 

. . .Avenariu^ 
48 AS hi? work prceeded, iL became raore anu more 
a part of him. Even though hif r tudy . . .dealt 
with natural Fcienc«;; it ^till carr )ed a per^onji 
touch. .Tnen oex and Charac .^er war a part of 
him ^ elf, involving his vwrTTiTe. 
50 "^^ matter what form hi^ activitier tock, they 
were rooted deep within him^elf. He ms never 
able to run^ away from hims'elf , to enjoy 
wholeheartedly things that other people I )ked. 



Abrahara^en 
7/einirii_^er 6 

51 V, did not -hov/ any deep inere-t in f'ociai 
SLüiä^v r ^^ •) c i o I o t,' i c a 1 ^) ro bi t.me - 

52 he develojed a roraantic iove for the o ^era- 
of Ta^ner "T-.ever has a piece of aer ^ucceeded i 
fa^cinatirig the arti-tic demand- of all time- 

a? have the woricu^ of 'Va^rier. fUe.L.D. 3b). 

The ^..melove, though to a ^rnai ler degree he feit 

for the mu^ic of Beethoven, 



5ö , . .Jve can -ee one imp )rtant eharc tei i'' t^ ic 
of ^exand Character: it i- to a certain extest 
e^jic. pae:;ioante, fuii of buirnin^ faiith, but f. 
füll. aL^o of pain and ^orrow for what he 
cobceived to be evil in the world, 
54 Tt ma he recalied that T7.'- idea of 

bl^exuaLit}' had come to hirn thrau^^h -i^mund 
Dreud. Tht re^ejct he had for ?reud was straii^^-e 
and might^/ 

...O.T. did pay 3?reud a vi-it na d a^^ceu 
hi:n to read hi- raanu-crip^t_^>-v,i 

TO be quite ^ure how matter^ -tood, I wrote 
to Freudwhoan-wered ' 14,5, -L9ö3 

Geei:rter Herr Doktor Wien IX :3erg^aSe^c 

19 
'""eine ]3e Ziehungen zu '7einin^er v;aren 
von ^ehr korri^dexer Art. E- i-t nicht 
möglich, -ie in einem kurzen Brief zu 
Be-chrieben; e- brauchte duzu eine längere 
Abhandlung. Ich war der er-te der Pein 
Manuskript gelegen had - verurteilt hat. 
Auch -eine Grundidee hat er auf einem Hisä: 
Umweg über mich übrigen- in reoht 
inkorr-ekter "^/eis:e em^jf andern, 

Ihr -ehr ergelenr 

Frezd, 
■^^ot on the envelopc ( Rudn-tempel j 

De riF (ihrer iXi in 17iera ( m: t haicemcreut 

;^ost?elmepe. 15, III 

Herrn Dr. D. Aurahara-en Osio Norwegen 

i- tortingsgaten öO II ( i'ac^iraile zv*?, 

PP. 42 und 46 



Abraham? en 4) 



54 



55 



) 



...It ^hould be nä)ted that thi'- mariu-cript wa 
not ^ex and Gharacter, but W.is d3ct)ral 
the^i^, Accordinglj .a£ l^'eud wrote me , "there 
were no deprecatory word^ about the Jew- and . 
rauch ieP- critici-m oifi women? ( letter 
IL, 6. 1958 ^0 Mare^field GurdenE London OT 6 
Freud' s unfavourt-cbie r^action was inore/)re- 
pre^ented in a letter he wijcä iater *-4'«vw^ 
write to Fliees : ''i cannot ti.iniC tzat t e dama^e 
'^. may ^ave cau^ed you c- n be anythin^^; but 
Pii^ht , bec^uPe a rotten 
cam.ot be taen -erioni^y, 
ea?^/ ae ir. imagined it. ( 



^6 
boolc like ^ex anü Gh. 

l'o ?teal i? not -o 

Wage No 4ö. 1906 p.971) 

^\ '^ man ?cript üid 

Vit.» of V/, per-onaliy ... 

-}- Vi t-i i- T e -f- rk 



i^'rued's low opinion of 
not, however, reflect his 

"...I couid not hei^.B feelih^ that I ?tood in 
front of a per^onaiity with a touch of th geniS 
geniu? ( Ferdinand Probat, Der Fall Otto Weinin- 
ger. "Hiine p^yciiiatri-che -tudie in Grenzfragen 
des }Jerven^ una ^eticniebens , "/ie-Ladei^, IJ04 

p. aSixxx 14 ) 

At that t me , h)wever, somethimg new developed 
A chnage in ^'/. *^s ideas appo^rentiy ^tarted wi tn 
hi- studyof ethicai-phi Io-o^j hj ca^ subject-,.. 
spent n gi.t- at hi- worl 

contaut with new ir enas , amonf them Rappaj» 
por . . . , 
56au ._.a he aiTived at the theory that scientific 
reseearh resuited not only in ex^>ioration of 
pahysic i rejkjkj ty , b:. aiso in th- adoption of et 
utilitarian view on human Life 

Ilis faith in him^ei^ continued to j^row 
in ?pite of the emporisy defeat administered 
to his raanuScripz . This etrong deveipment 
of his perSonality led h m to the conviction 
that he would have to live his üfe to the fuUä 



'i'hus,a change of mind now taice- pätätce. ieaving 
Studie^ of empirical scientific problems , he 
now beginß to ta^e an inter-t in moral phiio-ophy,| 
Ke becomes 



Abraham^eri 5) 
57 

preoccuopied v>/ith ethicai ddiQ- '' ..on- , and thtrti are 

hint? that a de velopraent v^/a- taking ^jlace whicb. 

pQon would e:xpref- him^elf, BjtRjO-^jaaxitisc 

The fir-t practica! eviderice of thi£ was: 

hl'? de^ire, in thc J^umrner oT 1900, to ieave the 
^ewi.Fh religion and becorne a eiiriftian. ( Fall 5 ). 
Ifi^ father thou^ht thert rai-^ht be -ome materia i^ti 
i-e a - o n - b'ch i n d th i - yi an . ... he ^ u pj r e d hi m^ elf , 

ano the r c i rc um^ tanc e , . . Hi - hörne wa? not a 
a ^ewi-h horae. ^,uite the con^rar:^ . Hi^ father was 
anti-!-emi tic , and ?4:rongi;>' -o, although he hi:.;?eif, 
naintainin^; ajä double attitude, oeiongecl to the 
Jevu-h religion. . . .rio in ^ructioii in the ^ewish 

rfeli^;iion the chiidren joined the Chri-tian 

caurcn. sorr.e rnarried non-Jew^?, the father ieft the 
»^ewjJ^}! religion vv thout ueiongin^- to an\' nev; aunoini, 
nation. 

b8 On Jül^,' :i2 , L902, üorctor*- dergee... on the 
vera da;/ he entered the Prote^taLt faith, ( 3öi.& 
Paul 3iro, Die «-i ttlich.cei t^me taphj -ik O.T/.-- 
Ifienn a 1927, p. 15. UiD. p. XVI J _ ut the 
Ji-Congr Veinan.. gave the a wer tiiat he Ieft 

the .1. Cong on May 28, 190^, 
.... The Knowltd^e that he kept hiduen from hi? 
companion- the date of hi? leavibg hi ? old 
religion and that he entered oii hi- new affiliatim 
with -uch obviou- demon- tration i-,.,proof that 
a change had already taken place within hirii. . . 



60 



62 



64 



hi^^ 



.hi^ 



re^ 



ci 



conver- lo 
rc h , h i ^ e f 



n to Prote-ta 
ort to e^ca.je 



ti-ni ex^>re--ed 
fr Olli c )ndi tion* 



which he found unbearabte into -omething he thoft 

thoüght wou Ld Lring relief, -omet-ibng better.,.. 

Therefore hi^ c.in.er^ion wa? deeply St.riou-, .. 

it wa? hi- dti^ire for a clear convict on that 

comp, lled him to take the.5ytep, ( Andre ^jire, 

'^.uelqueP Juif^,?ari? l'?)lJ^^ßcx.Tl ^allago, Otto 

wininger und - ein'Veric Tnft-Lrucjc, 1912, p. lt. 

Hi- emotional life can never have oeen partt- 

cularly happy 

furiois ?truggle in '7. between hi? rexuat ten- 

dencie? andmo ral-eof-cri tic i-M had to be 

nezt rali zed. 
^^ sesual drive?. . . ob?e?? ional in cnuracter 



Abraharnr-en 6) 



65 the dejer he went in hi? "'elf analyPi?, the 

more lie feit hi- '•antiiaoal " im^jui-e- jjTotrudtini, 



*o • 



Fraduall;y he grew to hate hin- elf , . . . in hi^ e?-aj/ 
on J -eLu he wriej- *^elf-hatred i^ the be-t 
foundation for ^el^i-examination. All- elf »exarnina- 
tion i- a phenornenon typical of tht ?eif-hater, , , ' 

ToGerber ( Augu? Ib, 1902 ^. : '»Tne feeling of 
not bein^ able to love anybody, I am, unf ortunately 
very farailiar wi ti. ( Taschenbuch 70 ) 



6 . .he grew conScioj? that he Puffe reu from a 
to al inabilty to Ifieel happy . 

69 The loriglng for ioneline?" dominated V/. , wa! 
him a vital problern.. ;^^'inally the need for 

trinp: in him that it to ok on 



fcff- 







^olitude frew 
a moral color. 

70 ...it wa£ cultural a^ well, and eyen a 

jhilosphical , rne taphy^ical, and religiou? pheno- 
menin. . . . becotü-e of hi ^ cravini^ for ^olitude he 
arrived at the way Df liie ef-entiat t )him and 
created the perraament rao Ld for hi- indiuridifia Li ty 
LonelmeP? btcame for hiüi in the end a "hu:rian ri^i^t,"' 
78 

Feuilleton: A let'.er from Otto Weini.^-er. 
a letter he wrote on Deceinber 27, lJ01...thc 
heart of it wa- : "T belle v Lhat my tnought- have 
fe'ecome rauch clearer, e-jecially in re^pect to moraj 
Problem^. If ^ou willallow me to ?ay witnout 
seeming irrn^ode^t, I thinK in moral phenomenolgy 

a kind of iology of ideale ) 
dj^cern bctween two difierent 
the one gropp ori^^inating in 
specific ma^culi e mora.lit^ and 
there i- a Ppecificlß^ feminix.e morality in 
ethical üuali-m, not raoni-m. ( Havenot all 
exi-ting moral ^y^tem^ alway- beem moni-t-ic?} 
:^ut the di Vision d.oe^ not lo^e it- value ( for thel 
phenomenology of the type^ ) ?o that we really makl 
two demand^ on everj human - fortunatiey no purel^ 
mono-exual per-on exi-t-. /'''ron thÄX a pSyCüJ- 
logi al point ofvicv. it i- vtry ixiter^tin^; touax^ 

note ju^t how the purely .:;iaxculine ideale 



[ which I thinic i 
it i^ po^' ible to 
kind- of ideal- - 
man. . . . There is a 



Abraham^en 7) 



have betn ^et up by the fumanirie philo- opher- 
( i^pinoza, Kantra Nietz.,che ) and th'. raore 
feminine idt-ais by ihe ma-'culine thimcer- 
( Chri-t, i^chjpeniia^er (, i^iwa^s th Pameolcl ?tory 
what you don't have yourf'eLf becomes youT ideal. ' 

'.. i^ ?taternent i- the fir?t pioo^ we have 
froiQ the hand oi" :') "".', oT hi- ciian^i ^ view. 

70 Letter to »-woboda betwet;n fall 1901 and -priig 
1^ ^2 :"tBereare no problem^ exc^-pt moral one- , '• 



The -omi.re dominant in ^ea ana Ghar. . . , ^he pre- 
val ng tone i- alwa^s' demanding, -erious, uellico' 
not in a juuilant fit^htin^j -pitit, eut out 01 a - 
?en^e of dut^ . 



• • • • 



li- convictiori reached the •- tajjie where he hc^d to 
live according tohj- doctrine. .. he ?et out to 
carr^' hi£ opriion- into practivce 

30 IT.L.D.. 52- "Kthic- ma^ be uefinea thu? . y.'^u 

mu^t in füll conPciou-ne- - ac L in fucn a wa^ 
teat everj morntn: i'-' filted v/ith ^or whole ^v^if, 
wi th your v»/hole indiiduali ty , '* 



..thi- overde veloped morbid ?en^e of dvx'^ 
latei' drove him inti ^e li-rcproach ana ^elf- 
accuPation'- - a ^i^n of morbid develpj ent. 



82 



3b 



81 In the ^umme 

the fear of bei 

ta?]c. , ,a Fen^e 

anxiety grevv i 

. .-oven af ter 

life, the ?ex 

importance to 

. . . hi Le he 

at tbe ?ame ti 

. . I n the Gour 

hat red lo ard 

^tron ep<;o-Go^'Gi 



r of 1902 there appeared in him 
nc u na öle to fuifili hi- inord 
of guuit and accom^janj in^ 
n him, 

he en e red the ethical pa-e of 
ija 1 p ro ü u e , U' a ^- f ^^ re a t e - t 

him. 

lo ^ed for sexual expcrience, he 
me feit ho^tile and f ri-^htened. 
-e Ol hi- iife he develo^jed a 
^ ex, and thi? Vvu^ the root of nia 
)U^neF' , ho? hjperurojhjc e-o. 



ALrahü-riipreri 8) 









travul 



■^5 -incc: t;.u Letttr 0/v wrHe ajriii 
^ovt tn inL.r erion chata ca .ar t ripiit. wat a^).)oac- 

c r 1 . i c a 1 da v ^ in To v e : n^.n r 



a? untrue. 



'^^. . lldlD: 

a u • ' L u t 



'i-. üian 



iive^^ uritil he ^oer into the 
^.^ ^ , 0^' ^nto nothiri^. .. .:^e ir free to cho-)Pe 
l:u> future. H^r ufe ^^oe^'to ruiri or i 
rati i. for eternit:/ ( p. Gl \ 



a j..»repü-ra- 



lOo 



iL? 



122 



. thu lear that he might not Lev. uo ^tj thes-e 
^^^^■^^■-^ üe v:ü,r.dr - ,;,e fear i:c.L, ..cauCc nc 
^.a? iull 0. rin, ht .,.:.? t atii.L ^vjLh hi? üfe. 

■"»n that ^■■^DV'-:r[er night ( 2o , LlO-J when he 
talJced to ^erl;er of oronüni t tin^ ^uicide ) he ca,;e 
oüt Victor over hi- ivvii ^^piit, at ieaE't iii the fo| 
foliov-ini^r rnonth-... I^ro.. that ni^ht encr-eü a 
new "', , diiiereiit fror»i the old. 

"^'j ernpha-iziri^- m^morj a- a io^;ica.Land ethical 
jhetiOnenori »"T^, arrive-^ at a reaiiza „ioii of tiie 
conaection between Lo^ic and e thic- . . .'"ru th , 
purity, f'de.lity, uprightnie^'^ o the^e are the 
ba-^e- of the oril;y' conceiva'oLe ethic-, Ti&dora 
i- not to be li-ted with virtje aimng the dutie- 
and ta^iC? of manicind ... 

TveEj human bein^ i^ lone -:,■ in the v;orid. 



'0 accept thi- ionelii.e^- ana re^pond to the 
lavv' of the ey;o i? moralit^''. All oractical 
nd reali-tic aLtrui^rn can re-ult onlj fvom 



theoreticaL individuali^m. Ir; order to retard 
another man a? per- mality, one mu^t hini^elf 
have a per-onalizy, ][e who poi?e?''e^ an e^^o 
can recognize the exi-tence of an ego i^^ hi- 
neighbor. 

i^ome of the intere-t given to the boolc 
came becau19€ of i t^ out^.'Oken anti-- enii tic 
View', which attracted ^oein readei^ who v^ere 
already anti-^emitic in feeling, ...a^ late a- 
1959 J heard in Forway a radio broadca^t beamed 
from ^Tazi Geeraany, which u-ed -ome of 



TUT 



1 r 



/ 



y / 



^ / /^-v //^:7 



//7^ /2 Z ,^^^ ,^ /'ß 



Abrahara^en 9) 



attacic^ u^-)on the Jevv-, 

...among the efi ect^ of 'Y.after hi? death there 
wa£^ a letter which read- : 

Doctar, 

to be able, at La^t, to ^ee the Solution of 
the probLe a of vjoman i- a ^^reat reiief to me. 
Therefore piea-e acceot m^' revcrence and my thanic' 



^ tockh )m 
July , 1^05 

1ö23q6 ... ¥. attributed 
Jewi-h peopie. Vi/ouLd 
a po??ible ^ymbolic 
antifemiji^m and hi- 
Jewi-h blood, he wa- 
Jevv- in Order to -how 
difierent from other 
vva? loud .in d^nunciat 
^how that he was not 
raen. "he hat red of hj 
^ho.jld aL^o probabuy 
of hi? ha ered for hi 



August -trindberg 



feminine trait- to the 
it be far-fetched to -ee 
connection betweun hi- 
anti — emi ti-m? Being of 
loud in the hatred of the 

that he was; not reaiiy 
men. Bein^, homoSexuai, he 
ion of women in oder to 
realiy different from other 

- mo ther-reiitiion, Judai^m, 
be regarded as a s^mool 

- mother. 



155-4 Then we keep in raind the per-onality ma.ce-up 
of 0,'^.V. , when we recali how he endöu hy arrivin^^ 
nd) L onLy at sexual ascetici-m but -<k"o at completi 
unreality, and how under the influenae of hi- 
environment he advancea steadii.y to that aSctici^m, 
we may ^e^ how per-oxiality make-up and environinent 
worked together... 

185 .,.^".'2 belief tnat ai.i. evil was due to hi? 

own guilt can be under^tood only üy con^idering 
hi? ^j> ychl )gical deveihopment , particularty hi^ 
inclination to hatred and icven^e. He hated 
Jew^ and women, It i^ n)t Surpri- ing, tneref ore , 
when we find that the aphori-m- that he wrote 
on the la^ b night of his life are charged wi th 
hatred. He turned again?t the oevvs and Judai^ra 
inrage. "Jt i? Jewish," he wrote (Ue.L.D. 18o ), 
to blame the other (Chri - tiani ty ) , JudaiSrn laeans 
iaying all blame 

One 



Orn. 



ei 



T. 



Abrahi^üiPen 10 

el-e had evecx under-t)od J.Chr. a^ welia? 
he did (Ue.L.D. XYIH ) ana po^'^ ihij 11 Lhe 
Ia?t period of hi^- life he naive i^y thou^^ht 
i85 that he wa? Gou or at lea^t godiiice (p.4o )i 

187 ^. advanced to a final -'ubmer^ion in a rort 
of iny^tic life in communion with a -uperior 
force (G^d) and ended in co-mic experieiice- , in 
j dea? of atonement, -anctit^/•, and de-truction. 
He Identified himPelf wwit tha? idea of Chri^tSax 
ntXy^ like ^anctit:/ and -trugg.ed .gain-t a ^en-e 
of overwhelming i_LUilt, lorea of hi^ relf-^i^olatio] 
hi^ inro-pec tion, and hi- fe^.. libg- 
Apjendix 

Letter V 

' ^ -' O^icar Ewald to Ä. 

Vienna 

Grinzin^er Allee 
March 26, 19ö8 



of hat red anü r( 



Dear Doctor: 



I v;a? a clo^e friena of Otto ?/, , ana hi? 
per-onality i- -tili of conti nuin^' importance 
to V\<c .... 

T'he power of hi- influenae wa- in the 
human impui^e Vvhich accompanied hlm and whiCü 
expre--ed it-elf in all hi- ^hortcoming^ and 
al hj? immatürit^ ( he wa? ju-t twentj ! ) He 
waa concerned \vi tn humani t^ - all humanit:/, not 
ju^t a part of iti. He conceiTsed the idea that 
there i^ a living unit^^ of the individual and 
the univeer^^. , ni? ba^ic XJlßä attiiude was 
■be:>^ond -ex, A- a mea^ure of pure humanit:/^, he 
aclcnowledged the -uperiorit:V the triurnph of the 
-pirituaL character over ^ex, a macterine, of 
everj drive - or, at i t -hould be called, what 
in human b ings i- more tnan man and wo.'.'ian. . , , 

The dimen-ion of thi^ thinlcing and crv.atian| 
Y/e re in accord witn hi? per-onality, Hi- life 
wa^ practicail;y a re^tle?- price--' of continua- 
tion which gave to ever^ one of his Statement- a| 

touch of religiouP imtia 



t^ 



on 



i 



Aürc^harnJ^eri 3) 



TLv, devil i- thb man uho bi-^ame- the fciithfui 
(^jOdl. Jiithi^ re-ujct Judai-iu i? the raüicai 
eviül.He i? -tu^jid who laugh? fivoi3u?Iy at the 
que^tion, who doe? not recogbite the probiem; The| 
Par^'ifal Lebend, The Jevv ta^ce rio "biarae: »How 
can I hclp it?* The Christiu,n af^'uöie'' aliguilt 
The Jew wiliaccept no guiit ( i.e. no problc-m 
either) ... he i? oppo^eü to the wilL of God 
who want^ evil 



«t 



184 Ue, d.L.D contains only eight raore aphoriSmS 

concerning Jew? and the «^ewi^h jjT:)'OLtiii, Rap^japortl 
omutted tne-e final comrnen tarier from the later 
eaition. Readin,, tiieri and seein^x the vicioü- 



hat red thev exore 



e o 



we call well under-tand whj' 



i.s a friend of W. Raop, probaLl^' wi-heü to hide 
Puch hate-filled and morbid expreß Ion?, 

In the final analy^ir the conterapt and rage Ql' 
!V. w«re directea a^-ain^ hirri^elf. He feict v^eaic ani 



jowc rle 



C fr 



filied with anxiet:>''. he haa con-t-nti; 



within ItUtm the fear of impotince an a feeligig 
that he wa- ca-trated (ca-tration comp lex '.In 
general thi- feding pf ca^tration i? the deepe? t 
uncon-cioüE rootof anti-^emi ti-m, and it wa- the 
root of 7/,'- moii^troz^ ant-^tmi ri^-a, Hx^ wild 
hat red of v. ornen al?o ro-e fröre the J^arrie feelin^. 
Freud ( ColLectea paper? IJI, 179 ) Lonaon Id^b 



(t • 



( the joung phiLo-opher vvho, highl:/ gifited 



but -exualiy deran^ea, cormiiitted ^uicide ufter 



,)roducin.-<: hi- remarkable G 



(U 



n 



d Ch. ^ . i 



n a 



chaoter that hc.? atttacte.. much a.ttei. tion, 
treated ''ew? and wofflDii vvith ej^al ho^cilit:/ 
and overv/helmud them with the -ane Indult-.'' 
...h v/as conio tet^/l ^wa^-ed " b>' hi- infantile 
complGxe?, and fro;r that ^ tand joint what i- com:r.( 



to 



ew 



and v;o''aen i? tiieir relaticn to the 



c a - 1 r a t i dl n c o mp 1 e:< 



ouuat pa- ^ionatid;^ to den> Jüdai^^a 



becau^e that wouLd mean to deny -elg 



• • . • 



ha treu of Judai- 



.nd Jew? V 



va- 



connec teü. wi th 



feding- of guÄlt at hi? conver^ion to Ghri^tia- 

nity, I'e feit de^pair and tne need for atone- 

ment, una hi ? guiLt wa? in hi- raond related to 

ho- de-ire for -anctioj.He oelieved tiiat no one j.- 



Abraham- en 11 ^^ 



of clear apocal^/xjtic growth. 

^V.'- work^ are Icnow to jou, Hi- boolc Ta-chen| 
bjcli ap^.L area at 
( with^ome lette 
Dr. Arthur Gerbe 
thi^ book in 191 
mutual effori-. 
per-onal and vyel 
throw light chie 

Allow me 
publi-hed a Look 
T'lrn-t Hof mann ) 
^ive c,^,ax)ter aü 
^/eininger. I reg 
J w u 1 d , f c u r? 
I greet y 
happy to nie et yo 



the enü of the war, Thi- book 
r^ / was f r a long time in 
r*- po^-e^^iori, and he gave nie 
9, The boo . wa^" deciphered oj our 

It mainly contained note- of 
t an? c na Uli eher nature, which 
fly upon ho^ last da,y?. 
tomention that I have alread^/ 

, Die T^rweckung ( Berlin, 
in which I wrote a quite exten- 
out rro' experience^ with Otto 
re t to ^aythat I do not have a copj 
e . ha e 



-ent it to you if J had, 
ou w< th ^incerity, and I would be 
u in per^on. 

^incerely your-, 
0- ker Dwald. 



204 



Letter VI 
Ro?a Teininger to A. 
De a r Dr , ^ v ü ranm- e n : 



"^.udape? t. 



.... I had tht good fortune to live 
väth m^' brother, I wa? five year^ younger tn-n h 
...vve had a gloriou? father. '7hen Otto wa^ ?i 
year^ old mj father took hiiri to hear ^reiScnütz, 
and when he v^-vc*^ ei^ht rriy father tooiv him to hear 
^.Tei - ter^inger. 

iLl^/Iy ifiather wa£ a fine, good, Simple 
woman, hou-ewife and mothe. , '/!y father wa- 
au-tere in hi- di^cipline, divine in hi- ^oodnt^^ 
i . .per^onaluty .,.e wa^ rigi- in hi- critici?,... 

....My fathci' wa- «^evü^h, a- wa^r :ny mother, 
?,/[y f st her vv'ac hi^hly anti^^imi t: c , but he thought 
a- a »few and wa- an^ry v»/heri Otto wrotu again-t 
Judai-m. ■ 
207 LetLti XII 



Ho.^a '^ , to A. 



"^udape^ t 
'^^y 15, 1959 



Abruham^en 12) 



jJear DocQr: 



% father looiced Like ITietz^cnc. 

">n my fatiier-^' tora... myl' c^ther ^ji^ced 
thi^ iri^cription: *'Thi? ^tone inanc^ tiie re-ting 
place of a ^y'oun^, man v^ho-e -pirit fouaa no 
peace in the woriü, ■//heu he had ueliveied the 

rne? aje of ho^ ?oui, he could Ioni;^er re.iairi 
among the living. He betooic him-eif to the piiace 
of death on one o-f the ^.reaie^t of aii meri, the 
bcav;arz?panierhau^ in Vi nna, and there de-troye 
hi? mortal body . '* 



• • • • 



R. w. 



2o 



Letter XJV 



Ro-a '^einint:er ld A 



Dear Do et r: 



B^dupe^ t 
6-27-59 



Our na.Mie TiKK aiv»-'aj - wa- Weiiiin^ei? ,anu 
w e a l vv a^/ r w e r e " e Vv r . 

"'v ...raridpar-^n t' v»/ere frorri Yieriua, a? were 
trieir xjarent- alPo. 

My rno the r was a ue^cütiful and quiet v/ife. 
-hei had ^even children, of whoia three dieci. 
^he wa- onLy a riou^evvife ana hrxa a t^jft for 
langiage" .... 

y.'j fatiier wa- a craft-man in ^i^-Ld, ^üver, 
and porceL.in. ^-e citatea ^everai. arti-tio 
^j ie ce - wh i ch have le^ n ac ^ ui i e ü i y x^rne ri c an- . 
He ¥;a- a -^reat liritsui- t ana mu^ician. He wa^ 
-tr)ng in mind ana feelin^^, in expre^r ion^ of 
divirie go^dne?? and unfLinching -c-verity, and 
he wa? feared uy u- all, 

A- a father peerle-^ , never to be equalea, 
he cared with the ^reate-t devoLion do r th^ 
Live- and J^ouL^^ of hi^ ciü idi'en. Throü^ih hira v;e 
üecame familiai vvi tn the no^ l ^uolime tjtbi uty 



in 
hi! 



t:.e worid of art. He icnevv no modern tion in h 



everi t^ 



Ccli 



^i'itix 



m 



Abrahani'-en lö) 



[le wa'~ lovea and feaied 



UV 



told 



lie, he would Juni 



deinand- ujon u' 



vvere eiiorraoüi 



u - ai L , . . . T f v;e e v e r 
ü^ at orice. Hi-. 
if \ve aiü not 



- mor ali.v Yaounde a 



j 



-j 



livfe üj to tiiei.a, he 
f a t he r n e v e r ha d ai t 
t\v e II ty - t \v o h e vv ü, - a c j r i. e -\; o n u e i i t i ü f o i' e i ^.-^ n 



e ucation 



/■x 



t thu a, e of 



lang 



■■d. 



fc.3 



e? in the uair^cin,. hou^e of 



Ti"» 



i-J. a: 



'^^- 



jon 



1 V 



marriaL-e at thi? tiüie , he -taried hi 



"cz. 



hanclic raf t 
LOe:>;.hibi ted 



•?r 



iu-eu(5i"in jjonüon,yari 



CX 



nurriLer of h. 



c re- tioii' 



aha ¥ieiina 
. ;'£:/ luther 



wa^ ariti -^emi tc alti\ou,.:h he thou,-ht 



LT, 



'ti- 



CX- 



a e w 



oraiaL.Lj j'our 



R 



• ' • 



Le t ter XX 



K^)Kj. Ro f' a ]? ) F c . . an "/e i n i n^, e r t 



3-^ da je- t 
7o27-59 



:ed 



Tr; 



t 



La 



? t 



Mej/ e r 
■)f t 

iie 



ex r i ac q u a i n t anc e o f ra : n t 1 
^n t) introduce her- t :> 3tto... 
^,.)enc. oiie hojr v. i tn ni.^>, anj 
■■• ! have Leen 'wich Je-j- Giiri 



^he wrote rrit; , 

t J kSäwXK ; t i L I h a ve t li e j o •' t c a r 



d 



CT 1- n 






i.eUer XXIV 
L e :n/o L d '7e i n i n, : e r t o Ro f^aa W , 



Dear Ro 



!3av re ü tn 



iH. 



U[_jur t 



:) 



! ■> 



J. 



In the exci te^:ie)i t )!" nearin^; Lae ]'VL^. ii. 



Ci 



ea 



o 



Ot. 



QU 



.lul 



• • • • 



cour^e 



na ve 



:) u t c h raa 1 i I c i u L d h c-. v «;.' iC i ? 
R chard had ;you oecn nere 

heard the ^lvin,_ 'Dutchnicüi jLci\ed rianj tij::ü-, 
büL I "iiave never ...ehore u^v^uriencea th.e tnieful 
tficutP J heard toda\. J t war jite inue^cri babli 
J fe.t drunk wncn T '.t-ft tnu ?e^ t- .jüehau? , 
an oniv t.-u wori-aLj ^3i itcer oh the dre?'ed-uj 



Aurcihc<^:i?en 14^ 



.^.... :,/ ?ober., ' 'heu '^iu. I)utch:ac.n . Tf uc t^ me 

i thi^ wa;/ , wha t would 3^ not feul LiPteiiirit, " " 
ir^ifal, the ^la^. iri_ of v^hicü } nearu oü tn 



crovvd leavi 
^jaiiif t^ll 
in tili 

j cl 

tra,in ' ''hat a jro^'i.ic place 1 vät.iout aii_ 
proPjcct of ever reachini_, a Gorii^Lete uncier- 

xd n^ of trü" '. i,ü.;jf:jL in;.^^ tci',ji t^ce . . . To 
^^ic.ara 'Va^ner VviIl aiwa^ £ 



O 4 



.It; 



:;ie 



oe , a ü v\/c e V e r^ one c i 
the -real t-me joet! T'o;; ^]7.aL J -■■^•^■^ "> 



tne ^_^real t-me joeti T'o;; ^iiaL J ^-uj o^ .^ax-ri^^. 
^aftei' heariii_ ic onlj one tinie ana v^itnojt an 
theoretical rau-ical jt^j-o. ation? I vv^jld üc ve 
ha.jjv ii i couLd bri.io.v if J cou.a tn.jov t.;i- a 



hb.jjj ii i couLd biijo^/ if T cou.a tnjoj 
did v;hen t lOi t^^t fir^t ti-'^e, thirl,, jti^v^' 
heara '^'^ei ^ tcrf^ irieer, anu tv/tait^/ ^even ^-tcjar 






he:, rd Trir tan in ^^u.^^ch. 

T I' c: c i .. e d y o u i' l e 1 1 e r o f j' e ^ l e r cia 
^o^a. ■'•"o , T v;a? not aniioytd oD hear L 

.'. v^ 1 3 1' e J ^ 1 1;- L i . T 

e a i. ' !. j . I '^ '_ • ' ^ v^ 1x1 



a^ , 

a^ 3 



uMj OVcO 



»^^ 



i. .J. '- ' l> 



a. - 



c 



i ^a '/ 






U JL 



I 



J. a' 



.jel.a - 



\/i ' -^ 



^:l;.:.^urc oh. c Ol :.o i":^. L.n 

w i u . . J n G ::^' I' Q. 



1 . • -, t 



\i^ L>_Li-/ L.I V.: -:a"i;u'. :_;wiu_. J neara vex';; muca a lo u t ii 
tr-^vel^, which }:ave filLed :rie vvi tli - ati^i'^oC ti on. 
lü l he '^hoold hcxve obe^-ea ne ii. all thin^-^ ! 
I üid not dl; a-a.ü .fror.'i ;> o u uliud o jeui enc 'v. , ^e^-iü 
the füct^ vour^eLih :o ^lio.. ud have li^Ceneü "u j 



üc t^ y our^e Li" , ^o ^lio,. ud have li^Ceneü 'l ) 
i'ic, ^tti jtJ.rtic u u;-j. X' L^, . J a. . alxaiQ xh) i' iii'" 
male ria L f i.. t'Ji'e , 

T will, .ce j tli ^' Lei Lex- until tlii^ eve,.ixi. 
T t: i^ t.;re'- o'clocj: ixi ti.t ai" te .. n joij , ^-lid at 

iour o*eloü,; Pai^ih ..ia"; 11 «a II ci.)"e 

ci.li^. 'Q.uai"tex toelevcn, 

"'\.i^ i^ aller -^c. ^ilh^L. t f jex'ha^^ 
a Ii nie t )^ ■•'--^'' '^-" ""' 



] vvxoie 

) :[:[2c}i Ox "^Ll DutC;:iian,I .. • . no,, ^o 
V e r\ V h e l rn e ei Je a n 1 1 a i ü l ^^: ^ a^. ii \ : o i" a . t 



I ii Lo V e u e c n 



•and 10 



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Aus dem von Frau Dr. Weidler im Jahre 190,9 verfassten 
Gründungsaufruf für die Wizo^Gruppe Züridi: 

Wir Zionistinnen müssen unsere zionistische Ge- 
sinnung betonen. / Wir Zionistinnen wollen ganz 
und offen unsere politische Zugehörigkeit erklä- 
ren. / Wir Zionistinnen sehen in der Palästina- 
kolonisation nicht eine Wohltätigkeitsaktion für 
notleidende Juden, sondern wir erstreben die Er- 
richtung einer Heimstätte für das jüdische Volk 
und seine nationale und kulturelle Regeneration. 



Zum Gedächtnis von Frau Dr. Augusta Weidler-Steinberg 

Herausgegeben von der Vereinigung Zionistischer Frauen, Wizo-Gruppe, Züridi 
anlässlich der ersten Jahrzeit am 10. November 1933. 



Heute jährt sich zum ersten Mal der Todestag von Frau Dr. Augusta 
Weldler-Steinberg. Noch immer stehen wir schmerzvoll vor der Tatsache, 
dass Frau Dr. Weldler nicht mehr lebt. Sie verliess uns zu früh. Sie hätte 
noch viel aus der Fülle ihrer reichen Persönlichkeit schöpfen und spenden 
können. Und doch steht gerundet und ganz ihr lauteres Wesen vor uns, 
ihr Wissen, ihre tiefe Verbundenheit mit der zionistischen Idee, der sie ihr 
persönliches Leben und ihre Art unterordnete, da sie oft ihre in sich ge- 
kehrte, überwiegend kontemplative Natur überwinden musste, um als Ver- 
fechterin eines Ideals, das keine Kompromisse duldet, aufzutreten. Und 
wie isoliert war sie dabei. 

Der kleine Kreis Gleichgesinnter, den sie gefunden hatte, er hatte nicht 
ihre tiefe Durchdrungenheit von jüdischem Renaissancewillen, ihm war die 
zionistische Idee nicht im selben Masse Tag und Nacht ausfüllender Lebens- 
inhalt. Das ist die Tragik ihres Lebens, an der wir alle nicht frei sind von 
Schuld. So wurde ihr, deren leidenschaftlich verhaltenem Wesen keine 
Lauheit anhaftete, und die daher auch keine Trägheit des Herzens dulden 
konnte, viel schmerzliches Nichtverstehen angetan. Schwächere hätten sich 
enttäuscht zurückgezogen, doch sie blieb tapfer stehen, oft ermüdet und 
gequält, verletzt nicht nur von Gegnern, mehr noch von Menschen aus eige- 
nen Reihen, immer wieder sich aufraffend, um weiter zu kämpfen und zu 
arbeiten und von neuem optimistisch nach Wegen zu suchen, die dem Ziel 
näherbringen sollten. 

Es gab kurze Momente, da sie ihren Schmerz nicht verbergen konnte 
und man gerührt Bewunderung empfand für diesen Menschen, der Kraft 
und Grösse genug besass, sich stets wieder zu überwinden und wie ein Pro- 
phet aus innerster Natur heraus sich zu Zion zu bekennen. So wurde 
sie zur Führerin nicht etwa durch besondere politische Befähigung und 
Ehrgeiz, der ihr fremd war, sondern allein durch die Kraft dessen, was in 
ihr lebte und sie zu lehren zwang, durch ihre eigene Erfüllung von jüdi- 
schem Wesen, durch das reine Menschentum, das von ihr ausstrahlte. 

Frau Dr. Weldler liebte die von ihr gegründete junge Wizogruppe 
Zürich. Sie bemühte sich, einen geistig lebendigen Organismus daraus zu 
machen, der nicht bloss den Zweck haben sollte, Geld aufzubringen. 

Eün Wizotee in ihrem schönen Heim. Helligkeit, edle, alte Möbel, 
Bücher, die bizarren Formen der Kakteen am Fenster und dazu die heiter 
und lebendig erzählte Lebensgeschichte der in München, in Wien und in Zürich 
begonnenen Kakteensammlung. Auf der Terrasse in der köstlichen Früh- 
lingssonne, nah dem grünen Hang des Uetlibcrges, trinken wir Tee und sind 
alle froh. Man spürt, welch liebenswürdig feine, geistige Geselligkeit Frau 
Doktor Weldler schaffen kann — ein neuer Charme ihres Wesens. Sie ist 
eine andere als in den Sitzungen, wo sie mit durchdachten Ueberlegungcn 
uns für etwas gewinnen will. Und ein andermal ist sie jünger als wir 
Jüngern. Da kommt sie aus Holland, begeistert von der Fülle der herrli- 
chen Eindrücke des Landes, seiner wunderbaren Kunstwerke, des Amster- 
damer Ghettos, der Erinnerungen an Spinoza, noch erwärmt vom Zusam- 
mensein mit guten zionistischen Freunden, wie strahlt sie da vor Glück und 



Erlebnis I Und dieser schöpferischen Frau, zu reichem Erleben vorbestimmt, 
ist es versagt geblieben, Erez Israel zu sehen. Kein Wunder, wenn sie freu- 
dig Besuche aus Palästina begrüsste, deren Berichte vom Aufbau des Landes, 
von der erfolgreichen Frauenarbeit so gerne und mit gespanntestem Auf- 
merken lauschte. Da geschah es, dass sie auch einmal empfangen konnte, 
die sonst immer nur gab, dass sie aus ihrer Zurückhaltung heraustrat und 
sich so warm und weich nach aussen zeigte, wie sie zu innerst war. 

Ihr Denken, ihre Sorge galt auch der jüdischen Jugend der Schweiz, in 
der klaren Erkenntnis, dass bewusste, junge Zionisten das wertvollste Gut 
des Zionismus sind. Ihre Tätigkeit als Leiterin des Jugendressorts im 
Schweizerischen Zionistenverband, ihre prachtvollen Ansprachen an die 
jüdische Jugend, die Schaffung eines jüdischen Jugendheimes in Zürich, 
legen Zeugnis ab von ihrem Wollen und Wirken für die Jugend. 

Dem Keren Kajemeth war sie treuestc Mitarbeiterin, eine lange Zeit 
auch Präsidentin der Züricher Sammelstelle. Sie leitete, dachte, warb, 
scheute auch nicht davor zurück — obwohl mit anderen Arbeiten überbür- 
det — , Büchsen zu leeren und Spenden zu sammeln. 

Augusta Weldler-Steinberg, in Galizien im Jahre 1879 geboren, kam 
mit 5 Jahren in die Schweiz. Sie besuchte die Schulen in Luzern und be- 
stand dort als erste Jüdin das Primarlehrerinnenexamen. Dann widmete sie 
sich an der Universität Bern dem Studium der Philosophie, Geschichte und 
deutschen Literatur. Sie promovierte im Alter von 21 Jahren summa cum 
laude. Den jüngsten Doktor der Universität Bern nannte man „das Kind 
der Universität." Ihre Dissertation kam erweitert unter dem Titel „Studien 
zur Geschichte der Juden in der Schweiz während des Mittelalters" als Buch 
heraus. Den Berner Studienjahren folgen weitere an der Sorbonne und in 
Berlin, dort auch als erste Hörerin an der „Lehranstalt für Wissenschaft 
des Judentums." Dann beginnt Augusta Weidlers literarische und wissen- 
schaftliche Tätigkeit. 1907 erscheinen in Bongs Klassikerbibliothek Theodor 
Körners Werke, 1909 gibt sie die Werke Hof fmann von F'allersleben heraus. 
1911 veröffentlicht sie ,, Theodor Körners Briefwechsel mit den Seinen." 
1913 folgt „Rahel Varnhagen, ein Fraucnlebcn in Briefen", eine Sammlung, 
die an Verbreitung und Beliebtheit alle andern Rahel- Bücher überflügelte. 

Zahlreiche Aufsätze, Rezensionen. Referate in jüdischen Zeitschriften 
und Tagesblättern der Schweiz entstammen ihrer Feder. Sic, die stets wach 
und rege blieb, informierte über neue geistige Erscheinungen im Judentum, 
über jüdische Kunst, sie warb anlässlich der Schweizer Tournee der Habi- 
mah auch bei der nicbtjüdischen Oeffentlichkeit mit Erfolg um Verständnis 
für deren Eigenart. Für wie viele andere auswärtige jüdische Künstler hat 
sie sich tatkräftig eingesetzt, ihnen den Weg zum jüdischen Publikum er- 
schlossen und diesem wertvolle Kunstgenüsse vermittelt. 

Ihr letztes Werk, die Arbeit fast eines Jahrzehnts, das sie knapp vor 
Beginn ihrer Krankheit zu Ende führen konnte, eine Geschichte der Juden 
in der Schweiz, liegt im Manuskript vor und harrt der Drucklegung. 

Reich ist ihr Lebenswerk, gross ihr menschliches Vermächtnis an uns. 
Wir gedenken ihrer in tiefer Dankbarkeit. Regina Goldberg-Hauser 



ZUM TODE VON DR. AUGUSTA WELDLER-STEINBERG 



.t.;i 



|10, (1- 









MIT dem Hinscheiden von Frau Dr. Weldler- 
Steinberg, der Vorsitzenden der WIZO-Gruppe 
in Zürich, hat die " Weltorganisation Zionisti- 
scher Frauen " einen sehr schwerer Verlust erlitten. 
Augusta Weldler-Steinberg war eine Frau von tiefster 
Überzeugung und ebensolcher Überzeugungskraft, mit 
der sie andere, namentlich junge und reine Menschen, 
in ihren Bann und damit in den Bann der zionistischen 
Idee zog. Eine Frau, die dem Fernstehenden bisweilen 
wegen ihrer Reserviertheit unnahbar, wegen der Selb- 
ständigkeit ihrer Haltung unzugänglich erscheinen 
konnte, die aber für den, der über einen Blick für tie- 
fere Naturen verfügt, der ihr Vertrauen zu gewinnen 

vermochte, ein weiches und ein rei- 
ches Herz, einen liebevoll ein- 
dringenden Verstand, eine beseelte 
Geistigkeit zu offenbaren wusste. 
Augusta Weldler-Steinberg war 
eine Persönlichkeit von Format. 
Ihre Kenntnisse auf historischem 
und literarischem Gebiet waren 
ebenso gross wie ihr eingeborenes 
Feingefühl für echte Werte. Da- 
rum war sie für beide Zweige ihres 
Berufs als Schriftstellerin so gut 
geeignet und schenkte ihren Mitle- 
benden und namentlich der Schwei- 
zer Judenschaft wertvolle Werke 
wie die " Studien zur Geschichte 
der Juden in der Schweiz," später 
zur grossangelegten " Geschichte 
der Juden in der Schweiz vom aus- 
gehenden Mittelalter bis zur Ge- 
genwart " fortgesetzt, sodass man- 
che Kapitel, wie Leser sagen, die in 

das Manuskript Einsicht nehmen konuieu, walire Ka- 
binettstücke für Kenner geworden sind. Diese kurz 
vor ihrer Erkrankung abgeschlossene Arbeit fast eines 
Jahrzehntes harrt noch der Drucklegung. 

Es ist nicht vielen bekannt, welch aussergewöhnlich 
empfindsamer, lyrisch veranlagter Mensch Augusta 
Weldler-Steinberg gewesen ist. Sie war es durch die 
einfache, natürliche Ausstrahlung ihrer menschlichen 
Eigenschaften und Glut der Gesinnung. Aber gerade 
darum ist sie uns besonders wert und teuer — gerade des- 
wegen weil sie ihre öffentlichen Leistungen einem in- 
neren Widerstreben, dem Widerstreben des künstleri- 
schen Privatmenschen, abgerungen hat. Und darum 
sei auch noch ein Wort über ihren feinen Geschmack 
gesagt, der sich ebenso in ihrem kultivierten häuslichen 
Milieu äusserte, wie in der Auswahl guter Bücher und 
erlesener Bilder ihres Heims, in der vollkommenen Art 
der Führung eines klugen Tischgespräches und einer 
ernsten und doch anmutigen Unterhaltung. .Ein Ge- 
spräch mit Augusta Weldler, sei es über grundsätzliche 
Fragen der zionistischen Politik, oder über palästinen- 
sische Frauenarbeit, sei es über jüdische Literatur oder 
jüdische Theater, gehörte zu den grossen geistigen Ge- 
nüssen, die einem begegnen. Und so offenbarte sich auch 
eine reiche Seele in ihrem geistgeprägten Antlitz. 

Ehe ich mich der zionistischen Betätigung Augusta 
Weldlers zuwende, sei kurz noch auf ihre Klassikeraus- 
' gaben hingewiesen, in denen sie so gescheite Urteile 
abgab, dass sie die öffentliche Zustimmung bekannter 
Univer°i>ätsprofessoren in ihren Vorlesungen provozier- 




OTi 



ten, besonders aber auf ihre 1913 erschienene Samm- 
lung " Rahel Varnhngen, ein Frauenleben in Briefen," 
in der sie um der Wahrheit willen die hausbackene An- 
sicht Ellen Keys über Raheis Liebesleben widerlegte. 
Über dieses Buch, das mehrere Auflagen noch während 
und nach dem Krieg erreichte, schrieb Hermann Hesse 
in einer Rezension, es wäre zu wünschen, dass jeder 
publizierte Briefwechsel in so vorbildlicher Weise bear- 
beitet würde wie dieser. 

Augusta Weldler-Steinberg, in der Schweiz aufgewach- 
sen und mit kaum 21 Jahren ein in Bern summa cum 
laude promovierter Doktor, erlebte in ihrer frühen Ju- 
gend die Schönfprstunde des modernen Zionismus in 

Basel. Und kraft ihrer Zugewandt- 
'leit zu allem, was Würde und 
A.del aufwies, was von Schönheit 
und Ethik zeugte, gab sie sich von 
A^nfang an der zionistischen Idee 
nit all ihren Hoffnungen hin, nocli 
;u einer Zeit, da wie andere aucli 
ne in guter Gesellschaft als Aii- 
'längerin Herzls für gefährlich und 
verrückt gehalten wurde. Nur so, 
lus der absoluten Forderung, die 
sie an sich selbst richtete und mit 
der sie nie im Streit lag, ist es zu 
verstehen, dass die Wissenschaft- 
lerin, die nebenbei auch familiäre 
Aufgaben hatte, sich in selbstlose- 
ster Weise der zionistischen Arbeit 
und, durch die Umstände gezwun- 
gen, immer mit gutem Beispiel vcr- 
imzugehen, auch der seelisch und 
[)hysisch aufreibenden Kleinarbeit 
widmete, die ihr gar nicht anstand. 

Wie in jeüem einzelnen persönlichen Fall war Augusta 
Weldler auch auf dem Boden des Zionismus gegen alle 
Halbheiten und Kompromisse. Ihr Denken war kon- 
kret und gerade, sie ergriff den Zionismus mit all seinen 
Konsequenzen und sie war bereit, sich selbst dafür, 
auch um den Lohn der Unbeliebtheit, restlos in die 
Schranken zu stellen. Ganzheit des Wesens verlangte 
sie auch von den anderen Zionisten. Sie erkannte des- 
halb, dass eine solche nur durch eigene Verwirklichung 
in Palästina zu Tage treten könne, und so ist es wohl zu 
verstehen, dass ihr besonderes Interesse der jüdischen 
Jugend der sie in Zürich ein Jugendheim schuf, und 
der zionistischen Arbeiterschaft, namentlich aber den 
arbeitenden Frauen in Erez Israel, galt. 
Obwohl unter schweren inneren Kämpfen, löste sich 
daher Augusta Weldler von dem neutralen " Kulturver- 
band " und rief eine selbständige, vollzionistische 
WIZO-Gruppe ins Leben. Diese Gruppe ist jung und 
hat noch keine grossen materiellen Erfolge aufzuweisen, 
wenn sie auch in überraschend kurzer Zeit gewachsen 
ist. Die " Weldler-Gruppe," wie sie merkwürdig, aber 
bezeichnend in manchen Dokumenten der WIZO hiess, 
war bisher, dank ihrer Leiterin, vorbildlich in der Er- 
füllung ihrer Budgetverpflichtungen. 
So hat Augusta Weldler volkserzieherisch da und dort 
in bestem Sinne gewirkt. Nur Echtes konnte vor ihrem 
beseelten und unbestechlichen Auge bestehen. Man 
wurde ehrlicher mit sich selbst, man wurde besserer Jude 
und restloser Zionist in der Nähe dieser seltenen Frau, 
an der das Menschliche das Grösste war, aus deren Men- 
schentum alles, was sie tat floss und zu erklären ist. 
Dr. M.H. 



.i*'m; 



jlijV; 




Aiigusta Weldler-Steinberg s. A. 

Skizze von. Prof. Henryk Glycenstein 

Es gibt Menschen, die in der Kriniieruiig ihrer Mitmenschen 
nicht sterben, fm Ciet;-enteil : je weiter (he Distnn/ seit ihrem T()(h\ 
desto (Icntbchor, lebendiger nnd erkcnntidsreiclier stent die Ue- 
stalt vor lins. Zu diesen unvergessenen Mensciien gehört Frau 
Dr. Wehller. Ein Juiii- ist sie schon tot. nnverändert groR steht si(> 
\()r nns. Was hat (htv; eine Jahr für nnanssprechbche Not über 
(his jii(bs(lie \()lk gebiaciit. . . Wie hätte sie mit ihrer tiefen Liebe 
/n ihrem ^()lke hente gcdilten. wie richtig al)er war der Weg, (hMi 
sie gescliritten. wie wäre sie weiter trostreiche Pübrerin der neuen 
jüiUschen Jng'end gebbeben. d'w heute (k'n Weg gehen wiU. i\vn 
sie prophetisch stets als den gegebenen Weg' erkannte. 

Sie war eine [''lilirerin der Jagend, mit allen Clahen dafür aus- 
gestattet: Beg(>ist(Miing (hM- Seele. |)ä(higogischem Talent, umfas- 
s(Mider Bildung' nnd dein (Glauben an das Ciiite im Menschen. So 
scharten sich (be jinig'en Menschen um si(\ das Ueberrageiide ihrer 
Persönlichkeit ahnend. Ber(>ils um l'>2() ernannte sie die damals 
b(>stelien(lc National- jüdische Mädchen veieinignng'. in der manclu* 
jetzt verli(Mrate(e Frau und Matter Mitglied war, zu ihrem ElircMi- 
mitg'lied. von daina s his zu ihrcMn Tode veranstaltete sie. immer 
wieder von neuem da/u aufgefordert, Vorträge und Kurse, sie 
sammelte die Jugend um sich, gründete ein Jugendheim, das auch 
heute in neiuMi Räuim-n ein NOrtragszimirier nach ihr benannt hat. 
Sie war eine belichte Mitarbeiterin unseres Blattes. Ihre klugen, 
auf genauer Kenntnis der Materie heruhenden Kritiken der- 
jenigen Kapitel bei Philippson und Dubnow, die sich mit den 
Schweizer Juden beschäftigen. wuHten weiteste Kreise zu inter- 
essieren. Vor allen Dingen alxM- liinterlien sie uns als ihr Lehens- 
werk die «Geschichte der Juden in der Schweiz». Dieses Werk 
liejjt als Manuskript abgeschlossen vor und liarrt immer noch des 
Druckes. 

l*rau Dr. Wcldler — ein Jahr ist sie schon tot. Ihr Geist und 
ihre Ideen leben in uns weiter. Man lese die schöne Broschüre, 
welche die zionistischen Jugendvereine nach ihrem Tode heraus- 
gaben, man lese darin ihre begeisterte Rede an die jüdische Ju- 
gend, die sie im Jahre 1929 in der Vollkraft ihres Wirkens gehal- 
ten hat, und man wird finden, daß ihre Worte — heute aktueller 
denn je — Eingang iintl Widerhall in vielen jungen Menschen- 
herzen gefunden haben. Magda Marx-Weinbaum. 



Dr. Augusta Weldlert^Sfeinberg 

1. November 1879 bis 10. November 1932 



Von Rabbiner D r, L i 1 1 m ,a n n, Zürich, 



Frau Dr, Weidler, Gattin des Herrn Norbert 
Weidler, ist im Alter von 53 Jahren einer tückischen 
Krankheit erlegen, wir haben ihr am letzten Sonntag 
das Grab bereitet. Ein überaus grosser Kreis versam- 
melte sich um ihre Totenbahre — eine imposante 
Kundgebung der Teilnahme, die ihr Ableben in un- 
serer Mitte hervorgerufen hat, sowie der Würdigung 
ihres Lebenswerkes und ihrer Lebensbedeutung; um 
so imposanter und eindrucksvoller, als die Familie in 
richtiger Erkenntnis ihres schlichten, jeder äusseren 
Ehrung abholden Wesens der Verewigten, gebeten 
hatte, von jeder Teilnahmebezeugung Abstand zu 
nehmen. Es war eine spontane Kundgebung der Ehr- 
erbietung vor ihrem Leben und Wirken, Und das ist 
nach jüdischer Anschauung die beste Ehrung unserer 
Toten. 

Frau Dr. Weidler hat als Kind zwei Jahre in 
E n d i n g e n gelebt, in der einen der beiden Heim- 
stätten des Schweiz, Judentums; vielleicht wurde 
es symptomatisch für ihr späteres Lebenswerk, von 
dem ein so grosser Teil der Geschichte der Juden in 
der Schweiz gewidmet war. Sie hat in L u z e r n die 
Schule besucht; eine ihrer Lehrerinnen sagte von 
dem Kinde schon: ,, dieses Kind kann nur mit Liebe 
gewonnen werden", das Urteil über die junge Schü- 
lerin hat sich in ihrem späteren Leben bewahr- 
heitet, ein liebevolles Wort fand stets Eingang zu 
ihrem Herzen, Sie hat als erste Jüdin das Primar- 
iehrerin-Examen in Luzern bestanden. Mit 18 Jahren 
kam sie an die Universität Bern, mit 21/^ Jahren be- 
stand sie das Doktorexamen summa cum laude. Man 
nannte die jugendliche Studentin, die so jung schon 
zum Doktor promovierte, das ,,Kind der Universität 
Bern". Im ersten Semester schon beteiligte sie sich 
an einer Preisarbeit und erhielt den Preis; ihre Dok- 
tordissertation, später erweitert und als Buch erschie- 
nen, trägt den Titel: Studien zur Geschich- 
te der Juden in der Schweiz während 
des Mittelalter s", Sie setzte ihre Studien in 
Paris und in Berlin fort, wo sie die erste weibliche 
Hörerin an der Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des 
Judentums wurde. Sie veröffentlichte in unserer Zei- 
tung mehrere Artikel zur Geschichte der Schweizer 
Juden, viel beachtet waren die Artikel über ,, In t e- 
rieurs aus der Geschichte der Juden 
in Zürich; man bewundert die Meisterschaft, mit 
der sie dem an sich spröden Stoff Interesse und Liebe 
abgewann, die Innigkeit, mit der sie sich in das See- 
lenleben unserer mittelalterlichen Vorfahren hinein- 
fühlte, Ihr letztes Werk, noch nicht dem Druck über- 
geben, ist M Die Geschichte der Juden in 
d e r S c h w e i z ", im Auftrag des Vereins für die Er- 
haltung des Friedhofs Endingen-Lengnau verfasst. Ich 



habe es im Manuskript gelesen, die Treffsicherheil 
des Urteils, die lebendige Verwebung der aus trocke- 
nen Archiven geschöpften Einzeltatsachen zu einer 
lebenswarmen Schilderung der allmählich fortschrei- 
tenden Emianzipation, die Klarheit der Ausdrucks- 
weise, der natürliche, kernige Stil sichern ihm das 
Interesse der Leser und fesseln vom ersten Wort bis 
zum Schluss, Neben diesen, ihrem eigentlichen Le- 
benswerk angehörenden Arbeiten hat Frau Dr. 
Weldler auch aus dem allgemeinen Wissens- und Li- 
teraturgebiet zahlreiche Aufsätze geschrieben, am 
bekanntesten wurde der von ihr herausgegebene 
Briefwechsel der Rahel von Varnhagen, der, 
von keinem Geringeren als Hermann Hesse gerühmt, 
in mehreren Auflagen gedruckt wurde und noch im- 
mer viel gekauft und gelesen wird. 

Zu dieser vielseitigen schriftstellerischen Tätigkeit 
tritt ein tatkräftiges Wirken für jüdische Interessen, 
Frau Dr. Weldler war eine überzeugte Zionistin, 
sie besuchte die Kongresse, die imponierende und fas- 
zinierende Erscheinung Theodor HerzLs hatte 
einen überwältigenden Eindruck auf sie gemacht, der 
sie dauernd an die Ideen und Aufgaben des Zionis- 
mus fesselte, zugleich den gemeinsamen Boden des 
Zusammenstrebens mit ihrem Gatten bildend. So 
hat sie bei uns im Culturverband für den Wiederauf- 
bau des heiligen Landes gearbeitet, sie war Organi- 
satorin und Führerin, sie hat die Gruppe der Wizo 
bei uns gegründet, sie war die Schöpferin des Ju- 
gendheims, sie hat für die Jugend gelebt und die jü- 
dische Jugend hing an ihr. Noch auf ihrem Kranken- 
lager waren es diese Interessen, die bis in die Fieber 
hinein sie bewegten, noch in ihren letzten Tagen dik- 
tierte sie ihrem Gatten Briefe, die die Wizo betrafen. 
Der Geist blieb stark im schwächer werdenden Kör- 
per, stark in dem, was ihres Lebens Wurzel und 
Krone war, in der Liebe zu unserem Judentum. 

In Frau Dr. Weldler war etwas von dem Feuer- 
geist der Frau, mit der sie sich so gern literarisch be- 
schäftigte, von jener jüdischen Rahel, deren Brief- 
wechsel sie uns neu erstehen liess; auch von jener 
allgemeinen Bildung, dem Wissensdrang und der Auf- 
geschlossenheit für alle ideale Lebensanforderungen, 
von denen die jüdische Frau jener Zeit ergriffen war. 
Sie las und kannte die deutsche Literatur von ihren 
ersten Anfängen bis zu den neuesten Schriftstellern 
unserer Tage, sie hatte ein staunenswertes Gedächt- 
nis, das nicht nur mechanisch das einmal Aufgenom- 
mene festhielt, sondern es zu lebendigem und bele- 
bendem, für immer festgehaltenem Geistesschatz um- 
gestaltete, Sie drängte sich mit ihrem Wissen nie- 
mals vor, aber sie bezauberte in der Unterhaltung 
durch die Klarheit ihres Urteils, die Reife ihrer Le- 



If 



\' 



! i 



/ 



bensanschaiuun^, die ßewandertheit auf allen Gebie- 
ten, man erkannte und ehrte den überlei^enen Geist, 
der aus ihren Worten, aus ihrem Wesen zu uns 
sprach. 

Frau Dr, Weidler ist von uns ^e<^an<>en. Die 
persönliche Trauer tritt zurück hinter der Würdiguni> 
ihres Lebenswerks. Es wird von einem Lehrer in Israel 
erzählt, man habe auf seine Bahre einen Schlüssel u, 
eine Schreibtafel gelej^t; den Schlüssel vielleicht zum 
Zeichen dessen, dass sein Leben nun abgeschlossen 
war, die Schreibtafel aber als Symbol seiner Lebens- 
arbeit, Das Leben unserer Frau Dr, Weidler ist zu 
früh vollendet, es hat seinen vorzeitij^en Schluss ge- 
funden, aber die Werke bleiben, die sie für uns ge- 
schrieben hat, sie überdauern ihre Gruft und werden 
zu uns sprechen von einem Leben, das im Dienst des 
Geistes, im Dienst der Wissenschaft und im Dienst 
des Judentums bewirkt hat und dessen grösster Teil 
uns j^ehört hat, den Juden in der Schweiz, 



Frau Dr. Weldler als unsere Mitarbeiterin. 

Wie schon erwähnt, war Frau Dr, Weldler seit 
jeher eine höchst wertvolle Mitarbeiterin unseres 
Blattes. Seit 1908 veröffentlichte sie aiiis ihren ^q- 
schichtlichen Studien die verschiedensten Skizzen 
aus der Geschichte der Juden in Zürich, die bis ins 
Jahr 1922 hineinliefen. Daneben entstammten zahl- 
reiche wertvolle Einzelartikel ihrer Feder. So ein 
Artikel über Bundesrat Welti, über Rabbiner Abra- 
ham Ris, zuletzt noch in der Jubiläumsnummer zum 
SOjährie^en Bestehen eine Uebersicht über die Ge- 
schichte der Juden in Endinj|en und Lengnau. Da- 
neben zahlreiche Referate über Theater, Bücher und 
Vorträge, in früheren Zeiten auch Uebersetzungen 
aus dem Jiddischen, Alles, was sie schrieb, war von 
j>ediegenstem Inhalt und glänzender Stilistik. Wir 
werden unsere dahingeschiedene Mitarbeiterin stets 
in dankbarster Erinnerung behalten. 



Zürich. Die Vereinigung Zionistischer Frauen, 

Wizogruppe, Zürich, schreibt uns: ,,Die Gründe- 
rin und Präsidentin unseres Vereins hat uns für im- 
mer verlassen. In Frau Dr, Weldler verlieren 
wir mehr als nur die Präsidentin, die dem Verein 
Sinn und Richtung gab, wir verlieren in ihr die Füh- 
rerin, die jahrein jahraus nahezu die gesamte Last der 
harten, undankbaren Kleinarbeit des Alltags auf ih- 
ren Schultern trug, Ihr war nichts zu gering, weil sie 
wusste, dass das wunderbare Werk des Wiederauf- 
baus der jüdischen Heimstätte in Ercz Israel, dem ihr 
Träumen und Wirken galt, nicht anders als durch un- 
zählige kleine Bausteine errichtet werden konnte, 
Als wahre Idealistin j^injl Frau Dr. Weldler den von 
ihr als richtig erkannten Weg unbeirrt und unbeküm- 
mert, ob sie Anerkennung fand oder nicht. Der sach- 
liche Erfolg war der schönste Dank, der einzige, den 
sie begehrte. Eine eiserne Energie und restlose Opfer- 
bereitschaft befähigten die so seltene Frau, selbst die 
stärksten Widerstände zu überwinden. Ihr unerschüt- 
terlicher Glaube, der sich nicht so sehr in Worten als 
durch die Tat offenbarte, wirkte überzeugend und er- 
muti'iend, er bannte Aengstlichkeit und Kleinmut in 



unseren Reihen, ,,Es wird schon gehen", pflegte trau 
Dr, Weldler den Zaghaften und Pessimisten zu erwi- 
dern. Und es ging, weil ein starker Wille am Werke 
war. Tiefe Menschenkenntnis befähigte sie, mit jedem 
einzelnen Mitglied den richtigen individuellen Ton zu 
finden, und sie alle zu einer arbeitsfreudigen und ar- 
beitsfähigen Gemeinschaft zu verbinden. Erst aie Zu- 
kunft wird den Verlust, den wir erlitten haben, in sei- 
ner ganzen Schwere offenbaren. Unserer verehrten 
Führerin beraubt, wollen wir an ihrem Grabe gelo- 
ben, in ihrem Geiste für das Palästinaideal des jüdi- 
schen Volkes weiter zu arbeiten, auf dass die Erin- 
nerung an Frau Dr. Weldler in der positiven 
Tat 'ebendiii bleibe." 



Zürich. Akademischer Zioniilenverein Hechawcr-Barsilai 

An der Donnerstaii-Vcrsamnilunj» vom 17. November hatten wir 
die IraiirijJe Pfhcht, Miljilieder und Gäste vom Ableben von 
Frau D r. A u o u s l a W c 1 d 1 e r , der Mutter unserer Cha- 
v/crah Manna, zu bcnachrichti}>en. Frau Dr. Weldler war dem 
Hechawcr stets treue Rat!4eberin und warme Freundin («ewesen, 
ihr Haus stand den Chawerim jederzeit offen. Zur Anlaj^e des 
Augusta Weldler-Gariens in Palästina werden wir mit drei Bäu- 
men beitrafjen. 



Zürich. Vonseiten des J ü d. National- 
f onds wird uns mitgeteilt: Seit der Gründung des 
Jüdischen Nationalfonds war Frau D r, W e 1 d - 
l e r eine eifrige Mitarbeiterin, Während vielen Jah- 
ren war sie MitgHed der Keren-Kajemeth-Kommissio- 
nen, in letzter Zeit hat sie die Arbeit der Zürcher 
Nationalfondszentrale faktisch geleitet. Die Initia- 
tive zu den meisten Aktionen ging von ihr aus und 
mit Sorgfalt und Energie überwachte sie die Durch- 
führung derselben. Täglich stand sie mit den Mit- 
arbeitern in Verbindung, regte zu kräftiger Arbeit an, 
organisierte die Sammlungen, förderte das Interesse 
und stand jedezeit zur Arbeit bereit. Durch ihren Tod 
hat die N, F. -Kommission in Zürich einen uner- 
setzlichen Verlust erlitten. Zusammen mit 



der Zion, Ortsgruppe, dem Misrachi, der Wizo (Grup- 
pe zionist, Frauen Zürichs), dem Hechawer und der 
Jugend wurde beschlossen, auf ihren Namen einen 
Garten in Palästina anzulegen. Die Samm- 
lung ergab bereits einen namhaften Betrag, Zionisten 
und Freunde der Verewigten werden sicher dazu bei- 
tragen, ihr Andenken auf diese Weise mit dem Lande 
zu verbinden, für dais sie ihr Leben lang gearbeitet 
und Opfer gebracht hat, Einzahlungen sind auf 
Postscheckkonto VIII 6308, Jüdische Nationalfonds- 
zentrale Zürich zu richten. 



Basel. Bäume: Frau Dr. Weldler-Garfen: Dms Cciitralcomilc 
(los Scliwci/orisrlien Zioiiislonvorbiuides sliricl auf doii Niiincii 
M)n l'rau Dr. Aiii,ui.sla WcldkM-SleinhcrL; s. A. .'5 0("IJ);iunu'. in 
Aiu-rkiMuuiiif,' ilircr grosscMi Dionslt« liir di^n Sc-hWLM/crisclH'ii 
Zionismus Fr. :?().— . Tofal Fr. 30.—. 



Aus dem «Israelitischen Wochenblatt für die Schweiz» vom 18. Nov<2mber 1932. 



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LEADING FIGURES IN JEWISH HISTORY 

Editor: ISIDORE FISHMAN, m.a., ph.d. 

Director of Education, 

London Board of Jewish Religious Education 



ISRAEL BAALSHEM 



HIS LIFE AND TIMES 



by 
MAURICE SIMON, M.A. 



jewish Religious Educadoaal Publications, 
Wobum House, Upper Woburn Place, W.Ci. 



1953 



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1S2i- 



LEADING FIGURES IN JEWISH HISTORY 

Editor: ISIDORE FISHMAN, m.a., ph.d. 

Director of Education, 

London Board of Jewish Religious Education 



ISRAEL BAALSHEM 



HIS LIFE AND TIMES 



by 

MAURICE SIMON, M.A. 



Jewish Rellgious Educational Publications, 
Wobum House, Upper Woburn Place, W.Ci, 



1953 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 



Introduction 4 

Early Life ... 5 

Israel AS A Baal-Shem 8 

Israel Baalshem 's JuDAisM II 

Israel Baalshem as a Eeligious Teacher ... 21 

The Beginnings OF Chasidism 23 

Israel Baalshem and the Rabbis 25 

The Baalshem's Influence on Polish Jewry ... 26 



ISRAEL BAALSHEM 



Introduction 



Israel Baalshem was the originator of the 
Chasidic sect which for a time in the second half of 
the eighteenth Century embraced perhaps the greater 
portion of the Jews of Poland, and which has still 
numerous adherents at the present day. His followers 
claimed for him that he was an inspired teacher who 
could show the whole Jewish people the way to salva- 
tion; and the rejection of this claim by his opponents 
led to a violent quarrel which for a time convulsed the 
whole of Polish Jewry. Without being possessed of 
any great learning, he was a man of considerable 
originality, and he evolved a new type of Judaism 
which has many points of interest even for those who 
do not follow it. For these reasons he is a figure of 
some importance in Jewish history, and an account of 
his life and teaching should not be omitted from its 
annals. 

The records of his life are by no means scanty, 
but the greater part of them are highly unreliable, 
having been transmitted by writers who were wholly 
uncritical and were possessed of a strong bias either 
for or against him. Our chief source is a Hebrew 
book called Shihche Ha-Besht, which was first pub- 
lished more than fifty years after his death and con- 
sists of stories about him most of which bear the obvious 
stamp of legend. Many of them no doubt contain at 
least a grain of truth, but to extract this grain is 
gener ally a process involving a good deal of conjecture. 
Hence any account of his life must of necessity be both 
fragmentary and lacking in precision, especially in the 
matter of dates. 



1. Early Life 

As far as can be ascertained, he was born in the 
year 1700 in the small fortress town of Ocup in the 
Polish province df Podolia, on what was then the 
f rontier between Poland and the Turkish province of 
Moldavia. His father, Eleazar, was a poor but pious 
Jew of ordinary Polish type, who had suffered severely 
during the Turkish-Polish war of 1676-1698, when he 
was taken captive by the Turks and separated from 
his wife for many years. In consequence no doubt of 
this fact, Israel, their only son was not born tili they 
were well advanced in years, and they both died while 
he was still a small child. 

Out of respect for his father the community took 
him in band and sent him to a cheder and talmud 
torah. Here he showed himself bright but not over- 
studious. It is related of him that every now and then 
he would absent himself from school, and on search 
being made for him he would be found wandering alone 
in the woods. This love of nature, which marked him 
out as something exceptional even in his school years, 
remained with him through life and was to play a most 
important part in his future mental development. He 
was able to indulge it even more freely when at the age 
of thirteen he was made a " behelfer," a kind of usher 
whose chief duty it was to bring the young children to 
school and teach them to join in the responses. It is 
related of him that he used to take the children to 
school through the woods and sing with them on the 
way, and that he became a great favourite with them. 
Perhaps for this very reason he was before long made 
beadle of the Beth Hamidrash, which at any rate was 
a more remunerative oceupation. 

In the Beth Hamidrash he is reported to have kept 
somewhat ostentatiously aloof from the students and to 
have slept most of the day while they were studying. 
Nevertheless to judge by his attainments in later life 
it would seem that he must have picked up a good deal 
in a desultory fashion. Certainly he was not so idle 



as he appeared to be, f or the story goes on to relate that 
he used to get up at night unbeknown to the others and 
pray and read. It was apparently in these nocturnal 
studies that he made acquaintance with the teachings 
of the great Palestinian Cabbalist E. Isaac Luria, 
which along with his love of natura were to be the great 
formative influence in his outlook on life. A legend 
current about him after his death relates with much 
f antastic detail that while he was a beadle at the Beth 
Ha-midrash a young man from another town whose 
father had left him certain " secret documents " came 
there to study, and that after a time he handed these 
documents to Israel, who studied them with avidity 
together with the young man. They contained, 
according to the story, " secrets of the Torah, theoreti- 
cal and practical Cabbalah. " There can be little doubt 
that it was in some such way as this that Israel first 
became acquainted with the teaching of Luria, and 
that he long continued to study it in the same surrepti- 
tious manner. 

When he reached the age of seventeen — by which 
time he was already in the current view an " old 
bachelor " — the communal authorities found a wife for 
him, but she died after a very short time. He there- 
upon gave up his connection with the beth-hamidrash 
and migrated to a small town near Brody the capital 
of East Galicia, which at that time also belonged to 
Poland. Here he became a teacher in the Jewish school. 
He seems to have made a very good impression on the 
people of the place, and was frequently called upon to 
arbitrate in cases of dispute. Through his conduct of 
one case he had the good fortune to win the favour of 
a certain Ephraim Kotover of Brody, who offered him 
his daughter in marriage. Israel consented, but before 
the marriage could take place the father died. Israel 
thereupon claimed his bride from the latter 's son, 
Rabbi Abraham Gershon Kotover, a well known 
talmudical scholar. For some reason — perhaps because 
he did not want to study Talmud with him — Israel 
deliberately represented himself to him as a boor and 
ignoramus, so that he was very unwilling to give his 



sister to such a man. As she, however, would not 
abandon him, he permitted the marriage on condition 
that they would leave Brody. 

The newly-married couple accordingly moved. to 
a village in the Carpathian mountains between the 
towns of Kutuv and Kossob. Here Israel followed the 
occupation of a lime-digger, living alone in the moun- 
tains and cooking his own scanty food. Twice a week 
his wife would come to him with a cart on which he 
would load the lime, and she would then seil it in the 
villages. It was a very hard life for both of them, but 
Israel was able to indulge to the füll the beut for lonely 
meditation and contact with natura which he had 
already exhibited in his childhood. 

According to later report, Israel and his wife 
endured this life for seven years. They then grew 
tired of its hardship and loneliness, and returned to 
more populous centres. Israel now tried to earn a 
living as a private teacher and also as a shochet, but 
he was unable to make ends meet and had ultimately to 
turn for assistance to his brother-in-law Rabbi 
Abraham Kotover. The latter first tried to employ 
him as a coachman, but for this task he proved 
incompetent. He finally bought him an inn in a 
neighbouring village. Israel left the task of running 
the inn to his wife, while he spent most of his time 
alone in a hut by the river Pruth ; perhaps also he eked 
out his wife's earnings with some teaching and 
shechitah. The venture was comparatively successful, 
and though still poor they no longer suffered the 
grinding hardship which had been their lot for so many 
years. 

This life continued tili Israel reached his thirty- 
sixth year or thereabouts. Then a dramatic change 
took place in his activities. The recluse entered into 
the stream of life, and the hanger-on of society began 
to play a part of ever-growing importance in shaping 
the life of his contemporaries. 






i 



2. Israel as a Baal-shem 

Up to this time most of the people with whom 
Israel came in contact must have formed much the 
same judgment of him as did his brother-in-law — that 
he was a ne'er-do-well and dreamer, well- inten tioned 
but utterly incompetent. It may be that with certain 
people he deliberately sought to create this Impression ; 
but his later life was to show that it was very wide of 
the mark. Already too, according to stories which 
were current later, there were chosen spirits to whom 
he had shown himself in quite a different light. One 
of these stories at least seems to have a considerable 
basis of truth and is worth recording. While he was 
a teacher and shochet in Kashlovitz, it is said that two 
youths named Margolies, sons of the Rabbi of 
Yaslovitz, suddenly disappeared from their father's 
house, and after a long search they were discovered in 
the house of the shochet Israel. On being ques tioned 
they said that they had been driven thither by some 
unaccountable Impulse, and that they had seen there 
wonderful things which they refused to describe but 
which had convinced them that their host was wiser 
and more pious than all other men. This and other 
stories seem to show that after his return from the 
Carpathians, Israel was beginning to feel his powers 
and was casting about for some wider held of activity. 

Such a field he now f ound first of all in the prof es- 
sion of baal-shem, " Master of the Name." This title 
seems first to have come into common use among the 
Jews after the time of Luria. It was applied to men 
who composed and wrote out charms and amulets which 
the more credulous sections of the Jews (and these may 
well have been the major ity) regarded as ef&cacious for 
the eure of disease and the casting out of evil spirits. 
The efficacy of these charms in the opinion both of those 
who composed and those who used them lay in the 
combinations they contained of the letters of the Divine 
Names, especially the Tetragrammaton. The belief 
that these letters, and all the other letters of the 
Hebrew aiphabet, possessed occult powers, seems to go 



8 



back very far in Jewish history, and is well represented 
in the Zohar. It was on account of the use they made 
of these letters that the writers of charms and amulets 
were called haalei shem (or shemoth). 

Thus the baalei shem might be regarded as a kind 
of what we now call " faith-healers." There were a 
number of them in Poland in the late seventeenth and 
early eighteenth centuries. They probably possessed a 
secret lore which they ascribed in part at least to Isaac 
Luria. They seem to have been on the whole men of 
some learning and piety and to have sincerely believed 
in the efficacy of their own remedies. They probably 
owed their hold on the masses chiefly to their persona- 
lity, reinforced no doubt by a shrewd insight into 
human nature and a certain rudimentary knowledge of 
medicine. Naturally too they were credited by the 
masses with the power of working wonders and fore- 
seeing the future. To all inten ts and purposes they 
practised '* faith healing " as a profession, but some 
at least of them do not seem to have taken fees directly; 
they left it to their clients to show their gratitude by 
what was called fidyon nefesh, " redemption of the 
soul." Naturally they were in much higher repute 
with the masses than with the Jewish intelligentsia. 

That Israel became a baal-shem round about bis 
thirty-sixth year is beyond dispute ; but we are not told 
anywhere how or where he acquired the requisite know- 
ledge and skill. We may surmise, however, that he 
had been applying himself to this study during his long 
spells of loneliness; it may even be that his loneliness 
itself was not so complete as it appeared to Outsiders, 
and that he found means without their knowledge to 
obtain direct tuition from experts. In any case he now 
feit himself fully qualified to enter the ranks of the 
haalei-shem. He took up his residence at a place called 
Tlust in Eastern Galicia, and from there went about 
to the neighbouring villages, prescribing remedies, 
reciting prayers and incantations, and above all 
writing out charms and amulets. He soon made a name 
for himself as a faith-healer, a wonder-worker and a 



i 



t\: ! 



1^ 



foreteller of the future, and his Services were in great 
demand. He became known through the countryside 
as " the good baal-shem " {baal-shem toh),^ and he was 
often called as f ar afield as the neighbouring province 
of Volhynia. The Polish gentry also sometimes made 
use of him. He became so busy that eventually he had 
to engage a scribe to help him in writing out his 
kemioth (charms). His Services were w^ell rewarded, 
and he commenced to enjoy what were for him easy 
circumstances. 

Israel made no claims to infallibility, and he 
frequently warned his clients that his prognostications 
might be wrong. He also took care to avoid conflict 
with the regulär doctors, and in some cases even 
advised his clients to call in a doctor. None the less his 
practice continued to grow, and about the year 1740 
he removed to the town of Medziboz in Podolia, not 
far from Brody, and settled there permanently. 
Through the thrift of his wife he was able before long 
to acquire a house of his own. His family consisted of 
two children, a boy Herschel and a girl Adel. He now 
ceased to travel through the countryside, and instead 
his clients came to him, The demand for his kemioth 
continued to increase, and eventually he had to engage 
a second secretary to assist him in writing them out. 

As a baal shem Israel was total ly devoid of any 
professional pride or aloofness. He put on no airs of 
superiority and mixed among the common people as 
one of themselves. He would smoke his pipe and chat 
familiarly with innkeepers and similar folk, and he 
would even talk with women in public, to the great 
scandal of the more censorious. This democratic 
behaviour was no doubt one of the reasons for his popu- 
larity and success. He also had a genuine interest in 
the Jewish masses among whom he worked, and did all 
he could both for their material and their moral wel- 
fare. One of their staple occupations was to farm the 
rents from the great Polish landowners, and Israel 
worked hard to induce them not to put up the price 
against one another. It is related that one landowner, 

10 



finding that his rents showed no tendency to increase, 
threatened Israel with dire penalties; but the latter 
drew such a moving picture to him of poverty of the 
rent-coUectors that he desisted. He also strongly 
inveighed against any tendency on the part of the Jews 
to overreach the non-Jews. He must certainly have 
been a force for good among the Jews of the country- 
side. 



3. Israel Baalshem's Judaism 



^ 



For the rest of his life Israel was known to his 
contemporaries as Israel Baalshem or " the Besht " 
(i.e., Baal Shem Tob) ; and this has remained his name 
for posterity also. But it was not as a " baal shem," 
as a faith-healer, that he wrought a religious revolu- 
tion in Polish Jewry, or became a figure in Jewish 
history. Had he been nothing more than a " baal 
shem," even a particularly good one, his fame would 
probably have died with jfiim. If his name has sur- 
vived, it is because besides being a " baal shem " he 
was also a religious teacher and promulgated some 
original views on Judaism which are worthy of 
consideration. 

Our knowledge of these views, like our knowledge 
of his life, is derived from material which leaves much 
to be desired. He wrote down nothing of his teaching 
himself , nor did he seem to care about its being written 
down by others. Copious notes, however, were made 
by his favourite disciple, Yacob Yosef , and the sub- 
stance of them was later embodied by him in writings 
of his own. We cannot always teil how much he may 
bave changed or added of his own in the process ; and 
this applies still more strongly to later writers who 
professed to record teaching of the Besht. However, 
certain main features can be made out with some 
certainty. 

11 



Like all his fellow-Jews at that time, Israel 
Baalshem believed implicitly that it was the duty of 
every Jew to carry out all the precepts of the Torah — 
the mitzvoth — and that by means of this Performance 
he would secure his share of olam haha, the future 
World. But like many other Jews he was not satisfied 
with this conception of the mitzvoth and demanded 
something more of them. It was not enough for him 
that he should draw near to God in the next world ; he 
wished also to be united with God already in this 
World. It was this impulse which the Cabbalah, the 
Jewish mystical teaching, had set out to satisfy by its 
doctrine of the neshamah, the inner or super-soul, as 
set forth in the Zohar, the great text-book of Jewish 
mysticism, first published in the fourteenth Century. 
And two hundred years later this doctrine had been 
greatly elaborated by the great C abbaust Isaac Luria 
of Safed, commonly known as ARI (i.e. Adonenu 
Rabbi Itzhak), or as *' Ha-ari " (i.e., the lion), from 
his eminence. 



As we have seen, it was from works which he 
ascribed to the Ari that Israel Baalshem learned the 
secrets of shemoth, the Hebrew letters of the names of 
God ; and from this it was an easy transition for him 
to Luria' s teaching about the neshamah. It is obvious 
from his own later teaching that this made a profound 
impression on him and becme the basis of his whole 
religious outlook. Nevertheless he was no slavish 
follower of Luria; he introduced into his teaching 
modifications of the highest importance which gave 
an entirely new colouring to his Judaism and con- 
stituted an original contribution to Jewish thought. 

Luria based his System on the idea, which he had 
derived from his teacher Moses Cordoveiro, that the 
World had come into being through an act of what he 
called zimzum or contraction, i.e., that God had so to 
speak contracted Himself so as to allow the world to 
come into existence. There is thus a Separation 
between God and the world which the world seeks to 
overcome. This it can effect in a way through the 

12 



\ 



neshamah, the super-soul of man. The neshamah is an 
emanation of the Deity lodged in the body of man; 
and in proportion as man observes the mitzvoth, so bis 
soul unites itself with God and by so doing helps to 
unite the world with God. 

It is, however, not enough, according to Luria, 
that man for this purpose should simply perform the 
mitzvoth ; he must perform them with the fixed inten- 
tion of procuring this end and with the concentration 
of his whole mind on this object. This intention and 
concentration is called by him kavvanah. To attain 
this kavvanah it is necessary for a man to divest him- 
self as far as possible of all earthly associations, and 
for attaining this frame of mind Luria recommended 
both deep meditation on the mysteries of creation and 
frequent fasting and mortification of the flesh. Thus 
both on its theoretical and its practical side the Lurian 
Cabbalah, as the System was called, placed on its 
followers a great strain which only a minority were 
prepared to undergo. 

The Lurian Cabbalah was well known in Poland 
in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and was 
widely followed by those who aspired to a superior 
grade of holiness and to the title of chasid or saint. 
Israel Baalshem was also without doubt familiär with 
its main features, but whether from the original 
sources or at second hand we cannot say. He found in 
it much to attract him, but also much to repel him. He 
also desired to be a chasid and to keep his soul, his 
neshamah, in the dosest possible conmiunion with God. 
But he refused to believe that the attainment of this 
end demanded so severe a sacrifice of him as was 
prescribed by Luria. His heart told him that there 
was a more direct and easier way of reaching the goal ; 
and he determined to foUow the promptings of his 
heart. 

The Bible had already told him that " the whole 
earth is füll of God's glory," and to this the Cabbalah 
had added the well-known gloss, " there is no place 
void of Him." Why not, he thought, take this literally 

13 



and see God every where and in every thing ? For this 
certainly an effort of Imagination was needed, but it 
was an effort which he feit himself capable of making. 
He was led to it naturally by tihe two principal 
experiences of bis past life. One was his long sojourn 
in the Carpathian mountains, where every sigbt and 
sound must bave seemed to him to reveal the presence 
of God. The other was his practice as a baal shem 
which had taught him to find the presence of God in 
the letters of the Hebrew aiphabet. 

With his mind's eye thus sharpened he was able to 
find the presence of God wherever he looked for it. 
Nothing for him existed except in virtue of some 
emanation of the divine power ; and it was his f unction 
to discern the divine power behind the appearance. 
This applied even to things which at first sight 
appeared evil or dangerous, and they lost their evil or 
danger if seen in this light. He contrasted his own 
method of approach to God with that of other s by 
means of the following parable: " A certain great 
king by means of magical powers built himself a palace 
with phantom walls and towers and gates and com- 
manded his subjects to approach him by way of them. 
He also heaped up much treasure in front of each gate. 
One man went as f ar as the first gate and thinking that 
the wall was solid took some of the treasure and went 
away. A second man penetrated to the second gate, a 
third to the third, and so on. At last the king's son 
came and made up his mind that he would penetrate to 
the king himself, and he found to his delight that all 
apparent barriers were unsubstantial and that nothing 
really separated him from his father." 

This finding of God everywhere and in everything 
Israel Baalshem called debekuth or hitkdabkuth, 
" cleaving." Commenting on the biblical injunetion 
" thou shalt cleave to Him " (Deut.X,20), the Eabbis 
had long ago asked, How can a man cleave to God, 
seeing that He is described as " a consuming fire " ? 
And the answer they gave was that man should cleave 
to the attributes of God: " as He is merciful, so be 
thou merciful, etc." No doubt the Baalshem took this 

14 



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h: 



injunctioii to heart also, but in spite of the warning of 
the Rabbis he made bold to interpret the words of the 
text more literally. 

He similarly made bold to reject the doctrine of 
zimzum which was the theoretical basis of the System 
of Luria. Instead he went back to the older idea of 
the Zohar that the world is the " garment " of God, 
bearing the same relation to God — or at any rate to the 
thought of God — as the silk to the worm which pro- 
duces it; and he emphasised his difference from Luria 
by declaring that ' ' everything above and below is one 
unity," and that " there is no division between the 
Upper and lower worlds." In other words it was not 
necessary f or a man to raise his mind to heaven in order 
that his soul might be united with God. And since 
this intense mental effort was not necessary, neither 
was the painful mortification of the flesh which pre- 
pared the way for it. Thus at one stroke Israel 
Baalshem liberated himself from the " practical 
Cabbalah ' ' of Luria which deterred so many from the 
path of saintliness. 

In virtue of his doctrine of the omnipresence of 
God Israel Baalshem is sometimes and not unnaturally 
called a pantheist. This, however, does not imply the 
slightest affinity between him and Spinoza, to whom 
the designation is usually applied. Spinoza is called 
a pantheist because he identified God with the whole 
of the universe, the Baalshem because he found God 
everywhere in the universe. But the Baalshem would 
never have dreamt of effacing the distinction between 
God and Nature, as Spinoza did. On the other band 
he came dangerously near to attributing corporeality 
to God. Schechter ascribes tohim the belief that God 
** not only created everything but is emhodied in every- 
thing " — which seems hardly compatible with the 
creed of Maimonides. 

In order to enable himself to cleave to God more 
closely, man should try to realise as vividly as possible 
the love of God for man, especially as shown by the 
giving of the mitzvoth to Israel. This could be 
best accomplished if he performed the mitzvoth 



15 



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I : 



ÜÜ! 



with a oertain fervour or ecstasy which was 
called by his followers, if not by himself also, 
hithlahabuth (lit. " self-enkindling, translated by 
Schechter " enthusiasm "). This quality is closely 
allied to hithdabkuth, and in the Chasidic literature 
the two terms are often alniost interchangeable. Like 
Luria the Baalshem regarded the Performance of the 
mitzvoth as the Instrument by which salvation was to 
be attained; but unlike Luria he held that for this 
purpose they were to be performed not with kawariah 
or intellectual concentration, but with hithlahabuth er 
emotional dbandon. " Every religious act " states 
Schechter, speaking of the Chasidim, *' to be of any 
avail must be done with enthusiasm. A mere 
mechanical and lifeless Performance of an ordinance is 
useless. A man is no nearer the goal if he thinks, for- 
sooth, ühat he has done his duty when he has gone 
through the whole round of laws in every section of the 
code. This essential enthusiasm is only begotten of 
love. The Service of fear, if not wholly useless, is yet 
necessarily accompanied by a certain repulsion and 
heaviness, which effectually prevent the rush and 
ardour of enthusiasm. The Inspiration of true service 
is its own end. There is no thought of this world and 
there is none of the world to come." 

In virtue of this combination of dehekuth and 
hithlahabuth we might well apply to the Baalshem the 
epithet of *' God-intoxicated " which was so oddly 
coined for Spinoza, surely the most sober and leaat 
emotional of thinkers. This '' God-intoxication '' was 
particularly marked in his manner of praying, which 
became the distinguishing outward feature of his 
religion. Before praying he would work himself up 
into a State of hithlahabuth by shaking himself 
vielen tly like a man possessed, and he would sing and 
shout and make all kinds of odd movements until he 
had brought himself to the required pitch of dehekuth, 
when he would be perfectly still and lost in thought. 
This conduct also he justified by a parable. " If a 
man is in danger of drowning he makes all kinds of 
motions to save himself, and no one would laugh at him. 



16 



V 



So when a man is praying and making violent move- 
ments he should not be laughed at because he is trying 
to save himself from the rushing waters, namely, the 
evil spirits which try to disturb his thoughts in his 
prayer." He also compared those who cannot under- 
stand such a Performance to a deaf man who sees 
people dancing to music and wonders what they are 
dancing for. 

Prayer was for the Baalshem the most precious 
method of serving God, and he could hardly find words 
toexpress its praises. " The Shechinah " he said " is 
called prayer.' ' ' ' Prayer is a limb of the Shechinah. ' ' 
" Prayer, as it were, touches the Holy One, blessed be 
He." And he used the following parable to illustrate 
its nature and value. " A king proclaimed that any- 
one who lacked anything should lay his petition before 
him and it should be fulfilled. So one asked for money, 
one for precious stones and so forth. But one poor 
man came and asked only that he should be allowed to 
speak with the king every day, and then he would 
certainly lack nothing. So is a man whose whole 
request and desire is that he should be allowed to speak 
witih the king; then ' all goodness of his master is in 
hishand '." 

Thus prayer was for the Baalshem primarily an 
instrument not for procuring any benefit but for com- 
muning with God. And for this purpose it was not so 
much the content of the prayers which mattered as the 
spirit in which they were offered. Hence he saw no 
reason to ohange the established prayers, save for a 
few minor alterations which he adopted from the Ari. 
He believed no doubt that by means of special prayers 
he was capable of working miracles on occasion. But 
the liturgy was precious in his eyes because the letters 
in which the prayers were written were of a mystical 
character and contained occult influences which were a 
power ful help to dehekuth. 

Next to prayer he attached particular value to the 
study of the Torah. Into this also he tried to introduce 
the principle of hithlahdbuthy with rather odd results. 

17 



m 



^i' 



He studied the Talmud, like the Bible, almost purely 
for edificatory purposes, and spoke disparagingly of 
its dialectic, of which the chief purpose was merely to 
sharpen the mind; in fact, he regarded it as a 
hindrance to right living. It was no doubt on this 
account that the talmide chachamim with whom he 
came in contact considered him an am haaretz. He 
confined himself chiefly to the Shulchan Aruoh without 
commentaries and similar works of practical utility, 
and also attached great importance to the Zohar. 

In his Performance of the mitzvoth he did not lay 
great stress on minutiae, like most of his con- 
temporaries. Thus it is related of him that at a later 
date when he had already become a man of some 
eminence he came with a friend to a town where he 
wished to examine the knife of a shochet. When the 
shochet came to him he found him engaged in prayer, 
and not wishing to waithe killed some birds and left. 
The friend was thereupon unwilling to eat the birds, 
but the Baalshem was not particular. Similarly a 
disciple of his once bought fringes {tzitzith) in the 
market, but was reluctant to use them for fear that 
the thread had not been spun for that purpose 
(lishmah); whereupon the Baalshem said to him: " If 
you are af raid to put them on your garment give them 
to me and I will put them on mine." On the other 
hand, he was fond of taking ritual baths very 
frequently. 

In consonance with his ideas of hithdabkuth and 
hithlahabuthy the Baalshem insisted that God should 
be served with joy (simchah) and that sadness or 
melancholy (atzbuth) was displeasing to God. He 
regarded God as being pre-eminently a God of love 
whose relation to his worshippers was that of a father 
to his children, not that of a master to his servants. 
Hence even if a man committed a sin he should not be 
grieved overmuch lest this should interfere with his 
Service of God in the future. 



18 



f 



f 



Finally, from his conception of dehekuth Israel 
Baalshem derived a new definition of the tzaddik, or 
righteous man. The tzaddik for liim was no longer the 
man who merely performed the mitzvoth and avoided 
sin. He was the man who in all circumstances and 
conditions was able to " cleave " to God. " The 
tzaddik," he said later, " is the man whose dehekuth 
with God is never interrupted even for a moment. 
Even in the ordinary conversations which he has to 
carry on with other men on everyday affairs he will 
see that they are conducted in such a way that the 
dehekuth will not be interrupted. And even when he 
is performing a mitzvah he should take care that he 
should not be so absorbed in the actual Performance as 
to let his mind wander from the dehekuth.'' In this 
matter of dehekuth too there was always room for 
improvement, and the tzaddik should always be 
examining himself to see that there was no worldly 
motive mixed with his Performance of religious duties. 
It was the man of this type who fulfilled the Cab- 
balistic ideal of servingas a link between the "upper" 
and the "lower" world, between God and humanity. 

It was the Tzaddik and not the Chacham or wise 
man who in the Baalshem' s opinion was called upon to 
be the leader of the people in religious matters. It was 
he who by example and precept should show them how 
to " cleave " to God, which was the supreme aim of 
the religion. It was better of course that they should 
be able to do this without his help, but if they could 
not then they should cleave to the Tzaddik. Hence 
it was important that the Tzaddik should be a pas- 
sionate lover of his people and should be loth to see any 
wrong in them. It is related that once he heard a 
preacher, addressing a congregation of whom he knew 
nothing, denounce them, as was the fashion at that 
day, as being sunk in sin, and he turned on him and 
said: " Woe unto thee who darest to speak evil of 
Israel ! Dost thou not know that every Jew when he 
utters ever so short a prayer at the close of day is 
performing a great work before which the angels in 
heaven bow down?" On another occasion when asked 



19 






I 



by what right he did away with the fasting and 
mortification of the flesh which had been such a f eature 
of Judaism in the past, he replied that all this was 
unnecessary if a man kept three objects in view — the 
love of God, the love oi Israel and the love of the 
Torah. 

We may then sum up as foUows the System which 
Israel Baalshem worked out for himself. The true 
Jewish life is that of the chasid, the saint or pietist. 
The Jew becomes a chasid by " cleaving " to God. 
The way to cleave to God is on the one hand to realise 
at all times and in all places the presence of God, and 
on the other hand to serve God with hithlahabuth or 
enthusiasm. To acquire this hithlahabuth it is neces- 
sary to shake off any tendency to atzbuth or melancholy 
and to serve God with simchah or joy; and this is pos- 
sible only for him who loves God and feels himself 
loved by God. The man who can by his own efforts 
cleave truly to God is the Tzaddik and it is his duty 
to assist others to do so by his example and teaching. 

Thus the Baalshem' s Judaism, like that of Luria, 
was based essentially on the Cabbalah rather than on 
the Talmud. Like Luria it regarded the Service of God 
not as an end in itself but as a stepping-stone to com- 
munion with God. But while Luria sought God in the 
remotest heavens by means of an intellectual effort, the 
Baalshem found him on earth with the aid of his 
imagination and emotions. Psychologically therefore 
he was further removed from the Talmudists than 
Luria had been. And while the religion of both Luria 
and the Talmudists was saddened by the consciousness 
of sin, that of the Baalshem was one of joy with which 
the consciousness of sin was not allowed to interfere, 
at least, not for very long. The emphasis laid by the 
Baalshem on the attribute of love in God would hardly 
have been endorsed either by Luria or the Talmudists; 
it may have been based on a curious idea of his that 
different attributes of God are in the ascendant at 
different periods of human (i.e., Jewish) history, 
coupled with the belief that the present was a period 
of love. 

20 



4. Israel Baalshem as a Religious Teacher 

It goes without saying that in his own eyes Israel 
Baalshem was a genuine Tzaddik, according to his own 
definition. As such he naturally regarded himself as 
a man with a mission to spread his doctrine abroad and 
gain for it as many adherents as possible. It is not 
unlikely that he made the first tentative steps in this 
direction in the course of his practice as a baal-shem. 
Other f aith-healers before him had incidentally helped 
their clients with their moral and religious problems 
as opportunity offered, and Israel Baalshem seems to 
have carried this process much further. No doubt 
many of his pithy sayings and parables circulated 
round the countryside. But it is not likely that he 
sought personally to propagate any definite doctrine 
among the Jewish masses with whom he came in 
contact. 

The method which he chose for this purpose, and 
which best suited his capacities, was to gain individual 
disciples who would take him at his own valuation, and 
to leave it to them to work on a wider public. His 
practice and reputation as a baalshem must have 
iDrought him into contact with persons whom he iudged 
to be kindred spirits and to whom he could disclose 
his inner thoughts. He may well have commenced with 
impressionable youths like the Margulies boys men- 
tioned above, and with clients whom he had cured of 
physical ills, and out of them formed the nucleus of a 
following. 

The time was ripe for such a transformation as 
the Baalshem envisaged in the Judaism of the day, at 
any rate in Southern Poland. There were many men 
of learning there who like bim were deeply dissatisfied 
with the religious leadership of the day. On the one 
hand, while thev admired the Chasidic ideal, thev did 
not feel themselves equal to the rigorous Lurianic 
discipline by which alone it was thousrht to be attain- 
able. On the other hand they were deeply perturbed 
by the gfulf which separated the educated class from 
the masses, the am haaretz, whose religious interests 

21 









were in consequence grossly neglected. When such 
men heard of the teaching of the Baalshem from his 
disciples their curiosity was aroused, and many of 
them found in it the guidance which they were looking 
for. There were others again who were strongly 
prejudiced against the Baalshem, who despised his 
profession and could hardly take seriously his preten- 
sions to superior religious insight, but who neverthe- 
less thought it worth while to give him a trial. Many 
of these to their surprise came away converted. In one 
way or another — probably through the force of his 
Personality — he cast his spell over them and they 
became his devoted disciples. 

Among the opponents whom he thus brought over 
were R. Zeeb Kitzim and R. David Furkis, the leading 
chasidim of Medziboz, R. Israel Charif, a well known 
Scholar and Cabbalist, and — stränge to relate — his own 
brother-in-law, R. Abraham Kotover. More important, 
however, than all these for spreading his influence and 
perpetuating his name was R. Yaakob Yosef Hakohen, 
the Rabbi of Shargrad. R. Yaakob Yosef was for 
long a determined Opponent of the Besht, and refused 
to see him in spite of repeated requests. Once, the 
story runs, he came to the synagogue for early morning 
Service and to his surprise found no one there. He 
was told by the beadle that the congregation were all 
in the market place listening to the Besht. He 
accordingly sent for him and as a result of the inter- 
view became his devoted disciple. He had to pay for 
his devotion, as his congregation persecuted him and 
final ly drove him out of the city. Besides taking notes 
of the discourses of the Besht, as mentioned above, he 
acted as his right-hand man in developing his ideas 
and expounding them to the students. 

It was not long before the Besht and his disciples 
formed a kind of brotherhood, or, as Graetz calls it, 
'' Order." They prayed together in their own peculiar 
way — by preference in the onen air — with much 
^esticulation and at great lene^th, and they also used 
their own form of prayer, based on that of the Ari. 
Every af ternoon before the minchah service they would 

22 



\ 



wander about with the Baalshem while he discoursed 
Torah to them. On Sabbath they would gather at bis 
table for the third meal of the day and hear him 
expound the sidra of the week. The feeling of brother- 
hood among them was greatly strengthened by the high 
importance which they attached to the virtue of 
shifluth, or lowliness. This was a stronger form of 
the well known Jewish virtue of anvahy or modesty, 
and it included considerateness for and deference to 
others. As Schechter says, " it had a negative side in 
thinking humbly of oneself and a positive side in 
thinking highly of one's neighbour," and obviously it 
was a powerful aid to sociability. 

To his disciples and followers the Besht was the 
perfect Tzaddik, the man whose dehekuth with God 
was most complete. It was by copying and following 
him that they also learnt to " cleave " to God. He 
became not only their teacher but their leader, whose 
Word with them was law. He oecupied an even more 
dominating position among them than the ' ' Rav ' ' in 
the ordinary Community. And yet, unlike the Eav, he 
was not separated from them, but remained only 
primus inter pares. 



5. The Beginnings of Chasidism 

The group which gathered round the Besht in 
Medziboz — the new " Chasidim " as they came to be 
called — bore a strong resemblance to that which had 
gathered round the Ari in Safed two hundred years 
earlier, both in its religious fervour and in its relation 
to its teacher. But in one respect it was very different. 
It was filled with a proselytising zeal which was 
absent from the disciples of the Ari, and for a parallel 
to which we have to look rather to the followers of 
Shabbetai Zevi. Both the Besht and his disciples were 
anxious that their own way of life should be adopted 
by as many Jews as possible, even if this meant for 
them a breach with long-cherished practices and 
values. 

23 



Tti 



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i. 
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1|| 



The reason for this difference lay of course in the 
difference between the types of Judaism represented by 
the Ari and the Besht. Luria's Judaism was essentially 
one for a spiritual and intellectual 61ite, but the 
Baalshem's was one for the masses. Certainly it con- 
tained some Lurian elements of a highly mystical 
character, but its central doctrine, of the omnipresence 
of God, derived as it was rather from the feeling and 
imagination than from thought, was not beyond the 
grasp of the ordinary man. And the other main 
features of Chasidism, the hithlahdbuth, the simchah, 
and the shifluth, contained a strong populär appeal for 
those who were governed more by their emotions than 
their reason. And to crown all the leader of the new 
movement did not like the Eav occupy a lonely 
eminence but regarded himself as one of the masses 
and was willing to associate with them on äqual terms. 

It was not long before tho Besht began to send 
out emissaries to spread his doctrines abroad. The 
most successful during his lifetime was R. Judah 
(Aryeh) Leb of Polna, known as the mokhiach 
(reprover), because as a preacher he specialised in 
ealling cons^regations to repentance. He carried the 
doctrines of the Besht into strongholds of talmudical 
learning, such as the town oT Brody, and gained 
many converts there. Throu^h his efforts and those of 
others of the disciples, the Besht obtained a consider- 
able following in Southern Poland, largely no doubt 
among those who already knew of him as a baalshem. 
But it was reserved for a later recruit to his Standard 
to turn this following into a mass movement. This 
was Ber of Mezeritz who shares with Israel Baalshem 
the credit of having founded the Chasidic sect. 

Dob-Ber ben Abraham was born of poor parents in 
Lukatch some four years after Israel Baalshem. He 
became highly proficient in Talmud and Cabbalah. and 
early won fame as a Maggid in several cities of the 
Ukraine. He was a striet follower of the '' practical 
Cabbalah " of the Ari, and impaired his health bv 
excessive fasting. Whether out of curiosity or for the 
sake of his health he sought out the Besht about the 

24 



year 1757. The latter was at first unwilling to receive 
him — perhaps for fear that he should make a bad 
Impression on him — but eventually the two came 
together and he became a fervent member of the 
Chasidic ferotherhood. His standing and abilities 
were such that he soon assumed a leading position in 
the movement, second to that of the Baalshem himself . 
He devoted himself in particular to the Organisation of 
the movement by systematising its doctrine, training 
teachers, and investing the office of Tzaddik with a 
kind of sanctity which was independent of the qualities 
of its holder. When Israel Baalshem died in 1760 he 
assumed without Opposition the position of leader and 
Tzaddik of the movement, which, though still small, 
was already growing by leaps and bounds, and trans- 
ferred its headquarters to Mezeritz in the Ukraine. 



6. Israel Baalshem and the Rabbis 

According to reports current in later days, Israel 
Baalshem was subjected to a good deal of persecution 
by the Rabbis, and attempts were even made to excom- 
municate him. Such Statements are probably a reflec- 
tion of the relations between the Chasidim and their 
opponents which arose after his death, and cannot be 
accepted without further evidence. We are told on 
good authority that he lived on good terms with the 
Rabbi of Medziboz, who was particularly pleased that 
he did not alter the times of the prayers. This being 
the case, it is unlikely that other Rabbis would have 
interfered with him, and equally unlikely that he 
would have gone out of his way to incense them. What 
may have happened is that some of his emissaries to 
other towns may have been less careful and displayed 
their hostility to the Rabbis in no uncertain manner, 
thus provoking counter measures. We know that such 
behaviour was the cause of the violent conflict which 
broke out a few years after his death between the 
Chasidim and their opponents, and shook Polish Jewry 
to its foundations. 



25 



'■/ 11 



r 



m 



Israel Baalshem was throughout his life a deter- 
mined Opponent of the cult of Shabbetai Zevi which, 
though proscribed by the Rabbis, continued to flourish 
in Poland in his days. Nevertheless he had a certain 
sympathy with hiin, considering that he had been 
misled by bad ad vice. He had no such sympathy with 
the pseudo-messiah Jacob Frank, who in 1757 declared 
himself in Podolia to be the reincarnationof Shabbetai 
Zevi and collected a following which distinguished 
itself by its hostility to the Talmud. He supported the 
Rabbis in their elforts to suppress this heresy and 
placed Frank in the same category as Jesus. Never- 
theless when Frank with his followers went over to 
Christianity in 1759 he mourned over " the loss of a 
limb from Israel." There is probably no foundation 
for the report that he was a m.ember of one of the 
delegations which protested to the Bishop of Lwow 
against the activities of Frank. 



i;3 



7. The Baalshcm's Influence on Polish Jewry 

Israel Baalshem left his stamp indelibly on the 
Chasidic movement, and while he can claim credit for 
its good points, he must also be held more or less 
responsible for the regrettable features which it 
exhibited in the course of its history. Nevertheless 
there can be little doubt that during his own lifetime 
his influence on Polish Jewry was, as far as it went, 
almost wholly beneficial. He kindled a new interest in 
and attachment to Judaism in many who but for him 
might have been seduced from it either by the Jesuits, 
who were very active in Poland in his day, or by 
heresies like those of Jacob Frank. And he did this 
without Coming into serious conflict with the estab- 
lished Jewish authorities. If the Judaism which he 
taught was not precisely that of the Rabbis, it was 
capable of existing side by side with it, no less than 
was that of Luria. On the other hand, it could not, 
like that of Luria, be easily combined with the Judaism 
of the Rabbis. 



26 



J 



The Baalshem's Ideals were embodied in the four 
terms debekuth, hithlahabuth, simckah and shifluth. 
These were not new qualities in Judaism, though they 
had never before received the prominence which the 
Baalshem gave them. It was the great merit of the 
Baalshem that he brought these qualities back to 
Jewish life, albeit in a form somewhat peculiar to 
himself . In doing so he once more asserted the claims 
of the spirit of the law as against the letter, and offered 
his contemporaries a form of Judaism which was free 
at any rate from the specific evils attaching to the 
Rabbinic Judaism of the day. 

The root of these evils was obviously the excessive 
preoccupation of the Rabbis with legal minutiae and 
the dialectic of the Talmud. The Baalshem was 
probably not the only one in his day who protested 
against this excess. But not content with this he tried 
to do away altogether with the systematic study of the 
Talmud. In doing so he opened the door to evils even 
greater than those which he cured. 

The systematic study of the Talmud, however 
much it might be abused, imposed a certain discipline, 
both moral and intellectual, which was a valuable aid 
for the building up of character. For this discipline 
the Baalshem substituted the personal influence of the 
Tzaddik. This might be effective where the Tzaddik 
was a man like the Baalshem himself, and where the 
number of his followers was not too large for all to 
have personal contact with him. But when the number 
of followers became too unwieldy for this personal 
influence to be exercised, and when in addition the 
Tzaddikim themselves became corrupt, the character 
of Chasidism suffered a sad deterioration. 

Whatever the reason may have been, Ber of 
Mezer itz saw fit to make the offioe of Tzaddik heredi- 
tary in his own family and that of the Baalshem. This 
Step proved a fertile source of corruption in the 
Chasidic movement. Many of the later Tzaddikim 
found their chief asset in their ancestry, and to 
enhance this asset they turned both the Baalshem and 



27 



a 



!>:: 



Bit of Mczeritz into legendary figures, elevating the 
loriiUM- ahriost to the rank of a divinity. Instead of 
leiigions leaders they became petty potentates whose 
lirst ohject was to maintain a power based on the 
iiiiliinili'd credulity of their followers. Tzaddik 
woi'sliip becairie the badge of the Chasid, sapping both 
bis monil and bis inteJlectual fibre. 

Of course there have been in every gener ation men 
who have found genuine inspiration in the teaching of 
tlie Baalsliem, and who have sought to uphoJd the 
distinguishing features of Chasidism in all their 
purity. Such a one was conspicuously Eabbi Shneour 
Zalman, of Ladi, a disciple of Ber of Mezeritz, who 
founded a kind of intellectual Chasidism known as 
Chabad (Chochmah, Binah, Deah). But outside the 
ranks of the Chabad the Ideals of Chasidism tended to 
suffer grievous corruption. Dehekuth engendered a 
feeling of familiarity with God which led, especially 
with the young, to irreverence and disrespect for holy 
things; hithlaliahuth tended to be stimulated not by 
Spiritual exaltation but by spirituous liquors; simchah 
l)ecame a cloak for mach moral laxity; and shifluth 
often found expression in boorishness and lack of self- 
respect. One virtue, however, of those inculcated by 
the Baalshem was always retained by the Cliasidim 
unimpaired — the spirit of mutual aid and warm- 
hearted friendliness which even in the period of its 
lowest ebb constituted the redeeming feature of the 
Chasidic movement. 



b 



. ! 1 



28 



Books to Consult. 



S. Schechter, "Studies in Judaism" 



H. Graetz, ''History of the Jews" 



S. Dubno. "Toledoth Ha-Chasiduth" (Hebrew) 



• 1 • )) 



S. A. Horodetzky, " Toledoth Ha-Chasidim 



( Hebrew ) 



29 



LEADING FIGURES IN JEWISH HISTORY 

Editor: Isidore Fishman, M.A., Ph.D. 

Director of Education 

London Board of Jewish Religious Education 

The following twelve booklets are available in this 
Series. 

" Rabbi Judah Hanasi," by Rabbi A. Carlebach. 

" Saadia Gaon," bv M. Aberbach, M.A. 

" Rashi," by Aron Owen, B.A., Ph.D. 

" Moses Maimonides," by Rev. Dr. Israel W. Slotki, 
M.A., Litt.D. 

" Don Isaac Abrabanel," by Rabbi Dr. A. Melinek, 
B.A. 

" Rabbi Joseph Karo," by Rabbi Dr. S. M. Lehrman, 
M.A. 

" Menasseh Ben Israel," by Judah J. Slotki, M.A., 
Ph.D. 

"Israel Baalshem," by Maurice Simon, M.A. 

" Moses Mendelssohn," by Maurice Simon, M.A. 

" Moses Montefiore," by Albert M. Hyamson, O.B.E., 
F.R.Hist.S. 

" Leopold Zunz," by Rabbi Dr. H. J. Zimmels. 

" Theodor Herzl," by Israel Cohen, B.A. 



Obtainable from 

Jewish Religious Education Publications, 

Woburn House (6th floor), 

Upper Woburn Place, 

W.C.l. 



31 



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II 






Entdüc.cte ^^eheiinnisL^e ^, Aus^^ujen: V/ien 1919, Lemuer^- 
jjer Verf., ein Yorkaiii.Jier uer Auilclt^rung in alizien, 
veroarg sici. unuer uen Pseuuonjm ^Obafija ben'^.^e bachia • 
Ui.d spielte Eicxi ctls C-n Greulierzi^er Cna££:iäauf, der 
Jxi:naerteinunü.iunrziK angel)licn von ilini aufgei'undene, 
die unaacidiiii uuer a.lie ..^aj^en lob|jreisenue cnaG::idisc;ne 
.oi'^exe zuj'ii o^rucice üeiordert naoe, i^en aas ciiawEr. luisci.e xx 
i-^aucien/elEcn, ein ^xemiscn v .ri Heoraiscii unci Jiaaiscn, 
^•etieu naci;;LS'iii-it;naen j>rieren Eina m iOrm von .-.anaüemer- 
. runden vie-te iiuszü{je a^.E aen ao^mcxT ttvkx " S c h i ü c ne na 
..:escnt u una aen ..encen aer ^adaikirn der E,o.:.teren ^.eit 



Uli 



.ui xv, -^'acn- 



ms oor, -ert. 



.a.n vo n .; .. rae lav; "bei ge f ;e d Cü . , , gr o lo e r 
atire, , , v/iriciiciiiceiüsnaiies ...iia, , ♦ , 



derselbe; - -^er i.'ruj.er ae^ ^aüdix^. . . . •' x-'ra^, 

looo » • « , c'^üOi^ iii • • • ixx iUxi.i. öj-üeK- jb i'i e j. k. e o- -L- e Xk, zvkx»-jw-v^x* 
^"badja und dessen ijreunden. . , , 

501 

Elieser Zewi Zweifel, -Friede ü^er Israel, 

eine aligemeine Darstellung der ^^eschiclce des Beseht und 
seiner Jünger, Shitömir lS6o - lG6Q.,...der Verf. verfic. 
die These, dai^ durch das gleichzeitige Hervortreten des 
Beseht in der Ukraine, d§s Gaon R.Elia in Litauen und des 
Moses ""endelsL- ohn in DeutS'jliland deiii Judentimi eine 
allseitige Ausgestaltung zuteil v/mräe..,. 

506 :rr.l70 

Ahrahain Kahana 

RabLi Isra'^1 Baal Sehern Tov;, sein Lehen, eeine Lehre und 

sein ".'irken, ^-hitomir, 1900 



506 Hr. 171 

Öerselue Der Ghcissidismus , ton R. Israel 

Besclit his R. Nacliman von Brazlaw, mit ^bbiddungen und 
Faksimiles, 52o S. ./arschau 192;^ - eine inlial tsreiche 



w 



und gesclrmaclcvoll zusaiiu.ienp:eEteL.Lte Anthologie 

auch Bx'iefe 

508, ITr.175 

Samuel Abla Horodetlcy 

2 i-»er Chassiflismus und diu Chascidim, 'Terlin 19,^5 

Ur.lVü 

Die Lehre des Ma.ggids von i^ieseri thsch und seine Keden, 
Berlin 1926 

309 Kr. 177 



Derselbe 

Die Lehre aes 
Berlin, 1925 



xlachrnan von ;:razlavv' und seine I.eden 



Derselbe, ..Religiöse Sttömungcn iin Judentum, mit les, 
Lerüclcsichtigung des Chasr. idisrnus , Berlin und Lei'ozi", 
1920 

Hr. 17! 

Martin Buber, l..;ic Lescliichten des i^abui ITachman, ihm 

nacherzählt, Prankfurt a,!^. , lOOö 

rJ.Die Legende des ]}acil schein, ebenda 1903 
3, Mein './eg zum Chasi idismus , ebda. 19 IG 
4. Der gro:ie --aggid und seine ITachfolge, 



ebenda 192 






J^.Das Verborgen Licht, ebda 1924 

x-lle diese Schriften gesaimv.elt unter: 
" Die }£hassidi sehen "Sicher, hellerau 
1928 



Zuber ist davon überzeugt, da^ " die 
chas^jidische Lelire das ^'tarkste und 
;^igenste ist, v/as- die Diaspora gesc. äffen 
na L. • 



530ff: 3ine neue " ^enisa ": Briefe äes Bescit und seiner 



r^ 



ööltL* 



iJas Liiiiiangreiciiste Eucli iscclas von dem Ciassid 
Gh. A.Bycliowslci in Jerusalem 1924 veröffentl. IBUch 
" Geheime Schatziccaiüaer " ( Ginse nistaroth ) , drei 
T^^ile : ' -^as Licht Israels '' - 48 Briefe und Zettel 
des "^escht, bis 1760 reichend, 
" V/ohltuendes Licht '' - 45 Briefe dv/a Meseri- 
thscher Ma/ü^jids, seiner 5h"eunde und Schüler 
( 1761-1788), 

^' Des Licht des Raw " - 72 Briefe des 
Schneur Öalrnan von LJosna und seiner ]?reunde 
aus den Jahren 1788 - 1812 
Die neuen ^'erfasr. er der "a^tt-n" Briefe haben sich 
...in ihrer Arbeit an ein al oUewa rtes ^erfahren 
gehalten : in die Sarrtalin(<: gefälschter r;..hrift- 
stücg:e haben sie he und da echte Urkunden eingestreu"^ 



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TO RABBI YA13KEV YOSSEP^ , FROM M^ZHIBIZH TO >]E?.1M!1:RIV 

TO the frl end -'f mir soul, t]ie Rabbi, tb e f^reat li^ht, the rip"ht-wl nc^ 
pillar, the rnlrhty lieimmer, fantKl for piety, 'who doetli wondrously', 
the frlend of my hoart, who is nearer and deai^er to me than a brothei', 
Rabbi Ycssef HafKoin. 

Behold, I have received your letter and saw from the first two 
lines thtit yoii see^-; to feel obliged to fast« Ihis roused my anger and 
I conjure you, not only in the nane of the Anf^els, but in that of 
God and His Wi ffffWfMfUftfiftis that you refrain from thus pndangoring your 
lifo. For disFi»».! and dreary in such doing, and not on sadness but ^n 
Joy in t^o miftJmm^ Acyrm /^^^ t^My^/trvnii^ "^ost ^ ar inderd, you are 
aware, for T have often t".up;ht It to you. Take theso ^ords ^'^pII 
to heart . 



As for tlio thonyhts which have indiiaed you to fict so, I 
counsel you, - and Alraif^hty Cod be with you,- when :.''ou study the 
Toire In the inorninc, see to it that you clinp; to tlie letters 
with perfect cXyÄJ^/9^ in the servico of your Creat'^r, praised be 
He and pruised be His Nane. Then shall the laws becone mild in 
their esfi-ence and easy of ßerforniince. 'h^ide not thyself from 
before thy flesh' , by f asting meto than duty and neoessity demti^nd. 
'If thcu wiit hearken unto ny voice', 'thon God will be with thee* . 

And with that I conclude and f-^reot you briefly, 

He 'v^ho ever desires your poace, 

Yissr^ol Pesht. 



\ 



P.S. GreptinfTs to your only son, my hon^ured friend, the 

distin^uished scholar Reb Shimshn. P^irthormore, r)e3.ce be to bis son, 

my friend Heb Hirtz, -may his light shine,- and to all the rest 

my- fet*^^ collectively and separat elÖ#8«Wf^iM4^ 












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üüinic:.! Lrauition and tlie 



xrü£;h -trcari of ."^'owi-li cnii Jiten::'ei: 



-^-1 



Güira c ;iri'Guai current 



ori^liiLited v/itlii 



n j L^ac^ic:'! in 



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idJle Ol tlic l:-^t:i centur' 



:iie 



lycbical te<-^c>^.:.nj of G" 



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oE bCaium::: :iiari3: cnon in ?-,ioacrii Jev;ii:j:i iil^ cc.n ue 



.ru.GCa U ; "GO GllC 



.ijurianic ::i3^£t 



icäGrn and to Lnc Kaüi..alal: itiself. AnonT tlie latcr 



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IC 






.i.rer u:/ : !cni:ionea 



L..-U 



iri^ediatc :;rcdccc;:^::o r of 



J. »^ X i- j c -L 'ij G 



Liczer 



I.IO 



UiiU. 



.er tlic nane of 3 aal ''hon Tob -./ciyG dav;ri to 



niE-Gor 



thc fou.ider of Ciiascidisn, 



U~u v~-Ui.J'^U 






WO 1 



c of all 



G • i .. a- 



liiCuoricai antcccdcnts , t .e c :ccifio cliarac tcr o 



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nas. lUic::! 



<.;.i Ol - 



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tlioGe viuaii 



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1 Siien c-.iicl nis cain 



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c ■.on sc üence oi "Gjic^jc 



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■dlic G:iea:,-lary: lifo of tlie Cliarridic Eadnt 



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-SDisnii'z±uJr^':^-D:ttTr^ 



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:ca:.:e o.'.g ac-'noöcr: oi 



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GrOJJCG OUü JjCtT. 



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.e nc\;üorn rc 



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ox Gnc .acuicr^ ana 



ne other 



iritual ;ov;crc then do: inaiiina or Etriving for doainaöion 



Inoc u conGi.iUOu: 



i ; !-• / _ i_ 



GIG _ 



n \: 



t GCtaec-r 



ioional ortlio 



.o:j/ an; 



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cnLitocrea c.l: 



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n 



.e a4uä«^^M£;nts o-^ 



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öhascidic caintc and the ::a£::iliin,. It ha^) cried not l.efore tha cnd of 
üio niLnetecntli Century that re^rocen üativej: of . odcrri Judais:n reco-nioai 
the eninent si,^niiicance of GhaG-idiin and orou^ht about a revival of 
itG idcas, 

Tlie niairi irieans uccd by tl:ie Ghas:::idi:.: for tlie e:::..reG;: ion of thcDir 
faith v/ac the cpolcen v/ord and thc livin,; Gxa:vnle. Jhe r-ayin^s of. tlie 
SaintG and counules:: stories related totheirlives. tlie .eachin;: and 



niracuiouE deuds v/cnt fro:;: mouth to :no;;'th 






crcated a ncv; oral 



tradition. '::. t recorBLue.. by liic dicciUcG, thc Le-:cnd of the Baal Slien 



becanie ^- vv ritten evan::ile, and co (iid 



L.i 



e e^ics of all r:reat 



n ' 



.jc-v 



dciiicim, 



Thus thc Chac:..idic literature ,:rev/, enlar.cd ..y sonc rcnL^rlcable 
oriijinal v/ritin^s of the Sainbr: and aj^rcao nu^djer of o i-emicaj. ;jc2njhlctü 



it 



xlchad "laa::! uho .::ave the liLhcs 



ü J 



raioe to -thic liter 



CJ L> U- 



re ".v.icn 



he c a i d tha t " the r e , xJi±xiiiX:::xiisai:.dbX-ti:ii:±i:^^ .üx:Qls:s±]äXESi:p:xk£XE:^: 



rath..r han in the literature o 



X on ^ _ic 



, s aal ah , o n e o c c a s i o nal ly 



encoun^er::: , in adaition to :nuch that is ^.urffily fanciful, true 



jrofui.dity of bh 



v/hic bears the ::iarl: of the ori inal .Tewisb 



L 



•er: 



■1 T 



•- • 



m sorne resyecö the sane aojreciation aj.licf: also to the 

not 



letters of the Chacidiin, They Yicxe learned ansv/erc to le^.:a-.. q-uestions 
g-£ the res_.^on£a, no mexe juxbijoä 210 ral ■p;rece^,,ts ■ ac rnany letter^ 01 



,av 



ice. 'L'hc^aduil\i;4 taliccd i;. the IcLuerE lilce in their conversatio 



n: 



with the di^cijles and vici^orc, about the ver,^ jersonal needE of th.-' 
corre^pondentG , they aj,..ro;- ched the:.i rather ac healers of the soul 
than as Echolars, and jrcE-ented ra^ther cxperiencc and inG^^^ixation than 
]:no\7led.:e and lo.:ical deductions. There ic oftcn a strilcina' sin )licif/ 
of thou.hts and e:cjression in the letters of the Ghss sidim, a darin-: 



nie i j 



i.j.l<^-j^^ K^ 



s öhc... 



brc 



Cj^\. SJ 



ith Convention and fornalities, real '• iruitr of the earLh 



-n 



Ulic; 



1 jTi c; 



lulC 



^.2 reads ohe tittle of a coilection of f:eriv:.on£ and letters. do be 



V 



>- V'' X '^ 



coiiijaratively xns^ a snall nuinber of genuine ehassidic letters bavc bc 
broucht to li_ht so far, v.hilc scores of falced le oters of fciaous 



Xi 



-1 



l/ll CXi UJ. v_i 



.CL-l.;.ci^:i 



,rc 111 Gl reu 



. C, U 



ion. :3ven so ■ Istee/cnalj. sen^iienu ol 



.0 .-1 



..SSICIIC 



iorrc^:.. onde:^icc 



ir: sufficicnt 'c 



:o thro" 



Qj ■ ijl. 1. ^ 



lir;::t 



i^ u.^ 



'v.' V « 



onciroas 



v;orld 



of 



Ui-Lv^ 



Odern ^ev;is. 



lV£y S u 1 C c 



\ 



HeiLigee Sendschreiben des R. ^iimeiech 

von Lizensic 

; Nachtrag zum Buche nioam Eiimelech'*, Ausgabe 1788: 
"Ueber den legen den berühmten Ghas^id und Rabbi der Gemeinde 
von zeiechov angezetteitne Streät," 

Aus dem im ITamen des R. El.melech abgefaßten Sendschreiuen, 
das etv/a zwei Ifahre nacn seinem Tode in seinem Buche "IToam Eiimeiech" 
veröffentlicht wurde, ist zu ersehen wie sich der Zaduiic in jenen 
"Zwistigkeiten und Streitigkeiten" verhielt, die damals zwischen 
äen Chassidim und ihren V/idersachern ausgebrochen waren. "c..ch den 
Bannflüchen vm 1781, mit denen die von dem Br-ster Rabbiner 



Abrahem Katzenellenbogen angeführet rabbinische Partei dem Z daik 
/ /' Levi Isaak von '^.elechow entxgegengw treten war, bestün^iten nämlich die 
Anhänger R. Elimelechs diesen mit Anfragen, wesh^^lb sich die 



Zaddikim in Schweigen in Schv/eigen hüllten und ihren Verfolgern 

il nicht die gebührende Abfuhr erteilten, XiBxaiil' Die Antwort hierauf 

i gab der Rabbi von Lisensk in einem längeren, historisch bedeutsamen 

« 

Schreiben, das er sie..er;i ^>ohn ?. Li es er in die Feder diktierte. 

i 

I' "uncLchrt Sj.^richt der Zad-.dk dann seinen Getreue., l'rost 

zu und warnt sie davor, sich in der Stunde des Ungemachs der 

Verzeiflung hinzugebeb, denn "derlei Dinge s^nd seit araitersher 

vorgekommen": sc:.on der Erzvater Abraham sein von dem verbuchten 

ITimrod in den j'euerofen geworfen wätden, aus diesem Jedoch 

unversehrt hervorgegangen, um hernach der Vert. uchung m Aegypten 

und vielen anderen Terrjuchungen zuv-iderstenen. Desgleichei se^ es 

auch jetzt von oben bv-s tiimit , da^ aer .-^adai^c, "der Gorr aus ?v,:rch un... 

Ti i b e dient, ou s einer Ti i e e , d i e ihn f ast zum Wahn sinn bringt '' , 

durcliljeiden ver^uchtwerde. 



,' Ä~. 



1 rl ^ r-> A A 



Jj 






t c 



G D 



S S '^ A G }i; A r L A D V I G S 



IcracL ben IJliczer v/as about Ö5 yearc oici wuen he bccü^vic laiov/n 
'bo the ccv/G of Pouolia throu^l: his ..'onderl'ul c.biiitioE of healint_; c^nd 






:ärituai ^uicluncu, '^ 0.^11 he v/^.g reco,_:iiiEed a^ the Baal Ghen :L'ob 
( Tnc Master oi" the blesscd Harne } and the head of a new and ever 
grov/inr; co :iunit:^. About im 1740 hc to hc hie residcnce in ::icdzyboz, 
a i:nall ?odou.ian Lo\/n, v/here diGcioicc and visitors f ro .^ near and fa± 
^a-cliered rou-.d the Saint, iiinonj the?n tv/o r^ien :;iay be considered as the 
f^rct ajoc oler? of hie haal Shem ; uis brother-in-law, Abrahaij. derchon 
Kutov/er, i7ho , v/hiie ori^inaily ojjoEed to habbi T^rael'n tcachin^, 
later v/a^; coaver^ed to the bjclief in Lhe airvion of the Master, and 

■^ * ■ h ■' /■ ^ j , r , Li J ' c'^U C Oj i i. u #C 

hab):.-! Jacob Josehh Uolicn, '..ho:;! \/e o\/c the earlies L of the ha^ 1 Sneri^c 



ac tiYi tiQc«BOtli/ther:c : icn are alc!0 conacc Lad \vith die ori/in 01 that 

i 

anazina; docu:;v;n.. .hiich h^canc ai.o.^/'as die G-os_el of the -^aal She:::, 
It iE a le über cori)Dccc. .rcaoly in 1750 and ad..resGed to hbr ha:.i 



ucrEhon d:ui:ower -.-nen ne J...e.Lb 



ci< j_ r 



uaaj m 



hcGtine ac onoof the firc 



GhaD-idim, ..£ h. J'aco'b JoGcyh Cohen i.'Lendcu to foiuoa thi^ c::ani].)le,the 
..:aa.L a ein en ti ,^ fi' -.ea hin .;ith L..o delivcr:, of the letter, a.-e vo^, a^;e 
aid, ..xO.. '-.vor , no u naoex'ialiae , ana ta.c ictter v/ac ^;i;..iiGhed in 1781 
in an c:>j^_;endi>. of niC rZ h, Jaco.,- jro:;;chli Cohen* s boonc, 

h'x the LeLoCr the Baal Ghcni acj^cribcd t./o nanderinas of hie soul 
throu^h the rualn of the liviu^; ann the aead. He revealeu the 
■ irL.arulüU£ visions he e:.jerienccd, accom_)anied by the ^;rojhet Achia 
of Silo the tcacher of ::i;iijah. r: .ran^e enou._:h, \;e are re::iinded of 



13ante ' z 



\;a...c.erin^ d.rou, 



0*_^- 



hell and dür^.atoJ:y in the co:.:_,)any of 



Virail, '^f::.k.\-^ 






the account of diaic transceaentax yo.rne^. hie 



Ginilarity aeferc iiit on^y 
caintual s.dvent^. rc^ 

dL:o to the charac ^er :)f the :nec;..a^e. =' Jh 



1 tl 1 e niy c t e x' i u r t r. a v e 1 1 e t s an d th e r r ' , ' . 

e natiOi.. 1 issue, ■ an 

xe:noYed i:. to ./:iQ b£'x.'a, round before 



0^ G ^^ 

juano.. r.^jh. tl;; .. einar-.ed, ' v/a^: ..e: 

tne ^^rincLJie of uhc ii.diviaual re:.^;i_.ti3n , . . ■' dhe conin^, of the •■-er:;:iaji 



v;:,.G- laadc de..,endent fron the e:n.an£:ion of ChaErid_c teachin^;, ana cnui 

the Zc-d- ihia charyed \;ith 

the tash to nave the v/ay to the advent of the true :--edeener. 



T," nn^-itrr.r. i: j^o the vicionary Contents of tais nystical 



In contract t' 



ictle 



another 



letter of the :3..a.,l Shcn,aritten nearly :. 



Gj-^e Gi-.xäe oi^ie i^nn;. 



l 



/ 



acldrestec- i;unediateL:; t:^ R. jaooc Jacc.;h Co, (..., rüvci.is tlie Eln;lici.;' 

und joyi'ulne:;- oi clic Laster. X5£XE::ateü:iu;ii;i5issci::txs::;t^ 

■bhe r:evcrefeelfdiGGijlixiC oi* liab.i JacoL Jose.öi Cohen, v/ho, slthou^h j;ull| 

i 

of tez adiiiration ai£ for the l-aal SheLi, indui^^jcd in ri^iicl ascetic 
.„;rcuc bir:cr: ac irequent and protractcd iacts. ;hc ant.' -ascetic tcndency 
Ol tht ne\7 doccrinc v/a- no\d:^:xe ü::_;iairied \j±U-i .^reaLer ciarity than 
in thc iu-Uer in yhich the iBaalShem v/arncd liis oeiovcd disci_ae 
a^ain^t thic v.a: oi life. 



Israel Bon .^lie.^er to AhraiL 



G-cr£hon :-utov/cr 



,, , . . • ',"ri '■ r-i'-io ,"^•--■"'.•1 -vrj o f^ R O 7 



; "' /v; Ro sch ha ' 3 c nan f a: i ""e ' '"" " ^ --— • - •- ^ 

■ ^'c rbcnbcr IV^C ' Yollzoa ich durc:-: '^cnch'.; run:: uie dir v/oh,.ibehc.',nntc 
'"'ilicbun:: .er Sc.le und crcchaLitc in einer ^.''icion '"'underc'in c, nie ic:"i 

j^ie, cciö ich rür .:ieincr oev/u^t i..in, nie nesehen iiJibQ. ' 'a;: ich hieuei 

jcochaü^ und neierno haoe , hann r;clü^t unter vier .. ....^en niclit 

; erz.dilt ind v/ieder^jcjegljen nerden. ~'ach Meinen ',,'iederahstie;_^ in den 
'unteren Garten .vden erblic': te icn. unz 'hii^.e Seelen voii Lebenden und 

'oten, co\7ohl vo:; f-:oIchen, die mir nenne, alz uch ydii nir Unbe- 
. kannten ...Al^cIi vollsonen viele vre vi er die UnJcehr, und ihre Sanden 
, Y/urden ihnen vergehen. . ,"'ie ..llc flehten nich wie aus cinc^"i ""unde 

. iiso an : Gott hat diijh mit eiDnn ^löheren Vercta. de be^.nadet;; dcc;dt zl 



au u.eriei .jin..e üc.:reii[-c u 



ernen.. 



CO ho::u:i denn ::iit onz hinauf 



und ^tc_.e uns bei. Die ,_a. ^ae hrcudc, von dex- sie erfaßt wurden, bev;o^ 
nich nun, zuzustiri.ien und rüt ihnen hinauf zu eiihcn. b:d icli crblichte 
in eißer 7. ^ion, ch.i Gcziael fdcrf^aten' '^it grenzenloser "■Tc:-de sich 
hinauf sch\/ü,ny, uv ccines ...nhl .jerantes zu y/aitcn, und er verichteoe 
Gein''erh, inde:u ex'Vielc C.e..,len dazu veda-^T.tc, die UY/and:^ taufe und eh 
sodc.mi eioen ouai-Yollen fod tu erleiden. Da erzitterte ich vor 

C^rauen, ac.b meine Tg le bucnr. t-holich jreis und bat neinen d'errn 
und dreister ( sc. den schon ooen crv/ hnten ?ro._b:eten Achia von ^'ilo', 
^'.a^ er nit :ir aelne , y^.on.. es xst eine schncrc C-eiahr, sich i.. die 
o,.cren 'elten zu he^cben, :"un*:ehre stea ich r:tufe u:ii Stufe ^'^.ni'-.'C, 
bis ic_. in die Halle d(::z .-essias eintrat, \7o ucr d'.essias in Gemein- 
scnaft al.ier 'ann^rdten c-nd gerechten Thora lernt, Icn wurde ycnihr, 
dai dort ^ro,^e ]?reude henschu und dachte bei nir, uai uicce bh'eude 
nieinc:.! Scheiden cur. diesorri Leben ^elte, doch erhL.rte nan niir, da3 
ich noch nicht verschieden sei, v/eil Lian dort oben 'ohl^:efallün 
raran finde, J.a . ich unten vcr:nitöels ihrer heiligen dhora dhnunaen 
( d.h. Vereinii;;;ung r_iit Gott ) vollziehe, hnd ich fragte den hcs;ias: 
" ann Iconnvit der Herr? 'JYxC. er antv/ortete ihr : Danr., dciinit di} es 
erhenns'i:, wenn deine Lehie benannt sein und sich der b'elt offenbaren 
wird. ..und alle, r;leich dir, hinuni;en und hihebun^en -./erden voll- 
ziehen höni.en, denn erst dann werden alle Schalen (die unreinen 
Hallen der hreatur) zerstdubt weraen, erst dam. \/ird die Zeit der 
Gnade und hrlüsun^_^ anbrechen, lind ich \;ünaexte ^wich hierüber sehr 
und eii,:fand einen ^r oCi. Gciniers clarüber, da. diese Seit in eine 
so v/eite jj'rene ^:crücit ist : v/- n.- hünnte dies ( c.ie Drf^.liunj der 
bekannt .egenen hedinjuna ) dberhauj: eintreteti ? Indes, en orfih.. ic:,., 
als ich dort war, drei wunder. ;irhende Ddogn "■'rber und drei h^iliwe 
ruaien, ..und dachte, ou nit deren ■rii.Lfe nicht_ viel '.eicn. auch Meine 
Zeituunossen die , Icic^.e Stufe 



mu aen 



ileicnen .::an:: 7;ie icn 



I C-L eicnen n.:nnnüen . . .Aoer es is 
1 Das Geheimnis zu offenbaren.,.'' 



mir nicht erlaubt, solange ich lebe, 



<;■ 



,/•) 



Den Bericht über seine Untenreduri^; mit den l.Ieseia fü, 
der :3eGcht nocli cini„_,c '.orte i'.uL-r die Si^vtas trojhcn hinzu, 
,lencn daLuiis die jhraini sehen C-emeiiKlen heim.::ecucht wurden 



ite 
von 



( rli 



caeso "latuEtro^hen Goi.Lei; in der Vicion von 174G nit 

ordcn sein, da aher die 
der .VbfGii::.:un/2: der ;3otscht!.ft 
hier in ' Ir: 
zutun ) : 



jro,.,hetiGcher;i Plich vorauc^csehen 
jro,diczeiten hrein^nis^e Echon vor 
eingetreten v/aren, co haiaien 'jir 02 
einem '■' vaticiniio. ^ost eihectum '' 



- -' :iicni:eit mit 



ii^i^u ec. lerne r m 



AussLh fr;::_:i:c ich dort in rieineu Gehet - n^i^t 
j .Mensel den Scdrciden - ;.a..ui:i ec dott ^ej::Ghvjhen lie^, da,.: deia da..:ae 
|:.iehrere Seelen in Ij^rael zur :/h': jordun^- aus eliederb v;orden sind, 



|Yon aenen eini_-,c zun..cli£t ^'etauht jrid. erst aann er.,iordet worden 






, jollten. 'hid:Man ._:estattet.. riii , den Sa-iaul 5:e.Lber..ardi:er wu ■i:^efrcijün 
i.,.uer r.iir zur Antwort aalo, dai er ..ei seine?:! Vorsatz den Iliipj^el 
] (Gutes) irvi Sinne hahu. hnd so jcschcdi es auch sj dter u.. serer schT3!?a?on 
jSdnden hwlber, da.ü man in der heili/en ^-e^^-'cinae 3;-.slav7l aewen 
ji::chrere Sechen falsche An]:ia^c (Blufbcschuldiyunt;:) ernoü, Zv/ei von 
jihnen \/echselten ihren Glauben und v/urden daraufhin dennoch eri.ior.e-;, 
jn-dirend die ih,ri;_jon den dancn des Hini eis nit ^;rö2tezi Behennernut 
Iheilü^ton und eines nartervollen ^J'odes starben, hernach hEunen die tii 
h'alschenAnlcla^:en in der Geneinde CoiJotewha und in der Genc-nde 
dJunaacz, und unu sind die heschnidi^ten , nach de:n, wl.s in SaslfAvl 
geschehen v;ar, inre; : Glauben nicdt nelir untreu geworden, sonnern 
,_i-ben allGELnit ihr Leben fdr die "'ei.l.i,:un(j des hanens hin und -wider- 
standen Eo der Ycrsuchunjc. ( . , . .In " drdlichheit fand sich unter den 
dort 2n< Echv:cren 'Todesstrafen verurteilten Juden niur ein einzi^:er, 



wen 



,-. i--> 



J.U^ 



ay^ch!:; h'leichterun^ seiy:es doses zur daufe hergab und 



trotnde::! hin^^crichtct wurde, ,, Der Prozes: in der ^: l:adt"Dunaw"ez " 

( ein_. entlieh dunajcwizi o ^: dunainorod) s_)ieltc sich i;n dahre 174 



rs 

O 



c j ^_' , i. . O C _ 1 . . l.i 
f ' 1 "•; 1 "1 <" <""' 

\^ » --^ ;.iJ. I.. #^ u 

•"^nWoco.dah 

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-- .- e An e n J. a ' ü e ii 1 . i c 



1 ,-. 



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,icn. ver/nw- 



.1. 



on .. dnnr .lU±... esc, :Ui-.-i.^ nnn m 
o:d cdjcn vo;i L:i;.e • i - -^leicdn 



- ( 



m 



isü ni.jwts nerann.. , 

e"i ,- , -'". •' - r- ■■> '■. \- "i ('; ■\-> ■',• (\ ---, "'" ■'. •'■ ■ ■ •■ 1 V ^ rs "'» ■' > "i • "i '"'0 C"< 



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n den letzberen 



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.Hüll : ^n ..-Cn n. _n.. ccc. nn. :.n'c.: 



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'^A::^ii Gei.ieinL.e m i.._i G;^ na^;odn . , , den Adscdnitt 

' i -•■•'>•■ X ^' ■ i^y U j. ^ L . - ^ i„ C ^' "" 



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O^t^s^^xJ^ UAo^fCw tC^^-.^^. /4vvk. «^ it^ t>^ 



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Tic^vv«^ . TTvv^ x£ßj^%^ 'y^-cfrCA<i ^4^^^St^(jL. O^ 




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^^ 4^v<r^ ^ a^^i^^^i^Le^ rtu€^<V w<>^iU^ 

*J ee-i^^ tO-Oi^ ^L^a-uC Iw^LLp-^^^t^^t..^^^ ,-^ 



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. . ,. J.. J. w^ >- - ^ O 



c .;:..£:., i-ar:c:"C 



die düio der Giic/^dc und 



i' ..- _ t c , I.e. ,j >-.. x c Yc r i.;r c i 
-. ■ . • — ^ ■. - . . . . - - ^ , . 1 






Ui..-:: c-Ci 



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c .c die ■'ofdnunrxicd. i.ed, reldce n-.cd dre:: I::r;..el 
,e,', -.uiL üE '■'ottes -'illc ir: ,, üiie vit ..dir ;:L'S^.'n:..en s... rein, 

.'.CD 1 n..c":t /.e.ne.cl: ' - ■ ^^ ^-^ ' 



c - . -■- E '..-X e !.ie 1 1: u i nr: ö'. c. 



-Xi. . C w '-■'i . 



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33ine cdc:-ceidir:üde ::o^,en::c i.^z e_::.uCr-r .ei o _ ecrici-ce u 
olLer ;.e::;d.d.r.Licddv.ät der die /.nstciten, die c.er uec_:t 
■eise ne-ch den lInLli^:en XiCndc ^vetrofd^n Ö--^ » . •i^-:^.^- 



r* ■ "v'i 



-•• J- .•■• ' 



..ardLcr, dn: er rix. ecincr ^^ocntcr unu eine 



'' c rixt-nnrcr 
;crcitr in "'te.n'.na o,n_e::on en ;-ei, .c :::ich nbcr .' r. ein 
•ene.iti :ur ^Lur.: ..rnoLen nn^^e, een dt.ri ^cniid eei.;Cdie i^i-.: _ 
^ f'er cf ni Lcn \; rc. den-ciüc nn^e der "d-l.:.!- direre er-:c,n..-G, . 



inn in '^xrx 



,1 e.cn ECxi.cn :dLnn eei, .n er uircn 



u^.^j ecinCG --cx^ e üZiuIcc: n^.l''.C-:, n:d-Iic 
], "sie seine v:_ ^.'a-T 



' u ... c , ^ '. ^' 1' 1^' e 1 



. . J- «w ^.. ».^ J- 



U ^■^l^-.\ u' iiX b V. 
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u„c 



cinnL zer c^ita -icnren. 



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2ii;iori DuLxiov;, G-üEcliic|ite ilec Gliairr^idismus , Jiiuii^ciier YürlL.,:, 

in zwei --';.j-ic;ieii, 

. ■ (1 r* "^ C^ ^1 ■" •", - ■ 



e r.L 1 n 






erLüüZü von .jr. A, r^oüi.nLcr; 



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;u cAis er seilen üor 



iii lersel 



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.voller. 



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:el 



.urecniüi 



--ie 



I erzen seiner 



_.;; X 



nnre; 



*w. 



le 



i. J VwW \J 



.1 



. 1 v_ k:; 



LUC 



(,. X 



cn; 



iii 



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u 



/ci 



ine 



n 



c.ii O. 



; J. e ^'i-XA.. 



l'..: 



nni,:innnc von ooen 



•j 



vernen- 



i iuiscne 



iC '.ona 



;u 



Silo. ...ufll-lrun. 



Projjlieten der nr^^uen Vorneit 



^^en 



■■ii 



un:.u 



I L. ' - 



ic: 



ac^u 



■> l"! O 



XI i— ' k; G .^ - i 1 1 vj 

sich. '' : 



T^f f-T"'' Vt' 



he 



u i-i * i 



:en 






k^U U' i>' 



:o 



.,1 v^ 'O 



1 



cz 1, so ^ ) 



::e aer 



■'VI 



nora 



'uniuehr 1 



ij '^ 



'oidot: 



Cd'j 



.no 



G e 



ei 






vo 






;.-') 



CL 



■■...c:; 



von 



eicVi 



Li. 



er Seelen zu dur^liv;c.ndern 



Iiernacli 



.cn 



vir;ion.::,rcr 



Crl-nüei.:en lu 



n c 



e 



n 



uor ^eoTienoarten riitzutoil 



Cii 



euer 



v/ei solche 



die im Se ..te:i\jer 1V4j unl i; 



teinber 1749 sti.t dnel'unden 



.ee: 



.nches 



li'hcüun^etV 
sollen. 



lerichetet 



e.e 



B 



e seine in einem Schrei een 



Uu-b 



lIs d 



f c 



[anliest kex oder 



"frohe Botschaft" des c 
ci'hiel 

Auf trr' 



i-\ O r-- 



idismus an 



; rechen ist. Dieses Schrei eeii:: 



tJ c- 



:oh 



C) '^ '■^ 



honen, ein i: 



CS dem Sc ui 



■. \^ X v^ W r«^ 



' X *>i> v/ O , 



iiüersi G üe.Ln 



i' SIC 



LjL.-Ji 



'£2-cnen in 



indessen 
nujtc ; n; 



ilin 



:er S 



;iiL 



.DO 



. e _. e ;^j 1 l.u t e R eise i 



:er 

i-1 iJ 1 

Inc. 



lcs 



:..m 



na) 



\.i.U X 



'Cscht, mit dem 
•- i. schon Kuto^yer 
■ela 



u 



en hatce 



_j i- 



. C 1 -L 1 



,vj 



jnn. 



< • 1 



L>cr eo' 



icn 
:ne 



omit seines Ault 



.:es nie. 



e 



n L. 



Icmg. 



:on. 



.ui 
. oe 



e -L 1 e E ; 



'Ciirii us'!:;;.CjC m seinem 



dirsam undv/urde von ilim viüe 



Jahre s dter in einei: der von ihm verö fdnetlichten *'erhe ::iitauf ,:eno2mien 



("Ben oorath Josejh 



fi 



\r:i 



^nde 



-ore: 



1731^ 



: em 



■che wurde dann 



aie 



.ui CLie 



lihehun;: der Se^le'' von 1746 "bezügliche Stelle in di 



c 



Saroi-ilunr; der Ausjrdche des Beseht "hebe 



1784) 



-le 



.dcntj 



.ei t 



les 



ichreihens 



schein tow 
-rieht eincrs-Cits de 



dbernoriien fzolhim/ 



cme dcs 



cnclhotcn 



■hoi Jodco 



ose ;] 



:h 



Les^. en das Schreiben enth^-ltende Buch noisr.- 



bei 



Lebseiten 



<j 



rfa 



c^ r: 



ers im Druc3c erschien 



andererseits 



;er 



.ucr 



der Inhalt des Do.l:uinentes salbt, da 



im Zusaiiiierihan; 



mit 



ilirsamuneen 



cj i„"' 



.u 



CvU C 



dem J. 



und sonstit^en ?-(ivstisGhen Pro .he eiun^en behannte "^iJrei /nisse 
der polnischen Juden Jener Zeit erwähnt, so die 1 itualmordjrozessc in 
ahren 174e und 1747 sov/ie die Kaidamalcenbev/e^run^j: in J.er Ilhraine 



.-■er] 



aen k 

in Jahre 1750. D 



fi c? 



chreiben des 



'c 



cht \;urde etwa, um 1750 als Er;/idcr- 



un 



; f ei ne 



11 



ini: 



mnE 



.r früher 



u. e 



Denen 



•lei seines ",cn 



er 



Abraham ICutoi/er ab^^efaut, und aus seinem Iniialt ist zu ersehen, daß 
mehrere vom Beseht abgesandte I'riefe mit verschiedenen ''hntdechunGcn 
und Offenbarungen^' den hmpfanger gleichfalls nicht erreicht haben. 
Brneur veröffentlicht wurde das "chreiben von 1750, zusea::imen mit der 
ITachbildung seines Brstdrucics, von A.hahana in der Sannilung, '» Sei er 
ha»chassiduth«, S. 7d - 77, h'arschau 19dh ). Bs fo -^t hier der B..rieht 
des Beseht über di..: erste ihm geglüchte "B^^iebung der Seele" 
■;c/:lassium^ mancher unwesentlicher Binselheiten im -.Wortlaut: 



unter 



. ^ [/^ )'U ^^ U^" UmJ/ij^m^ 



(/ puaJf iM ^ ^(^ KM 





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^^:^u ..ercciljen^^ '-^cit, cUe der :':a^,_.td von ::c- .ritsch Lehrer des C-£.r.Li- 
C.1E..1UC ncrai/üildete, , . , ..id:,:etc L:icd ;::ein zun:.,cli;:; t in Poaoiicn und sod£^- 
diiliynien anc;a£:;:i,_^cr :;j^rcünd Jcdcol; dOEe')h :: hon ui.^er nic-it ninder 

mnc.nci-i Uli:; der , 



1 



üe^.eu oDaiicn 



k.^ C I Q. 



na,!.ic.:cn j^enrt;; c.uc ..cccut n 



eine cchrif tiiche. . , , 

jci nii L einer .nnn .n^lic d:ei t an elie nv^ie ;";Chrc vernoclite Jalcoe Joe 



c , 



Sj iii cier ereoon "cio ::cine äene bieenen :"'ev;oni._.. ^, a. tcn iiicnb zu ül'er^yinden: 
nv^iircrc ..a.ire na.neer :L..c.r.u^.r lueteü.. ^r n.u.i.iCii lunc ^iuenudme des "abd:.. 



u.: 






Ecniieulicd .::.u::: n-c.-: ;-.e'.;cnex. non. Le, 



fi. ic: 



4CJ \^: IX.' 



-I- 



iw. L j ^ -^ 



r eic: 






V- J. ^ Lt ». ... j. 



Vj '^■ 



er eic- cili_^r:L n:.;/; ■■e:v:irov; . ..d 
deuun^un Ä..^ui.-nd zu nehe.in. .^....r 
urhcecr in di 



A.ic..:l de-" dabeinci', von den aske tiecdLcn 



L^ 



;.d-e 



von isre.j... joi 



n.-e ^..e::_ -'^ec-:. u'' f Sehi:.C-.«. 

-L i^ J- o ; V- 1 i ^ 's- ii _, .:- 1 's-.' j. 



c:.. -un^u ereece -^uricntee xu.'te seii 



* B e e eil he ru u e ..:e neqßn 



J.i.1 --^0 ^ J ^ 



\ '■' ", ' ' . CT* i-k 7 



denn ei te :;it 



cicr ^niscliridt veieelien nnr: d-uc^ ]di;edz;-'l>odz n..cd deniron. , , nn:ä u^^n 
.,.;....düintr errn Jn ol Joseph nohen ' , . xx der „ol,. c..^;er::n..üen l:..utet: 
J./yf 

'" ,.. ndcn des deiie'eLen u.einer de.-:lc, ner; hc:b...ii:ere ,,,,äee durch. 

iUru uw.ren '"c .riitzuue hnb^ ich ^ihrlten und darr.ue ergehen ♦,, 



,c 



■■•■■■. 1 r , , 



'I 



, . . I ; 1 



een, u.iü icn 



v,ic'^ .j .i ., u X e .. ;. j e -- ■; . X VI. — - - .. e - ^ v^. V. ^ o v- j^ ^ j 

eruidicroC n.^e ic:. dies 'vcri-n^u:, ^'o verfde icn {:'X^\Vi. er^_ni:^ nd iui 



^olle''" 



c u 



U 



ii X >»/ _ - O I,. s^ -- L/ »4. ^ o. 



V- ^ C-..i 






'■■I ■ 



■"!. 



oCi:\.'e..uiut und drdbcinn f-.d.rl:, .he Schechina u/..er .ncht den druDcmn, 



F:on-.eri: der neiteren ...n 
aue ..ieinv,i. \/i^ .-rd d1 ...er 



.n..e\;ohnt, ..ic uiec Uiiier hociivh.rden 
ehmoro^n ..^..nnnt -LC[:,,,Diee ieu nui. ..:uin hnt , 



oui ..i^_;nei ö 



.0 



■Cij 



lO Co 



.JCn ueiin 



dhom ) cüAec :nie,_ün, v 



unu "■ u\_.e ..00. iiiü .,;Uc.- neii:: . ornen i /.r 

hernen voll --..d _ai-u l.i. nie ducn. tnben ( ..e: 

:tee nM dc^iü . der './ii .en, und n.iedunn ..ir.. die 'uri^ei uer d brenne 
zerren. . ,derx.. e.-i ce h.cu ...b^r, u^dr ....be uebo uv^n >inu nd bi_ zu 
dbon hr, v,'e:: u. d e_ '■o..:.l ntetc i-...e .:r,hun ler^^d^ heGc/ib. 



-wV-* (.* 



; U j. ^ _ . . j u 



L. 1.^ il 



ju eno 



•*- > 



:.. , .n. V.X .^ , 



J.1 V 



n 






IC 



e^ 



o *-j o- »^ - .K "ej i . 



So nu.h ^ic: 






u -. e ..e 1.. ecnnrti vu 'i 






V^ - . ... 

:ide i. 

d_:r 



.1 .e-i '.''^dod 
vo... Iccb:.:' 



L -. 



.e 



L/U' 



, u e r 
in deu dL..h ren 17 71 






dnic o i:ii dei. rnb:..inieeQjn d'ä-.ehidern verv/ichelb 
^enüti^bjuie otadt I'inG-: z. Vorlnssen u:.d in eeine 

Un 1 ;■ i O 1.LU .. CX 






• • « 



nen ' u ,c.oCden :.Lorono-C -x 
hn zur Sei ...e e uLniden eeii.e dreundu nue der Schu.L 
:h.^^idr:( Dov/ d-.r ): Icrnel von -^oiozh, ..-br::nic}-: von h 
Scvlnan von LJ oerin, , , . Obnohl nun dn ! hnd.^1 G^:incn ^'^nh 
und breuer hcrntcr v;ar, niijbr^.uch e_ ..r den Yolhs^:la 
b'asee durch ^'d'underv;erice ■' zu betören, nie diec eo vi 

E')d, oercr deib einer der zu 



'j L'. r i ' ine u a o e n » 

I... X v^ 

c 



-.1..., 
Ab 



' '' ' "1"' ' "; '' */ * r» ■" C» " "^ /"l T ._ 

.... X ^.- X <.\^ X U .* cuo j. \.ui 

ur^ci l'< /n i Ii ■..■. en 

norden v/ar, 
e i--i.o.. sj <:_i Li X s -C -V. o t^.: 1. e '._ X *— X« 

; e h. beoE.: nieder 

e v^ee heqeritccher 
obueh und dc?n.eur 
..ni^ern ein Lehrer 
üben nie dazu, die 
ele dadL.ihin in 

. .altenden 



aer 



.'^"•1 r; o f- 1 r"! i ri 



hch an ihn n:l t der hi tte '* üri Kinder '' ( C^h. un Ai 
ier Unxrucht"ba_heit ) v/an dt e , erhielt er von Imii'^ozX 
T-rw.r-r: die lol ende cchrif bliche Anbnorb : 



v/enaung aei 



-'■ti 



ucnee 



-u» 



enael sxxiieklk 



/ 



I c 1' i.. c i "'. ■ c n i i e ::, e i t o .Jl-c o L ~ o r e 



r« 



UOLien 



f '1 



iO cne ::iL..iiä;:: of Jic ;.u.rj.ix.,. oi ;7i- 



in: i'^.:::ouc o^irou;:!: 



ui, ^i "uivj 1\C?, iwGi i^ l: c_;i'i 'JOiiuij 



1 c ..^^ . 



u V- i' iiiul uL v-. i- 



t-« «.' 



ü !■ U ,. ^- L! i J. 



•^ t., 



• iiv.. v-.j.;^. 



c, ^1 



Ol' 



i,,l....ci:r; ül.liuv^-;: oi tii'ic ..ior: x^^üesscr 






1 j.' \- C L 1 Y ü Cl ;. X 1 1 i C; 
-^ -L X ►: o -L 1 iiL' ►„ b ■ -vLu u 



.-, > ro-;:: ^rc.c ■..ic 



\., ,_ 



...■:.-Ci- u.^c lUu 'c^-l ') . ic')::::^. 01 .:"C..Lc:nc;.:o.Lic:- a^nu 



!-ut oiii;y v;herG joy in Ilis dicUxtes ,jrcvailc. ?or it lir':r^ bcün c:c...lici tl^ 
coLB:ic.nded: ''^^liou Ghait not Iiide t^iycelf fron bliine o\7n l'iesli. ■' Tliis, 
tiierefore, is i-ij c-dvicc, ^nd God h5^E.^K-i^2Diz. hei j you : ilver,,. mornirii_:,5aiii 
3i£g^ \^liij.e en^ci^ed l:.i Ic L,riiiiii^, you ma,y Jjin cloccly :ä:fe:a-±i:,.jaii:±:-iii2LiLxi 
tiie letwcrs ( 01 tlic Jorcdi ) with all yout he:..ro, l'or tho rcdcc of tnc 
serviere of od. Tiiui^ tl.e roo tc of the ri^our v;ill be made cweet... 
yut lar ::iay il be fro:i you to fa^^t i-iore t.ian ib \;a£; ordered aim t-:ari it 
is nececi.ary , . . "'roin nie, Ici?aei Beeht v/ho o-rcc alua^'s for your ucliare. 



' Aj - 1 iio jlace of God ? " 
Rabüi l'eridel of b'iteLsk reuuJres a etitonor 



- Ü »-y 1 . A- I ^ U C -i- Ol , 1 ü U k/ C ^Z i- Ü 



I0-. cd to 



l u 



iii üd£. .,e u ilf: of 



L-i : e 



jj.ej:iii:. l^e siuiüxcrcu 



xGO 



U--C 



er^'^cu tion 



.•^1 >w- ^v^-i £-£-":■ 1 ClII;. ,.a'. ^ 



to endure 



a^rcadv 0.. tlie ..C;'"i.i...iii:: of tlic i;iOYe:.:eiit. " ...cc 177o iic recidcd i:: tlie 



ciiiall city 



J C -J .. i. 1 i C V - i ,1 G C i- J k^ • C 



. o X c . . . i_ .j. i 



CQ ;-Le viGi oc.L nin äc.:in 



for auvice and bei' in blieir vc.riouG nc-dE, nc follov/inr; anrv;cr to 



X ..etibioner wV-occ faitVifulnc 



1^ 



.oar to cu_'er:;; üi oion , 12 



Gni:.iny tcGtiiiony of tlic iHclobi'G sinccrity and odcE^ty. 

n.jdendel of v,1uCjeI: to a Chastid 



/"as aber dein —u ; .anlic-en, die 3ittc w, lUnacr üeti-ix_;c , co :.u^ 
icrsa^en, .a. an.e.ic.c. der I....rünc-: deinec_ -eoe 8C, .cinec nniei-..,il_, 
"cn •■•ie>ens ::na deiner beredten -, räche . . .-cna:::r- tc nein i.eDicn. _ 
beecc^te- lin ic- denn ai. dotte- dtatt? b'onl ie .. ee ^. •)r.,£.co:a.ien, .n,.. 
der r-^ccnlu:^ Cot.eG dureb Ut Veraittl.n. de. da.! ^cne^^ (3e.cn. ; aura. 

decsen Spruen in nri ...J. ^-un,.. ^.^e^...n,,-ix u, u... uxu . ^rricnrnnd 

Altvor^^-rn c ib-i -leichlcänc , und v;er nird xiacn m. . ..i.... -xm laL-niuria 

p-,...tcnen ^e- - •> t Jlr'i vemliclien neruen nonnte ;- iaiei.an^c .u^. e. ..... 

'u^a'f ^n^e^e'-'-roiebaddax.., die sich nicnt ceheun, u nanden und zu 
erhci.en, doch ist diese ..rt nicht aie n.ini-e. 



V 



tiCoiiLmuie Y;ith thy G-od in Solitude'' 
A Ghasr.idio lettcr of Instruction 



..dter b.c doaa: of tb^ :^a. 1 '"Vie.n ( 175:^ ; none xxiona bis folio.s:tri 
,n.ed the rc.,:-. tation of iiein^c bis successor x.. sücxi a Je^.r^e 






. U 



iiXK:..ca:5ix 



.bbi Do.. bGQ^r '^f ■^hnricz, ... ..c "Creau :Zt 






( 



-' U V... V 



i'eac:'. er 



.b:cru.-.r: 



r*-.-, 



t r. 



.. »w^jU. -. .!_ 



1 -\ :'-. ■■■■■'■■■• f ■- i X i c- , ' 



fDurd 



-L -sj 






\ 



Ciiiev c.L:'icrv.ni:: 



Ol'..: tliC lo,<^j. cj 



cc 



:3j.' :::'ociCb7, 3c..r :.u.nc.i_.cu to ^i^i::;c 



Cli;..c^idiGii \7C.£ chjcfly due.'' ( S. SchccliLcr^ .'iic n.st i'c.c-ciiL:..tin.j 
^..^orxoriLJ.i t^^ LU-jn^^j H. :,3ec.r^c „oi uov/cic w'i^e :::c;/bji 251iiriciccli oi TäzonsjCC. 



"c :.'c.. rccci. w" tlie oV )e oi Llic See-,..!]: v;ho becwnc ühc clica'C.c torif:;tic 






äiias :. i ai Gi.i , ''J::^::^i:s:z^^SU^'^'XXSi3i:^--^^ -ö:f : -la^JOiiiiEägs: 



:!b.:JaDu:Qr:2!:ii;:Il±Ilc.h:::^t:4--''^ nade Itiic; rrncai 

"birt:V)lL.ce ;'Mcc:.:g1: oe Lgzl.Je^c in G-i.licia ;.•. rc.no uE'ceiitrü of Giiase idic;i:i. 
Thü authority he c::ten,ded OYcr a vact cor.:: unity v/a::: oaseä on a :: _.ccial 
hirid Ol v;orehi,_j, on his ci-inoiy \.a;;£ of üfe L.nd thc ...ov/cr of ro diecy 



and >.or.!:i !!;•:: j.;iraclec '.. i a 



.a.ca, ae 



\ i y- . *.. 



EXüiiz: 



^e-eraily crcditcd 



'G ai:::cüij. '..ec .i.u.rcc. 



Az ..ora ^' !~oa:: ":::ii?!clGch '' ■ dlie ?.'. cacurc of 



\x. li'.G J_ C'C .1 



i Uj. ^ ^- U 



ac 1 



.1-: "..ao .roYiQG 



1' Icrc;.cl Chi -Laren, 



lifo and i'ood."'^ ^::::::xi;:-:ih:.::::ii^.a::ja.:Fä:'JE:--:vl;ld.ia-i:j^ri^ 



i'wCXii^rxixxaLj.— a..' —Cn^ -i. — x^^j^^-sa-axuX^. --.'-x»^j,.G.i-a_-^»£-. agi^^vc^i-i^-ci- -.ao-.*:-^ _aciu-C-aj.'-.xiX- ^«-♦. .xia-xiOajL: 



^u wu^L <2<i>f a>>- --O-j.- 1 -i-viijajjr-t'ii-O-i».« -^v-t.u-'j ^ .i.a* -u- -»^-i -^a -•-.-■ — ■ ■*> _ — «.> _ .w/,.-ij— . — -j». ui — l-l< — .a-U-__. ujaLa..^ — ^ .^-' -^ — --. o-i.!--.'..^ ^ 



... 4. j_ .:..., . A •;'* '".' r' "-• ^. r- '■ r\ "■■ •'i r] -[■ vTj c; "• n> '*' " 



jQa-a_aa}:Ll:-Cia-io.a2;,-:. iliianalachi-iii 



-ä:i:..C;X:l:iL: r:iaiii;l::in.:-d::- .'.Ico various Icuj..!-:: i .lustraa 



C V. ^ 1 






E ac ort^inj to a l^^cnd, ::v»-:CS:3,i:;ElJ3:2s:n:^ .dien asaed 



ixcr by d. ^iar n 



.. ox ...löG^zo:. 



'•- — 5r-','— V 



..iV-/^ 



y:: ior a..vice .:o\; üa 



c 



ariut;!' cou.L... rcca 



kj^ ->... 



C Oi 



ao hGc: 



.. ica .iiG 



—it- 



•^ <-"! 



id:.idciaia:c^; \/hilc 



-■',.- j- 






._,>ro..;h^-t "^lij^-h ^as ajjcarcd to hin, h. ■■■hi:clcch. 



rc 



ii 



C V. 



o:..ccri 



1 •", <"' ""'' ■ '"' 



1 ■' 



i aaV'-- na 



C X 



li.. ii. 



j,l - a 



oac 



ao het j:ii, 



Cci'Gi.. "üo ne 



( i*. tw j 



L ,. V i . V^ tf 



a 



L. X 



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ijc \;I:oll^' en^^roGscd in con-teiviationoi' Go... u'.) Wno. : ^/ou are a'bout to 

niiow^not L.n i^^rru ^V'Od to :/our IioüselioLd or to i.iiy otlier ,_.ereon. If 
you lüui c;..n_cr, ■bclicYC it to have coine . ecause of your eine, 
Pray to tlie Lord tiiat you ma- not bc sun.. oned by deutli v/ithout true 
rejcn.ance. Pray atco th;..t al.. -^srael nay 



J:c carciul .est you utbcr H-od^r; nainc in vain . 'ike care not to thinic 



^ uecone cmccre jenibcn'cs, 
n vain . ■:'alce Cc..re not 
of Holy j^ubjecb- qv- thc Torali in an unclüan olacc. ::]njaae in no tall: 1, 
syna.jo^ue; do not ßpeal.: CYcn \;ordG of ad:ionition ac tiicy will ieaa yo.i 
to uncccrily norde a^ v/ell. 



;nü ai,.L üiae^: ai.cGXain iroii unnocc;:!:;ary taln. 



iiri: a.L;.a;vGOi yoür 



lov/linesc and of God'c: yrandeaur. 



".^aj thc "lOrd, yicsr. cd . bc ^^c, ,juard ■;s in His nercy and Icindnesr:, "ay 
v;c dc^urvc to Dcrve tlic Lord in trutn, anc :..nd love, v/ithout any evil r 
incii m'/Lionc, •..itli'jut c.ny nindranccs, uiroil tne co:ain^ of ttio d edecLiCL.; 
c jcediiy in our da.;ir. 



Si^ned by lülcazi.r bcn dlii-^eiGCii, 



■]lir:cicch of "^äLiencd di-^d in Lhc y .:.cn:' IVOG - die caric ^'CL.r in 



diicd L,lco ^'oscG j'endclc^'onn ;ac;:cd aaa"^; 



n th^ -..or-^d of Lactern 



'cnry dir :ioj:Y ae? ueli as tdat of di:: 



,cr ;.nu oi tiie rea 



L:e: 



■M- 



'.::-Z no c r:ur K.CLea jy 'cnc i;.aic c 



Ol tne cnli:d[:cned diiloco dior. dntil 



tnc cayc 



.-.ciore tliü cataD bro.,diy of d.;ro_c^.n do\7ry,x:.]2 ::n^..c::idi" :. fron 



-!-1., 



on cnc .-.ifsl Aanr 
all .,art:: of :y...icia _atncrüu,in ::: 



.j vj n u c r c c b u Ll •- - 1^- o / c . _ i ».^ 



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iv* 



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.n.n'n'"^ ni^ciin. 



THB BA AL SHHM'S SOOP MÜS'AGS AFP W^ Wl C B 

Israel "ben Elieaer was about 6b years old when he becaine kno\m 

to thc Jcw2 of T>odolia trirougli liic v/OüderfuI a"bilitie£3 of healing and 

Spiritual {^^uidcmce» rom he was recocxiioed as the Baal Gli^'^''#l>' 

4''-'fhe MJ^ster of the bleosed j^eahe ) and the head of a new oiicl ever 

growinß coiiunit:/. About in 1740 he took hie residcnce in mcdzjhoz, 

a cmali Podolian tov/n, where dicciples and visitore froia near aiid fat 

gathered rouüd the Saljüt. Among then two nen nay Ise feonsiderod ao Uie 

firßt upootlOD of aie Baial Shem : his brotlxcr-in-law, Abraliarn aershon 

Kutov/ex, v/ho, v/hilc ari£:;inally op^^osed to .-vahbi lGE«®l»ß tcaching, 

later waß ooüveilsed to the belief in the misi ioii of the Maeter, and 

i;o accountr? 

Rabbi Jacob J^ospöh uohen, v/hoin we owe tiie eariiest of tlio 'laitl Shem's 

activltitlä^c^itethese nen ai'e also conr.ectcd \vith üic origin of that 



öiaäsing docurient which b^car^ie Icnov; as the Gos ;el of the,: 



It is a Ic i-ter conposed jrouably an I7iX) and aduresced to Abr haii 
üershon iCutower v;hen he dücLt alffcedy in ''alestine aß onoof tiie firet 
Chaosidiia» as K. Jacob Joceph Cohen intcndcd to folioiy Mi:^ «fciics-iple , Uie 
jiaai bi:em entrüctcd him wlti) thc delivery of tlie letter, rhe voyage 
did, nowcver, not materialiae.and the letter wac pu^Aisheä in 1781 
in an appendix of nie of K» Jacob Jocepa Cohcn's booiwC, 

In the letter the Baal ?hem deccribed tv/o livanderingo of his soul 



throu^i the realm of the living and the deaÄ. He revealed the 

£iira<yuloiis vxftiartoclie 02cp»xienced,accompanied by the projhet Achia 

of Jlilo .1010 teachcr of niijcJi^ Gtrarige enough, v/e are rer.iinded of 

Dante 's wandoring throU;^h thc ilell and "^urcatofc'in tiie Company of 

Yirgil, vliea vve read tlie acoount of tili stransce dental ^ourney* rhe 

ßinilarity x-efers liOt oniy to tlie inys teriou&ylsgsi^iäisdaBi^rs IWftÄ lW^#iSilaßß 

cpiritual adventtr^^s 

but alßo to tho character of the noEiiaße. " Tlie nationo.1 abosee, " as 

ijubnoTT r:(^htli^ rernariced, ' was here le^uOTod ii:to üif baci:,,round before 

the priridile of the individual redunption .,." The Coming of the ^eeriaJ 

wa© nade de jendent fro:^t the e^cpansion of Chasridic teaching. ^i^«^ ^^^ 

the Zadv.ikifi ch^iri^ed v/ith 

the tasl: to pave tlie way to the advent of the true Kedeemer. 

In contrast to üie vicionary contcnts of tliis niyet^cul epietle 

another letter of the %tujul Shem, v/ritten neariy at the sarae tiiie and 



■■' I 



y 



S. A M P L S S QY: C II A ?> n I :D I C L E T ^-' f-B'^H T R I T 1 H G 
UL„ M ISRAE L BAAL SH3SM TOB T F i A B 5 I 



- mmmw'^-mmmm^m 




4^0mm^;aXki(d o.Iä. Mierriver of tlic Falibinlcal tradition and the 
freEli Qtreaai of Jev/ich eiilißiitemient a third Bjiritual aurrent 
ori^inated v/itliln Judaisn in tlio midcile of tlio lOüi Century : ^J;he 
rayßticai teacfting of Cliasoeidism. Ilaia^ coactitüent eicnents of üiiß 
outstcvnding ohano::enon in modern Jewisla lif.. can be traccd u^; to tiie 
Lurianic niysticißm and to tlie .Kabbalali itseif, /vriong üic later iiiystics, 
lUCh^Luasatto, as c-lread^' nentioned, wa:.: tlie inr.iecliate prcdeceseor of 



Israel 'bei:! "Uiczer v/ho ander the name of Ba^il rhen Tob vjcnt dav/n to 



( 



iiiEtor:y as tlic founder of <ltesßMtM# MESssjg^^ ut in s^Ute of all tltcecl 
liietorical antecedents^ tho s^^ocific cliarac tor of Chas. xdisni ^mrti- 
culL^rly aXl tlioee qualities V7hich nade it a widec;read jojiilar 
movencnt nust be considcred as tlio v/ork of the Bacd Shond/^iildiirEia^iptly 
succescorr.;, '\.e lonc; 0;|^ihce of tiiese vvxtraordinar;:/' jercoxialities ie 

' , ■' ■->■ i, 

in itoelf a confirriation of tlie a^iaing ^''roductivity ;vhich v/ac inherenl- 
to tiie Chaji-nidic idear.;. * Conetliinc: ii :e a rel^ellion of rcliG'ious 
encr^y a^a^inct .^etrified ioiigious vuluee nuot Uave t^Ji^n ^jiacc^ '' 



L' aiÄG^sr Ell on ^lio lern in tliis reppgct, '?xm- 



1 V . 1 u e c , i nne r e: :.^ o r i e pjb. l r 



and intensifacd jict;/ t-;ained the u.per band ovt-r raere icarning and 



intricateßGt:,acity , the laaamjl^ 



jei^f^»iiit, 



the ;:aduiii:, '':sx^L:i-M3ms^ai^l^i^'%M:^ -rij^ c:-:.trej!ie practiee of ":i2T;3th 
conbined vvith the 'e;jve reise ;f a !:;>£: Lerioue authority, Lzeried a 
decisxve infi.uencc U:3on largc coni-iunities of devotees, and, al^ ve aii, 

v/£iys of iife cntirelv dif^erent fro:.. those icnown so Tar in the 

, The courtE of L-e Zaddiiiini and the 
:;;aßiern ghettoe vyere ueveip.f^'ed. 

e:;^Etatic Joyfiaiice'., of tlie ChaeE-idic folh bec^^'ne the keynotec of 
.Te^jioi: lifo ixi oiand and KusEia, ITo woi'.der üiat a frantic Etru£;,le 
t>r61ce ödt l^etY/etn the new'born reaLri of the ni^-eticc and tlie other. 
ei)iritual pov/erE then do;.dnating or striving for doniination ^ 

;im'^st continupuc i/ars v/ere fou^ht between "raclitional orthodo^y and 

/ 
the Cliasüidic coin:-.unitie£ in lh€ second half of the i3th centur;!,^ , to 

be folloY/ed by c. no leer erabittcred cl:..sh betwecn the adherents of 



t]:ie.,H§^ 



and 




^^ll|%;v<"^ . 



and joi/fülneoL of tixe LTaoter. arüatos:aüiti3tzsKE4^ 

tixe t:evQre8elfdiGcipline of i^ab^i »TacoL Jocejli Cohen, \/l:io,''1.iitJai>ifj$fe fü.ll| 

of üie aov? düc crii^u wa^; nouhure ci^u^^iained v;iUi ^^'a^^^cr ciaiit^ tiian 
in Uiü ietter ixi v^iich üie.;.^iaö»iggiiera v/cirncd Iiis belovcd dißci^.lc 



Israilöi Ben ZIIq^mjt to Abrüio^rr^ Gerchon ■Cutov/cr 



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Israel Ben lie:z;or to Jacob Jote ^h Cohen 



iO the hiaxclij of ihc Dü.riin^' of rr^^ r ml, }f the Kal;"bi Joneph ■C'ohen who 

iß fLiinous uixouQti liin ...:iot;y» 

I icceived che iOvti-r indiiGa "üy yoür u.xuiiieci i:c.^iüd. i-jici cuv? x'r )"■: i tß 

i'irrl .lines tLi^u ^Vour HiL;ii^-eci: believer orlificutian liccecscir;;,'. Thio 

eiioc^'Cd rne to rry irü.ermoßt eoui» 3ddüs:>3i:to;2a:a±iQCE.vto;^.^^ 

By the councei of Goci Ui.ü hig ^heiC,äna.. I oxuex you to ^.■■ijn.uaou c...Ci. 

aun^crouj:? ;;;racuic^c> ;vhicli c-..ie but tLe o.tc'.v:.:c of nelancholia and 

aeprce:..ion. The t:iory ■)i' Cod ie..0Eer} not ^hert there is ^'^jurinng 

but on^' v/iiere joy in Hie dictatce ^^reYailß, Tor it hac been o^.aicitiy 

C0Li;X-4ideclj »»Thou shai t not aide tliyeelf from thine ovin f ieeh« " Tliis, 

therefore, iE iii^ advice, £.u:d Gocl hlitEJEi^ii^caH:?: hei^ you : lüver^ iiiorning,jC3:a 

BEsy: v/iiibe eu^aged in le iirning, you m^iy Join clocely 3sfc3bli?i:^^l±:-c^^i2±:r]?ü KK.Xifc 

tiie ietwCis ( Ol the b'oi-ah } witii all yout heurt, for the rjalre of the 

servive of .od. Thue ti?.o rootn of ihe ri£:our will be made cv/eet..* 

But lar ::ic«y il be fro::i you to fast more tluin it was ordered and thaxi it 

iß necOEi:ary.«, ;'rom nie, lei&ael Besht v^ho c: res always for your wclfare. 

;" to I ii^ place üf God ? '^ 
Si?ik'ki. grendei of ^rit clg?!^ rcbulce s a etiton cr 

lubbi ''Elidel of 'Vitclclc leloi^-ed to the iLi; eda^e u^^ibe of the 

Becht. Ile Guifcrcd also by the .^ercccution ihe Chasiidini i.au to eiidure 

aireD.ciy ou the begini-iE^; of the noveiient. 'axe 177J he rcciaed iu the 

srnall city üorodhk ncar '.Itebslc, where naiiy ped.jle vicilcd hin iir.kixiQ 

for advice and help in thoir varioüs nc^ds, ' he following äjaciver to 

a oetitioner whocc fai thfulnestj v/as very lioar to su^jcrsti tion, ic a 

ehining tcctiniony of tlie RB^)'b1^mWiHl||^^ önd -iodesty, 

^ -* '.•,'4 • 

HjIMadel of ll^ebclc to a Chaeitd 



M—Müi * I 11 -1 1 i T M rri ■'iJOiii ii a n 'ni -n ' i u. ... ' m li! «■ ii KM i l ii i ' 1 i I tt " i i H i -' T 1 ' f- - - - irni'i t ti ' "'" ' 

■^■■'ä<<MMjM3MiA^^ Ictter of I ncty uction. 



blttle t 



xiiiicd th©:,Ä 



&„,„ , n , .,r , ^o^ ,i, _^^ — ->-^" '^hc' '^''all'l ''^irQi?ri"^X'^r5?'^ » uonu .a:.\ianti nis xoj.xo«lxe 

-inji hin cuccecf?or i-.. such a de^^rce ao the 



^ocBC'.ßJrjgx laböi Dov; .4;j#.<?r-: 



:)i: m-iricM^^'^Ce :äl^t&aö Hac^oid ^' ( the' ,;rea 



-^reaciiur ;. ' TlicreL.£: c 






Chief a&hQTonlB i.v;::oii^ b-ic .Lo.::^^ c ..>..• ;:i'C jT j^ocicüj, 3ocx Lkuia^ou to ^;i*x 



Chaseidien war: ^:::ik£Vj' d^^^iPW^S^ Tcboc^itcr) -.mc nDßt faGclHatlnc 



pex^ipntdit:; 









l.iC X(. 1' vj»! Cii. v'D . ,'.C: 






'i« 



3P.lid::;i;^s:rlcl^v<^sji.3::^iXS.:i^>. , . Lionel ü.,ii, ^iijsiSEtlb;-KE£:xi;:giait:va.;L:^aiiii>>.^^ 
f^^^^^ätH^^^i^^^^m^ bj?, .,a;a jait;/..;:>.,Oi': ..: :x,. .^rl; dbmai23Ä.B2[;ity wac baeeä on a special 



and v/or-.:lr.j ~.i7;.cl: 
He IxiraeJ-.-. cI^-oLtk 



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lifo 






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3^K'Cü,T-j£L"i:' .f'viv--; 



<»* I , ^ .i*^',»- «««^M -«^ •AwiB^.-.\.. 



; ^,::lcj -C wuß gsr0iij.tEBi- tjCiierally cretlitetä, 
s :)Vii ^' *'oaia }:linciech '• { ?he iMcusurc of 



S^ttlx:^;:. ■: £:c :: :,;:^xa . : ■:;,^, i„v:. ..i- r i. . i -.,.,Atai:>:A.v4Jiia,.si;äiiiCL:.-ij0^ßna;^ ^:.j:oxi:<::^ 






^mn .M^:Mt t'Ja3K-:^jIQJ.K^.. -idJcafei £i c hy fe 



aia.>x^: ,^..;. 



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in t: 1 .tiit-r .t>;^' 



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wriocj.' c^ulc' -c ^.ii l..^. L 0^ 



.: riouß 3,eoo^rc i~lus träte xlic cliai'a tex? of 
. . legend, H^M^ttzMtss.-^M^jj. \iai^n UiM^^BEioi 
. , u of ■;;.2;eä::zo;;:^:x2Cü:;v for cicivict- hoij iuie 



"boactiiiG tiiL>t übe ji'o..'::.et 'ylijöii göyeajb^tlcjied to liira, R, ' ii::ieXecii 
rcpllccl : ^' 1... -^ coriccrrc ir^^^elf, i iiü.v<j nover suid in jay lifeöuul 
the oilieitfct T:iij^'^i a^r/Cü-recl to me, as, ho\7CYer, y.:)U asl: mt aboul; tliis 
niatter, I teil you tliat -iiö.ati^p,,ec..rE even üic hu:;ibleco of ni^/ diEcipIec 
v/iiile our di^^ni L:; are creuicd oni^? for the revealed Poreii ind. hcvc 
not tue elic^-^tcet C0Gni:i^:..ncc of tiie ECcret oliiiiof:." J.ut üiQ bes ,. inci^^It 
into ti;e !:.;irit of the ^'aint .roviclee a ietter of H* l"-li:^el<:^cliä?e son, 
:;.;l^.aüar, to ai- uDicnoun C .^.-.f:r;id. 

■'■y fatix-r v,.oX ._>;eL.,ti^ dietrcered .^n rcadiuG 3; our eoictletdio eec 
thc.t c^":ior.(j i-hv. v:.i:..Ec:Lcii^-;. ^ere are to Lc fouiid euc' fojÜGh ..jid unwiee 
jereonc, "e notv. tL;.t \,.:Li :jou do not vici L the nc.d.ikiii: iu order to 
OüGcriic thcir lioly conduct, their conctant rejentance over cacli ereo, 
loolc or v/-.)rd for v/:.:.ich tiic^ c.re i>-:i.)onci'bIe, IoeI tliese be not woijitl^ 






for tii- üukc of thc Lord, You do not olc'crve their lack of coxicern 
^vlicther a />/0C)d cleed or i.. Llcciin^ i^ bct^cr or oreferable above othere-, 
i-:e tiie 7ai.!aud teaclxee: " v;e xriust not cleclare t::ie cayxn^ :)r Instruction 
ic c.:.c^2ire;bleand wiothcr ii-ieriai," roi do you cec that t.he;y eeek soieiy 
ta cerve God witli tlielr evcry act, riove^-^ent Bj)ä yord, ac it Ie wriiitei.: 
" .nov; :<.i>:i in ..ii thv -■^■■■--^ " 



fi cu^- a A 



■U-' 



aü ^'Oü olserve, liov/evcrv it: ^.ot thcir -iiode of eervice, ^.u t the riian.-cr 
in v/Iiich tl:ey noi^'e about/ dres:. , eat, t.nd ik) fartii» Y)u tiiin:-: tna,t iie 
ulio :.. ivcvtcs tne Zadciiic in llitcc outwt^rd actionoir a .;rO;:u.r Cln-ae^id« 
If you were not .:.cnov/n to ug as an e'.uncBl :-:/an v^'ho {::cekr~ tlie v^ay of God, 
vve wouid not havc anD^'crcd you v/ith a rinj-^le uord, Mnece ;'::y father suid; 
'' :'e vvko in:iuirer whctlicr to crfecitctifciice or otlier liynns, v/ncthcr to 
rec.i te tlic ront;c oi" r:)n.;na. tliißor lna.t tine, :.nd the Iii:e, i£i ökii..l 
Ignorant and foolis:]!," 'nd he co:a anded ric to to writc you nevercU 
rc-,_,ul',-':;ioncc:or:ccrniLß 7 "^'^r concibct in ^rdcr t:u"-i< you tnay ..no ^ Lov^ to 
Ec VC tnc Lord riyht*" 



i'.earn "'alnuci anti tho Co^Q ^ iracli •■^hayir: ^and yra^ thnt ^ou inay under- 

k.. i/^-. .iV. ^. C« '.J i. * V> w V-*.^' « 

AriJSG before clayli(:;;ht, cnd cor^'iune '.vj. ta t .y '-od in eolitudu, wecping 
ovei tue yain o£ tlic '"nc'.cincia, ^onfscr yojr r^inj? vä th a. ,. roken lieiirt. 
';car y)ur hc^^rt into tvvcive ,.).iecüs b^' concidering Uow duoIt c!.n^uiKh 

itß "l^iie. 

Dcvo U: ,^ .1:. j ,c.i. i:.;üi c^..k. u.c day , i'/X' ;.: ■)r/: :-;nion :v ,•. tk -od in soiitude. 
3fou \;iil soon ]:e atle to .crceive LOfD:;.e j ur eyen yo'o. ci.ic, ,..reat ac 
i::o . -. . aii:,o, ..hicl. you :::.;>. ovcrioolced. :-. .,caL tliis r-:-:.ny tir;i2s, and you 
"wiii recv.ivc neaven*n j-icjic^ . "^ra;; to t:. Yord t.:ao iie iiay -.tad you on i 
tlie _.af;;iv;ay of tri.th, Lka y :■ :"::y no iov..^;,:- .a.nce your ^^a^r: in mataxik 
unwortki ecf; , 

:o^id ^y-i' c>ui _,_ai.nct ;.lat i:,Ci..y , f'-ir:vO0'7dr, ::iocv:exy, ti:C t/vil ton£;uc, 
Joci^iour:' , lichte, rivalry , arro,.ancc, an_^ei, uLci i'rivoiity witn wollen« 
li^i?.L\)€i' con£la::tly tne clay of your dc;..icc. 

/fter you iiavc coiie to :;ciievc tha. :;oL;r c-oj;. hac uccn yuri-icd of ite 
c :n-uar:in:-.tion i:y r-.nE, and tl;.au your taoucl:.te no ..on;_:ex- tuin to vvdthles:: 
and inpure dceirer:, you riay c uay Goric .)^' tiie labualictic wcri:t: of the 
i.ri. ::t Cw not ia^^ctient, fcr aiu soucy of tlic kabliaic^i ic a veritabiv; 
yoiGön for inoure ^A;ri^oni::. ",earn rteadily zhv. Ka^^^adah of our riayes 
foi' lt. achievcr , iiriiicc tioi. oi tkc j::oui, 
If you , erriet ixi thin, you will bc you: . r'a..\.d tlic auiliu^ to cliant 






X 

o 



Ynou tnat ii a aan ccrven the Lord i7ith every f orn :f rc:. vice, tu 
nc\crll:clce£: .. ^i-inr : .c:ti;;o- '^i riu.c l.oittn, he is na aüomination 
to thc t,ord, 
If youi. kc^-.rt uoconoc y-ro, tho 'h^ehinak i lii^clf v/ilL cin^, nith you. 






•.' -C 



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•r3 vor CO HC 



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;f a nan, I a::; able to wri te y ;u o ly a bricf 



sUi;;yection. "ac:: 7ir:.ue, .uaiit,/ and rai ., i,:ai; an onii ::ii Lcd nuiii^er of 
braiichcc. 

A YCVj i-oyortant rule in to c''^(:}.t^ yoi^rseli a^..inE^ elrinai;.i_,y intoxi- 
catin^; '.i .unrc. "Che tai:n:..:d '::oachcsj' .-vcici intoxioaLio.: and you v/iii 
avoid ein, '"• 

Anotrcr ia.. ortant ::nlo Iv to cvoid evil thou^^ts, cadnecr in any forn, 
and hatred of any ^.ercon exceyt tlie thoroUighl:: \7icaed. 
, >vc •jh.i.r j^.i:.:j:..?: tr :---c ap j ou io v£ :yijr o^7n hinsaen ^^xid oiiildren, 
id thea with your ,.;ornon, your w alth '..nd jOur cnacavourc. 
rf ,0V kc:a. y:^vr ;?:air'-^ ^-■- ,; , i'coL a:.-::iy doa:':caCv of heart, hiinl: in 
truth ■''hctlicr otaorc v/ouici ha-vc jruii?ed :?ou, uere cvv.xv c.C'., ini.ention 
L.nä : ■ Wr. ar . 'a-a-c iraan t "^ t ca ar i ;. Is :a:iov.'n ro thc aoci. alyh» 
If ::o'j ^:oar vajrcoi.f abureci, foei ..vuij ^*.ay of .-oaih, .oh h^,s bc^n 
:::orc:. fül to ^ou and Iiac 3cnt you GO""eone toi'reyi'ove jou loi yoür u^Iy 
deeds. 



::. ii!bv?v 



Sj - 






yoy*» "^(O '. iL njoGJTi t> you 



thivt; 7 >ür 07er^- novcaont ig i^Gnn|a£i^1ii^ a: i:ti:/ ohcox'Vüd and tha:; y lu aro 






:cd \.o d :i ...:.., thiny you v;i.Li not \iish to hcco-'-c hnav/n, aeiii^iabarr 
t-:.at aod ceoo your ovory noTOj:^ent and 'l^nov:^ your C7ery t}.>u(^it. 



i > .'^ 






/laaarc, - .. oür ind 'ouct 



"be viholly eni-^rocsed in contemjiationof God tj Mhou you are about to 

fhow not an iMiQiy m->od to your household. or to mi:; otliex" zgtcoxi^ If 

you fccl aii,,er, believc it bo have cone .ecause of your eins. 

Pray to tlie Lord tbat you may not be sur:i oned by deutii viitliout true 

re^jcn Lance, Pra:^- car^o tiiat all -^^ßraei uiay TDecoine sinccre jpcnitents. 

Be careful .est you uttcr God*c nenne in vcin ♦ TrJce care not to tliinlc 

of ^6^' cubjectf' of the /'orah in an unclee^n place, i^n^^a^e i:.. no tallc in 

synagogue; do not ej^ersk evcn wordD of adriiouition ac tlicy will iead Jou 

to unceonly woi^dc- an well. 

At all tiaec abotxain froni unnececjyary talk, .'hinlc alv/nycof your 

lowlincDG and of God^n [jrandeaur* 

May tl'ie Lortl, rlc3red."be '-e, guard us in Ei^rcnercy and Icin^Ineso, '"ay 
v/e vlecex'VG to £?ervc tlac Lord in trutli, av/e and love, v/i'ti'iOUb an;>' cvil i 
incli n^^tiono, -jith'jut any hindrances, until tlie Coming oi tlie Bedeeneii 
Cjjeedily in our dc^yc 

Bi^ned by '■■leu.zi^x oen '.linelccli. 



H» iJlimclecli of Liao:*c:i di^d in tbe ye^:-r 1706 - thc sajno year in 

•whicli c-lco .ioüuö |k;ndolc::oIin carccd i^JA^ay. ::;G?:-o'ue world of r-^aKtern 

Jewry niü4,i;DasQ^:i^S well ac ti:c:>t of iiis :.la0l;er and of tJie jreau i:^aal hen 

wui5 not c.uriJac:::ed by tlio frne of tlie euliG^itcned phiiosoohcr. Until 

thc da^c Icfore tl;c cf,tr.rtro..;hy of .urojecvn Je\7ry,ÄK "^liaEnidim fron 

on tlie :jist Adar 
all juroD of Gailcia c;^t:i:cred,3)?d^Ä^?tlic tont olaäJClJiod abovc Iiis torab 

in ordwr Lo celcbtatc 2321 tbc anniversary of le^endary :iadail:. 



DUüLOti, I, Ibvfi. 



/.u aerceiben Zeit, ale dor "'sl^. td von llQt^xitBch jLelirer üob C;.ar![;i- 
(iiB-iv.uv ricrai.l)iidetü,,...vidj:iete cici. vein auik.ciict in Poäolicii und eodai. , 

111 iailiynien b^hübszI^^qt ITeund Jakob Joseph ir^hen cii.cr nicht minder 
üeaeutcaneii u..\„cv'be: de. Inwandiuno der li: iidiiclicn Lehre dCD r;oscut in 
eine_ Ecbriftlichc... 

^ iiei uil meiner .Anli^.nglic.lceit an die neue 'uehre vt;rr:iochte Jakob Jose.;,. 
ih der erctcn Seit ceine ac.:e tischen rev/ohuhc.. ten nicht zu überwindenT 
rnchrcre Ja.hre hinter Ii.uuült xa,Gtet'.- er rk.:::iich r:..t Ausnalü-c dce ^'abcdG 
rL...§ für Tti._, ur,- ii.,;r ::;. Abend etua-s: zu rieh au nüi^^rien, c) caii er sic^ ■ - 
schlie^ich ..aur: nich lev/et:eii i.von„.te, ;-1g der Beseht ua/voi. eriuhr, bcra. 
er Gic:. cilit^rt ru.ch *^e::lrow ...m. befahl de- Rabbiner, von äan aciccticchcn 
Uebiini_,un Abstand 2iu nehemn. Zur l^es .ä^ti^iUng diecec -«Berichtes fü{-te Ecin 
Urheber in die"Le^.en<:^e dc£ -•-t.Ec.Lt" f Bchi.ckc h »Beseht her...u£JiTe^efeBn 
von Isre-ic Joffe in l^o^yü:. 1815 ) einen Prief cij^i dee en : üchcoite :-it 
der Anschrift vergehen war:'V.uD mteda:/bod:; ncxh iienirow«..anjä den 
kx,.t:biner "crrn Ja.o;- josepli ";ohen ', n der roli::encicr:na.ien l^^utet: 



^Z ii-,ndcn des Geliebten rieincr :;eele, des Kub^änerG .«.«öet; durch 
seine .i^TÖaui^keit beriliixnien Joseph ^vohcn. 

urc oC.ren '"c. riftz^e habe ich erhalt^nrnund darauD errdlien .♦, 
da.!^ hure llochwürdek behau „^ten, unbedin:j:t factcn 'iu musccn, und ich 
cri:i teerte aic ich dies vornalii:!. Co verfi^e ich donn CTi^:imz nd in 
haiüen der hn^el nd unter imr;.f jn^ GotuCc und cemer herrlicliiieit, Ihr 
Goliet y^uch .ja nicht r:oicher *^efah. ai-rcetsen, \veil eo wac nir ...u 
rchv;eiiiiut und TrilbDinn fuhrt, die Schechina aber nicht den rrubcinn, 
Eonücrn der heiteren ?röni::leheit im.cuohnt, wie diec huer hocliv/hrden 
aüE ::ieinv.n uie .erholten "iChrworten fvchan.t i£3t.,,Dieo iet nui. ::iein hat, 
und mör:c Gotb nit :;uch Dein: iloröen für '■or£;en nf3ret Ihr hjch beim 
Lernen voll Lind ^xXü^ an die huch;: tabcn ( der Thora ) ancc .nie;^en, u. 
dec DicnctcG a^ri rchov-fer v/il .en, and aicdani. jiru die ur^^ei der r ti^en^'e 
versüßt wcraen. • ,hcrn Cv.i cg .hic/i c.,ber, ;:jeiir als £:ebo oen und nöti^ zu 



iacten,.,von :^ir, de:: 



u. 



.er ohl rtetc bcor^tcn Icrale :eccho. 



hubno".; I, r.hibfh. 



jen V n ihrL.. " i;>wrc.v.ehvjrn an^..v.^etuel Leu Vcfoi,,ün^_ ek c-^chucn rieh 
d-e ahr..- ült GhaecidiE:clacn Pe.:..^ iki^;;eilen eure i e nen 'rtewecriscL 
..,u ci.ti:ie::ua, V-o ochi sich h, ■'cndei voi. itebj;:!:, der ? hrcr der chas: idi 
i.:ciien e .■eii.cchaft v ). ine':, der in de^ Jchiren 1771 und lV7h in aen 
Zv/i E 



mit deii rab-inicaüen ?ai.ai;ihern verv/ichelt 



worden v/ar, 



^enütidt^die Cte^dt Idinßlc sj verlasecn uud in seine Heimat surucicaaiceiireu 
htwa un iV7o lie . er f:ic . 1.^ dem t..dtcheii Horodoh na.ie itebc. nieder 
«.♦iln:! :iur Ceii.c standen eeine :hreundc aus der Schule dec '.eüeritscher 
:Ia{:^lds;{ Dou "..r ): Israel von :,^oloaL:, Abrt:dia;:: von holusic und Tchacur 
salrian von Ljoena, ,,*Obuohl nun h. hendcl ocincn Anli.an^ern ein Lehrer 
und treuer Berater v;ar, ni^brauch e. ..r den Volicec^lauben niedasu, die 
Ilösee durch " underv/erlco" zu betören, "wie dies so viele h.adail:iLi in der 
Uhraine taten« ■>lü in spaterer heit einer der su ihn .laltcndcn Chaßridim 
cicli an ihn nit der Bitte ** Um ICindv.r " { d^li^ im Abwendung dec riuchee 
der Unfrjchtbaxlceit ) wandte, erhielt er ^''on SfKH^gl; R. endel ssd^iasnK 
^iiis3H!JEXK die folgende scririf tliche Ant^'ort : 



• • • 



, hae aber dein hauj tanlie{;en, die lUtte um Kinder betrifft, so ouii 

ich Da{j;on, da;j an^^cDichto der labrunct deines Gebetee, deines hnief:.illi-- 
i_:en hlehenß und deiner beredten r...rache • , .'^cha::irQ te nein Geeicht 
bedechto: bin ich denn ai. G-ottec rtatt? ohl ie .. es vDr^ehoix:^en, da^ 
cor :^.tschlui Gottco durch dii Yeraittlun^ dec Baü,l :-chc::i (Beseht), dürdi 
dessen "jruch in hrf al lun,. ce^an£;en ist, allein v/cn c:-b es seit den 
Altvordern, der ihn c^eichJzi^jmc , und wer wird nach ihn auf ucin hrdenrund 
erstehen, der nit ihin vert.;lichen v/erdcn hönnte? Allerdings ..^bt es heut- 
liun^oe nchrere c^oj,q /^adüihi , die sich nicht scheun, -u hilnden und su 
verheizen, doch ist diese nrt nicht die noinine. 



?eri ha*araes, ^^weiter l^ricf. 



^'I'^^ucht der Erde, r-abhat- 



predinten von K^henclel, des Sohnes des H» "'oses ( V)n nitebsh ), nebst 
heiligen "Vortcn des h, Abr^diac, des " ohncs des h. Do"^ Bar von r.Ieseritsch' 
An hnde des Ruches sind elf .Briefe des Verfassers und sei 



noG 






eundes 



Chaoeidic cainto and tlie !!askilin, It lia.jjoried not before tlie ond of ■- 
tlxe ninoteonth centuiy tliat rejrceeauitivoc of ...odcrn Judaic:- recosiiir.ii 
the eminent sienificance of Chacridim and brought about a rcTival of 
itß idcas» 



JL' 



lie iiiatn neans uocsd ;)^ the Chae-idi:.: Tor tne ex^. res:.: Ion of thdir 
faith \7D.t the spoken word and the livin,; exoriplc;. :iie ra^'in-s of üie 
. ,jiB.intc ancl countleci: stories related t^^||pflivec:, tlu; .eadiire and 
miraculouß decds v/ent fror:; moutH to moutliV^arid crer.tecl t'« new ox*al 
trudition. I^ut rccorEdea by his clieoijilec, "the Le-euö. of the Sacd '^^Iiem 
■becöjne a uritteri evanjile, and so 4id tlie e:;!iCD of all grcao :?;adc;iicte. 
ThUE trie Gliasi:idic liter^vturc ^rew, enlai-ed ...:,' e-olic re-"ic.r'C;j-l>l€* 
original "v/ri tiiii^is' of -the Baintß .«^|^^recvL nuiaber of .„.o.enical jöjapMeis:: 
Xt wi.:.53 Achad "laari:] iiTho ^aire tiie 111211020 jrciise to thic litcraU^rc when- ■ 
iic Said tliÄt-^ tiiere, m±^J^X2J:^^ii^mz-JüO::^^t^i^^^ 

ratlicr .Jian in tlic litorc.ture of thw IlfvSfealar, one occanionally 
encouiiiers, iu udclition to raucii tiial iß jur61;y fariciful, truo 
jprofui.dity of tliKigiit v/Mch bearc tijic naxlc of the ^ri^iiic.i /i'eiinii 

5-enii;c*" In some res^^ecu tiie sanie apjrocic tion a::7.Aieo alsp to tiie 

not 
r>.A^;^©t.tecQ of tixc Chasidin, Tliey 'Sfcrc Icurned aixsv/er^ to Ic^^a'. quectioiiE 



jifcsi 



-* V >»>■ '-■« r*rt j> <» 




i-rlä^feij^-a:^. lCtt<i:rC of 



advic»;;« riia/-te4ii:i.;i tali:cd ii. tiie leL;.ei!3 lllzQ in üieir c or* vcrDatlozic 

v/itii tlio diccijles aiid vici-orc, about the vor^. pereonal noedc of thu 

correspondento^ they apjrowi-ched tiiei.i rabhcx* ac healero of the soul 

tlian as schoiars, and jrccented rather cxjerience and inCi); lati jn tiian 

iaiowledge and loGicai deductions« Tliere ic ofton a ßtrikini^ oimolicit^' 

of tliouglits and cxpression in the letters of the Cl^ssidim, a darin^ 

which inaküs thein. 
break with conTcntion and fonncdi ties, roal *• fruits of the earUa **, 

Chafö'i.idic 
p.ß reads the tittle of a coilection of eerrnons and letters. To be eure, 



coiTi^iarativel:/- sük:S;^ a samll nuiiber ofg 



Qhaßsidic letters have dc n 



brought to li{.:ht so far, v/liile ectges of faked lettero of fcmous 

authentic 
^adciikim are in circulation^ Wi^äti^S^^^^^^^^^W^tß^^ of C.:.a.s£idic 



iorrcn .ondencc ^- Guff&cient to tiirgrf.ill bricht light on the wondrous 
r/orid of the Hodern Jewicl: iii^'SticE. 



f\^ ^1^^ 



F^Nt \<o^ie(i dcuecriDU 



V23 



^/23 CoLcuzf^L AM^^lCANf ^eu^xs^/ C(7^£sfb/^b€A/c£ c^^y^/^r6Z^ 



/^Vt 



Eisens ueiri, Casuistic Li^^rature 

One of the resporises ( from the i:teEponsa "Peri Ez Hay;yim" 
publ. J)eriodically 1733-92 at Ameterdam, by the iearned st.dents of tiie 
Amaterdam V, p. 41 ) Eigaed h, ^Ba,Y2A,JB.,....M)X^^ deais 

iamous coilege "Ez Hajyim" ( Arbol de las Vidae ) ^^^ 

with an intersciiie, q estion of marine Insurance covering a mer chantmaii 

iibeled by tlie Court of Adiiiiral±t:> in the Seven Yeai ar between 

England anu i^rance (1756/65). George II is designated as the Kmg of 

the ITorth, and Louis XV of France as the ^Cing of the South. The Island 

of the (Kmg of the) South mentioned is either Suranim ( oidc ^ or 

Casacoe. Eothe the ^^laintiff and t-.e defendant are üeecribed a,^ Jews, 

but t..eir nuaeE are withheld. Tne Pseudonyms ji Zebulun aaü ^Taphtali 

aie adoptea for tue plaintifi and defendant, 

The fhaala and Teshuba follovvS: 

C_,uestion. - Zebulun exported valuable gooas ±h large 
quantitites ou a ship sailing to the Island oi' thefouth and agreed with 
v»?ith Ka^jhtali in consideration oi a certain sum, to ineure them 
( the goods ) agamst loss by sinkmg or otherwise. It happened that 
the ship '-vas captured b^' an amied vessel of the King of the Soutii, 
On the follov/ing da> a fierce stomi arose and the crev/ oi' the 
merchantman me^neged to escape m saf ety , and having deliverea the 
valuable goods, entrusted to them, into the magazinus of Zebulun *s 
aganets, returned to their country. Long afte.r tue goods had been 
sold at current mar^cet pricet , a mixed courü represe.^ting the iw .^ kmgs 
agreed to condei.n all prizes, Accjrdmgly, Zebulun*s agents vvuxe 
adjudged toturn over the proceeds of the property to the captors. 
1-Tovi/, vvhen the news reachea Zebulun, he dcmanded the amount 'i' the 
insurance contract. 

The author of the Shaala ends by saying: 

Beholding twj Jcws in legal dispute I thought of appealing 
your judgment, etc. 

In response, Franko Mendes first analyzes the phraseologyjc 
of the contract "written and sealed in the customary way , ^ and argues 
that it Covers **the loss of capture by privates or belligerents, or for 
any depreciation in value or loss incurred to perishabiie goodcby reason 
of detention of the prize, in usual, unusual or unforeeen circumstances, 

The author then considers the validity of the compromise 
reached by the mixed tribunal of the warring kings, and concludes in 
the affirmative. Nevertheless , he renders a verdict in favor of m.phtali: 



Eisenstein, Casuistic Literature 2) 



5'irst, "because the condemn^vtion by the tribunai was unconstitutional 
and contray to international law, inasmuch as the merciiantman was 
capturea on the high seas from where it subsequently escaped and 
the cators cannot ciaim title unless they brigg the prize to the nearest 
port. Second, "because the goods have been since converted by the 
agents of Zebulun to a third party, thus releasing Naphtaii of 
further responsibility , as the Insurance covered the good only, not 
their äquivalent in money. 

The author says he bases his decision on the lav/s of the Torah, 
and ends : 

May cur God grant us wisdom tp do justice, let our handicraft 
prosper; we may soon be worthy to begola the advent of our Redeemer, 

So be Thy will, Aiiien! 

Given this 27th day of Adar First in tht- yearx 5518 ( 1758 ) 



( signed ) 



David B, Abraham Franko Mendes 



Aside from the value of thäs response as a unique contribution 
of international law in rubbinic literature, it is of great interest 
to know the ac tive part taken by the Jews to promote American foreign 
trade, and who ruay have been pioneers in introducin., American marine 

insurance, 

m tht same period we find probaly the f rst record whepe an 
Amer.can Authoiity was consulted in casuistry. The opin.on wa^written 
by Aaron Le Desina, a mmicter and rabbi of the congregation at 
Surinam, in r s.onse to R. P-enjamin Diaz Brandon of Amsterdam, and 
is published in the iatter's Res.onsa Smek :->enjamin ( ITos. 15 and 16, 
Amsterdam. 1755 ). 'lie i:^haala relates to a legacy .r^wing out of 
the last will an testa^ent of "Keuben" ( nominal ) to his tep-chi .dren^ 
all that he a, inherit fr., his uroth.r ^'Levi,:. who died soon after 
Heuben. Hie urt er '«Judah" contests .ne right of KetoLen to share m 
the .rop-rty of Le^i , i.asmuch as Keuben dxed first. Le Desma a.ier quo- 
txng .any author.ties rules upon the ma.x, in Talmud that '^one ca.not 
.equeath an.th.ng' tha. does not ex.st .n the wor.d. T.e dte, 548. _ 
(I7..K xs a typo.i-aphicl error, as the e..sequent argument of 



i'isenstein 6) 

of R. ::randon in refutation dated 550ö (174o), is probaoi- coirect, 

Sxsept these three responses, I have not "been able eo far to 
trace anotlier Shaaia or Teshuba that passed betv/een the Oid and 
the rew 7oride. 

Ti.e interval of "no quections as.:ed" as^pears to have been m force 
until the bet,,inning of the Hue j^ian- Jev/ish settleiient, '-he first 
Shaal^-^ is by R. Joseph :Mi-... ieraan of ITew York in lc58, directed to 
R. Joseph Saul ITatnansohn of Lernberg, Gaiicia, in his Resjonsa 
■•Shovil-u-Heshiü*' ( -^ook, part III, ITo 72 : and relates to the purhase 
of the Welsh-Scotch Methodist Chapel at 178 Allen Street, New Yorx, 
for a Syna^rogue. The w^rshipers are described as ''Lutherans, who 
chant psaims and hyinns accompenied by music m the nane of Jesus," 
Midaleman is familiär with thu auti-orities on the s /oject, but 
questions therr appiicatioi. zo the exceptional features m this case. 
In reply Rabbi Naihansohn quotes Zephaniah III, 9, that eventually 
every church will be converted mto a hoi^se o.. worship to our God, 
especia-.y in this case where there is no Image or cross, - " 
not pnly is there no objectio. to make c synagogue of thechurch, but 
theact is highly comi:i ndable m giory to the Uame of Heaven. ' 

The Rabbi Joseph Moses Aaronson of New Yo oic ( died m Chicago in 
1374 ) is due the distinctioi- as t]ae author if the first book of 
America Responsa to questioi.s sent him from various congregatiomin 
the U,n. The book cailed "Matal Mosheh" was published m Jerusalem. 
One of the responses is aated Tuesday, the 29tii of Sivan, 5625 
(1865), to Rev. Simon Noot, regardmg permission to place the ark 
on the place the ar^ on the southwest side of synagog e just be.ng 

buÄlt. . . . 



The First known transatlantic Responsiam 

XhBJK. New Ehristians from Spain and Portugal were the first 

Jev/s who settled ±io.EBXK:>.aiiä Erazil, T.dir ach.cernents on that vargin 

soii can hardly be exaggert.ted, "The early hietory of Brazil was in 

Lar^e part the historry of Jey/ish e.-^jloration, settiement and pioneering, " 

as far as this history has to "be consideres 
said Anita Libman Lebeeon in her "Pilgroin People •. ut as a parc of 

Jev/ish history, it is hidden in the darkness of af an Underground 

existencc. The scourge of Inquisition introduced stoai aimost imraediately 

its 
alter ttas discovery ofi the American continent iRxJüiBxjtranEaiinatxBix 

f orced 
gXHxxiusBxxfcxBBÄ the Jewish pioneers to gTantänue dissimulatäxig their 

true facLfehxKK even )n the V/estern hemisphere. Oniy after suüysx the 

of Bahia 
conquest by the Duteh the first Jewish Community was estabiished, at 

that time the only one ueyond the Atl, nticyx 1©24. Pew yeats Later 

another Community was ^stabkislaed in Recife j^DcfifixuaKdaMiaiax ) , again undcr 
A rapid infiux of J-ws from all corener of th^. (J^ö.^q;"].^ as far as 

th protection of the Dutch and the 7est India Company, 1 rom these 

earliest 

B2x±y: daysofx of an openly organized JeWwfai. life in AmericapcfchÄ>^±iXxt 

iaas3K2ixHjebxBw:}>.iBiiBx^^j£¥jer--SBH>. a luemorabue record is ext an t v/hich is 

to to the ancestral tradiOi. 

a- teii-ing testim ny af the pfaithful adherence of the Jewish pioneersx 

Turkey, above all from Holland, led to a lax quiclc groqitii of "tl© ^-.ort 
of the Jews, '• 

^-^ — Rabbi nical 

in the ew ¥/orld, _t consittt d)£ the earliest known RaiiiiiniEEix inquiry 

( Shealah ) aofuä 

sernt edcbxx from the Western hemispher^. to the Old world and the 

equally oldett Res.onsum ( teshuba^ ) given in reply to it. 

caacying the inquiry over the ocean 
The place where the letter c aHialHxngxdüajBxsJKas-tiaDi origmated is 
was in the letter 

iiSLÄXMaixhfiRnix described as being South, latitude 20 and over, which 



wo 



uld des gnate the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro. The time of the despatch 



/ 



was probably as e rly as l;f3u but the author of the letter has not been 



\ 



Responsum 2) 



identified. There is, however, no douiit about the addresse of the 

inTiiuiry saince tiifiy. an abstract of lo and the Responsum have been found 
in 

the CQllection.of. ;^e Rosponsa "Torat Hayyim" hy R. Hayyim Sabhathei 



of Sal 



'Qlijction of the 
ilonfflca. V/haV^ndu 



ced th.e Brazilian Jews to turn to this rabbinical 



authority in distant Turkey instead to a Rabbi in Amsterdam, the 

Site of the West Indian Company, is a matter of conjecture. 3ut ihJE 

Strange 
BiiaiB^ it is just this KafllgaKÜK choice which indicates the importance 

the questioners ascrioed to the matter involved?: in the inquiry quoted 

here according to the ab ve mentioned xßßjajftjäx abridged fmmf.jr 

lAlfaction of the Jews at Erazil to Raabi Hayyim Sheebbathai 

in Salonica 

**L^t our master teachus if they ( w ho urge the change ) are within 

the law" ~ 

/ (y ? i^ 



C.*- <5 



V » 



K;)pLK2^^±jzixSaMi2.ta.kajbco 

. Sent from a distant country, the Smpire of Brazil, a place 
•j^outh of the Equator, where the south zone is up to about 20 degreew 
"and the north zone is hidden unaer the horizon 20 degress or more; where 
the seasons of the year are chnaged from Summer to Winter so that the 
rainy season is not betv/etn Tishr-L and ITisan but from >T-san to Tisiiri, 
Moreover, the Sumiaer rain is a bl es sing to the growth of the 
vegetables o.nd fruit, v/hileexces^ive rain in '"inter causes diseases and 
epidemics. For this reason thty ( a gaction of the Jews at Brazil ) 
are inclined to thinlc that the special benediction "Mashin ha-Ruah" and 
"Tal-u-Matar • in the prayer during the Winter season, shouid ra .her be 
said aurmg the Winter season, shouid rather be sa.id during the Sum-ier 
season, to hannonize v/ith the surrounding conditions. 

Let our master teac. us if they ( who urge the change ) are 
..ithin the Law; that v/e nay be eniigi.te. enea by öik his iight. 

•'.'iififi R, PIayy±m, in his stud^- a ralon^ca, received this 

letter \/hich might have travetied iiany months , if not raore before 

it reached the eas .ern shores of the r'ed-terranean , he 3cxs pe-haps 

lealized that xJbchaß^^HBjl>.fcx:^^hBJ^£l2:s.±>dbx2iKxx never before, in the 

millennial course of Jewish histor^ a question hasx.- of this kind has 

arisen, indeed could have b^en brought up. Por the JevwS f Brazil 



V7 



ere not only femong the first jews who xEt±iEä.x had established a 



Respoiisum 3) 

at the 
JewiEh Community din the Western contiment, "but the:/ were ^xslqIx^hlII^xj. 

J£kC3 c±lX3aJbc the saue tarne among the first *^ev/ish settlers on the 

ciimatic 
Sotikhern Hemisphere. The literally antipodai circumsta.iues which these 

Jews had encountereed in tn^t pc.rt oi" the worid ha^» ^:^Baücx:La.jRxta 

a.aiiiigtaxai)a^. appaerently caused a division in the Community between 

those who m spite of discrepancy beuwet-n the time fixed for cartain 

prayers m the traditionai Exayorder of the prayeis and theirx 

QK^^ÄReKto>^Köü<ÄXÄBÄ^^£ÄXxaxö.xangBx:^. new conditions sticiced to the 

traditionai ruie and their opponents who advoaated a change in accor- 

dance with a situatjon evidently irreconcilable with ancient custom. 

R. Hayyim iixxilijDataBxajixx could not f "jresee that the letter bcfore 

Coming 
him Yx-R was ptrhaps the first symptom of the rgfexKi ]3TOyB^«>a±>:a.Hjtx.B.£ 

observance of the Law 
the strug^e between the adherents of unalterabLe JkxaöxüaHxan d a 

the Champions of a reform aimed at an adaptation of the worship to 
circumstances rather comprehencive 

XKJü special ZJSXH^XSPS^^ . The decision of the Rabbi, alth ugh in 

did 

favor of the c .)nservative attitude, ±stX surprisingly not exclude t 

future 

a chaiige under paiticuiar conditions, lle brin^a out the fafct that the 

Jewxsh Community in Brazil, as it appears from the In4.uiry, was smali 

s i ng I e 
and confined to a utile town."*e decides that if such town be even as 



big as ITmiveh , indeed evenBSL an entixre isiand, it is not entitied 

ti to a spefila cfeange a:^ in the liturgy, Oniy numerous congregations 

scattered in a largely populated country may claim the right to change 

the Order of the Prayers. ITevertnelesr , no congregation iieed pray 

against its want and need, b^t in such Single cases the regulär bene- 

diction may be omitted, and, when necessary, insert a p ayer for rain 

at the end of the prayer after "Shomea Tefillah," 
present probably 

A reader of tr.is first ^^esponsum w hich reached the ITew Y7äM 

m^v/onder at the unin ended irony that its addressees ^roved indeed to 



Responsum 4) 

"be the forerunners of comiaunity wliose dimensions iiave bev.n fairiy 
preciseiy guseeed by reference to Ute >^inive and to jLsaiaixjo. 
numerous congr^^agtions scatterend in a iargely populated country, 

( Based on '»The Development of Jewish Casuistic 
Literature in America" ty J.D. Siseiistein 
' Publ. 12, 1904, 159-47 

T^e quateä Qu est;»-: 140; res ponsum ted. 
text 139-41 ) 



.-' >, .*.■ 






;. ::^r--/ i a^- •'■ 



Lr«.. 'S', .:.a> ZI -L , 



^■f^ 
^ 






Ci;i ;.;;.v. v;x' 1 C. ' J i. . Ji: ;.:.'^ tri It;'. f ' i. 









Oi\.:"^ 



V '- .. 



l. <- 






.1. 






. <■- 






: c .-- h: :)'^ i-ii'j ' o\;; 



^i .*■ :v her be 



Lire i.'j_ -.-. ..:e: c^ L. ..;-. u. ■. v. c,:.^ t:_.üL.:.ai. »..iv ■ .^.i. u._ ■- * . i: 

■ . Uli: y:^.i 



1 oi:. 



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Anita Libman Lebeson, Jev/ish Pionieers ii; 
America 149:^ - [[.848 
ITew York Brentano s Publishers 



9 • From a letter ( of Golumbus ): "I am not 
the first Admiral of my family, let them 
give me what name they please; gor whn all 
is done, David, the most prudent king, 
was firsj a shepherd and afterwards chosen 
King of erusakem, and I am the servant 
of that same Lord who raised him to such a 
dignity." ( Pinkerton, Voyages and Travels, 
XII, 2 ( Life of Colon by his son, ) 
Ferdinand, son of the discovere, teils us 
thathis father'B "progenitors were of the 
blood royal of «Jerusalem , aüd it pleased him 
that his pa.tnts shall not be much known. '* 
( Ibidem, chapter !• 'x At that time many 
descendants of *^erusalem were compietled 
to deny their parents in order to preserve 
their skins, 

There is extant a seldon luoted letter 
of Columbus to Juanfc^ de Torres, nurse of 
Prince John of Caetile, a woman very 
inflüential in the royal household. 
( Facsimile of Coiurabus* Book of Privileges 

( Stevens edition. ) Document XLIV,~246fr7) 
It was written xU 1500, when columbus had üjl 
fallen on evil days. In it he refers to 
his heaven-^chosen mission "of the heaven 
and earth which our Lord made, v/hen 
Samt John was v/riting the Apocalypse, 
after what was spoken of the mouth of IsialA 
he made me the messenger and showed me 
where it lay," He reviews his troubles and 
grievances, and mentions a letter he had sen 
by Antonio de Torres. He adds that he is 
haraased both by "wicked Christi^-ns" and by 
Indians. 

In discussing the mines of the Mew World, 
he comiTients on the fact that "the buslness 
is in the hands of the Christians." Thls 
clue we have to his faith » "Our Lord, 
who rescued Daniel and the three children, 



Columbus ( Lebeson ) 2 



is 

as 



present with the dame wisdom and power 

he had then. ..." 

He end Ms letter thus : 



♦♦The Commander on his arrival tn Santo 
Domingo took up his a*bode in my house, and 
just as he found it, so he appropriated 
every thing to himself. A pirate never acted 
thus tow;ard a merchant. About my papers I have 
a greater griwvance, for he has so completely 
ddprived me of them that i have never heen 
ahle to obtain a Single one from him. .. 
Eehold the just and honest inquisitorf.. • 
God our Lord is present with his strength and 
wisdom, as of old, and always üunished in the 
end, espeially ingratitude and injuries." 

This letter spealcs for itself. its recipieni 
Juan de Tor res , was probably a member of the 
the same Map^rano family to which I'ouis and 
Antonio de -^orres belonged. Louis accompanied 
the discoverer; he became a Christian shortly 
before Columbus sa41ed. Antonio is mentioned 
in the letter as Columbus' messenger and one 
well-known to Juana. At one tirne twelve ships 
of Cdlumbus' fleet were placed under Antonio *s 
cominand. As for Juana, Wasöington -'•rving 
teils US that she w e "A lady high in favor 
with ^ueen Isabella, " ( Irving 's Works, VI, 
220 ). 

TTore than four hundred years äfter the 
discovery of America, the learned world was 

Startled by a paper read before the Geopgraphi« 
al Society of Madrid entitiled "Crlstobal Colo2i,| 
Espanol?" by Celsus Garcia de laRiega ^ocietei 
Geogra-fica de Madtd, Boletm, XXXX, 1898 ). 
In this address the text of wMch was based 
upon Pontevedran archives, -^e la Riega sought t< 
prove that C. waa born in Pontevedra, the snn 
of ^gMwtunnlxaji ewish parents . . .sixxitxxRxga 



yreltde in thc Hew V/ortd 



The emergence of the American contment out of ghe mysterious 

seclusion frome the histoxy of the Eastern hemiphere is frora the 

very first beginning linked with he history of the «^ewish people. 

in the eame hour of 
It happenedxBO the same day, the 30th ää of April, 1492, that the 

decree ordering the expulsion of the *^ews from Spain was sigaad 

and 
by FerdinaÄd and Isabelia istyof. Chris to^^her Columbms was autjiorized 

by the same rulers to undertalce the expedition of discovery to the 

Indies. Even if Columbus would not have üidcBä recorded these tv/o 



seemingly independent facts in the first sentence of his diary , 

be a to 

their coincidence would challenge every kiackixxÄn.student of »^ewish 

in this history, jtxx 

history. ITot fore the fist time, ttBXBMbajfxat p«xiaÄJc the encl of 

marked at the the split of the Kingdom meant the rise k 

an epdch isBKJtxadactke same time a nev/ beginning: Bax :tiUBXxx3&B:>aaLf 
of Judah, the birth of first 
Babylonian Jewry *ailowed the fall js£x&&±mBB.K of Jerusalem, 

Xsüsome The school of Jahne taices place of the destroyed Second 

this Jewish 

Temple, one day übr center of Jüuexiuex tradition will fade awa and 

be oversghadowed by the aademises of Sura and - umbedithavni-il 

epoch 



their end will herald the ascendency of the Spanish 

variouB 
in Jewish hisAry. There were aaKjtxsuccee^ ors to this last 



.*t 






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Prelude in the New World 



tiiiie 
by tlie 



"It was froni the Sngiish. . . tliat the Jews secured aljout the 
of tlie P^raizilian ex.pulsion ( which follov;ed heivd upon fhe loss ^^ 
Dutch of Brazil in i8§4 ), a charter of li"berties which is veritably 
tlie Hagna Ctorta for ev;s in America., In the -^^e^ton collection of tlie 
B,M, there is a document entitied: "Privileges Grabted to the "^eople of 
the He"brn¥ ITation That Are to Goe to the Wilde Cust.* It is obvioualy 
a direct outgrov/th of the resettlement of the Jev/s in England discussed 
in the ^»revious chapter, Xt reads in part: 



'That thei shall haye Lil^ertie 
Prohibition, and that thei shall h 
of their. , .ninagogars c.nd Schooles 
thei the Possesse in Amsterdam. 

*That on the day of their Sabb 
dayes thei shali not "be ohliged t 

♦That at all the generali nieet 
to Represent the "body of their ITat 

* Grannting to any Persoris of 
Hehrews shall enjoy them alsoe, 

^ Thc.t Y/hat constitutionsarid G 
Shell 1 mt-k e c rio ng thems e i ve s , the m 
their nc.tion, shääl he obliged to 



of Conscience.. ,v/ithout ajiy 
ave a place apointed for the Building 
...all according to use and ]7ashion 

ath and the Best of their fectivicall 

apeare in the court,... 

ings . . . 2 of the Hebrews be called 

ion..,, 

anny ITation ann:y' -^riviedges, the 

ustonies that the Ilt-ürewa nation 
that slic.ll goe to live there , of 
observe them.* 



This docuiv.ent lurther ^:rovidtc for free paseage for colonists 



and thCo-r baggage 
puts to Lawe for 
States... , ^' That 



It stioulates that no one shall "be Oijresed nor 



debts cause d in Brazil or in other Kingdomes and 

each colonist be furnished v/ith "nL.terialls for tr.ei^ 

Land and buiiding of a house for his fainilie and theiK all shall carr^e 

f 

o.-onists ;.ere in earnest auout colonization is 

swee.ping Charter of liberties. After the üestoration 
reconirnjLtted herseif to this liberal poiic:- and isrued 
or the Jews of Surina, which embodied all of the 
ges, so that 'the honour of first pr.ctisino Jewish 
ngs to British America,»" 

Anita libman Lebeson, Je^^vish Piniiiifeers 

in America 149:^ - 1848, pp. 41-42 
f rora 

'w o 1£ in J. K . S . o f 2ni . Trans ac ti ons 

III, o5ff. and 86 



s^7ord and nosicett 
That Jewish c 
evident fron this 
in 1660, "Fjigla'.nd 
another charter f 
fore going privile 
eipancipation belo 



Prelude 2) 



On the 
Anst 
set foot 



'^ "^.nd 



^^-liu of August, 1654, Jaco"b Barsimson eirrived in 
nev/ Ansterd^m. He came froni Holland, He v/as alone - the first to 
set foot in "ew i^etlierland. Begrond the fact that iiEED'. he paid his 
passafve money , no note v/as taicen of him. There was as yet no Jev/ish 
Problem. But Y/hen a fev/ v/eeics later, he Whis foliov/ed hy tv/enty-th^ ee 
co-reiigionists, it imniediately tae came a State question. The exact 
antecedents of this littel band of immigrants are not icnown. 

They had embarged ar Cape St. Anthony, but whether it was 
St, Anthony at Recife ( Pernambuco ) or B^^hia, Bra/..il, we do not know. 
Kecife had surrendered to the Portuguese in January, 1654. Sdi that it 
is niore than lilcely thac this little group v/as but one of the larger 
hand of dispossessed Jev/s v/ho fled from Pernambuco and from Portuguse 
dominion. 

They v/ere penilesr^, ., .luven their passe.ge monev v/as insufficient. 
Therr personal possesEions vAvre sold, but the proceecds realized from 
the Ec.ledid not covertheir indebtednesr. , Tw of their nuniber were 
imprisoned until the füll amount should be paid. 

Jev/s as such, \7ere unv/elcome at i^ew Amsterdam, but to have poor 
*^ev/s descend on the gughers v/as little Shirt of a calaniity. 

'eter Stuyvesant was aroused to action. Letters were sent to 
Holland ixi which the Jev/ish imi-riigrants v/ere vigorously berated. 

"The Jev;s who arrived, " he v;rites , " vvould nearly all like to 
remain here, but learning that they ( v;ith their customary ususry and 
deceitful trading v/ith the Christians ) were very re^^ugnant to the 
inferior magustrates. . . the -Deaconry also fearing thatov/ing to their ^x 
present indigence they iviight become a Charge in the Coming v/inter. 
for the benefit of this wealc and nev/ly developing pl:.ce and the land 
in general , deemed it ueseful to requite them in a friendly issjokäx 
v;ay to depart; praying also most seriously in this cronnection, for 
ourselves as also for the general community of your v.orships, that 
the deceitful race, - such ha .eful enemies and plasphemers of Lhe name 
of Christ,- be not allovzed further to infect and trouble this new col ^ 



^y 



SPUU 



Jacob Josua Eueatno Enriques to King Charles I I 

London (?), 24tli of July 1661 

Jacob Josua Bueno Enriques, a Hebrew, v;ho lived in Jamaica 
in the Punta de Cagoe, about two years, and at this time the Prench 
üucca..eers came from San Domingo, and went to hunt in the said isiand, 
and took some Spanish prisoners, amongst whom was one named Domingo 
Ffancisco Platero, inhabitant of the said island. Being set at liberty, 
he came severai times to my house at Punta de Cagoe, and on askmg him 
varäous thmgs about the isiand, he mformed me that there was in a 
certam place a copper mme, wh±ch the said Platero used to work durmg 
the time of the S^^aniards, and v/hen thea had experimented with itx and 
found it productive, the English c me along and took possession of the 
said isiand. Thi^^ saine man mformed me of the whereabouts of this mine, 
but I v/as not able to drav/ a design of thxsxMlwBx the said mime, because 
the enemy were going mto a Company at that time in the isiand, 
ITot beingable to discover it before Coming to Englanaand obtaining 
permisf;ion to see the manner of ma-ufact^-re, and wishing also to obtain 
permission, it came to the knov^'ledge of Kylord Eelemi thati was in 
possession of the said story, and he advised me to call on a certamn 
Heürew, namea Manuele de Ponsecea, who is an Interpreter, and is now 
living in ikE Londodn in the house of the Spanish ai:bassador, learLil^g 
the English languag^, Hearing my story and all the Information I could 
give him, he wished to act in concert with me and that one should find 
the said mine through the Information given and should go to Jamaica, 
and tnat your Majeety should make him Gneral of America, and not of 
Jamaica, besides the high chancel6or of Your Majesty; that -»- also siiould 
iaÄ^zaKiÄBBL have all the freedom and lands that I dL&xxxä:/. should desire, 
and that I should be provided with sufiicient negroes to form whateyer 
plafetion I may thmk fit, and that the said Beiemi should stand all the 
expenses, and give me free of coet a third what I shoula draw out. 
If the m nes should be opened, I would wotic in conformity to the above, 
At this time an Act of Parliament decreed that no foreigners could do 

any business in the conquests of England, yiH^o"\/,i^^;J,^^^?,^^^^etitions 
naturalieed. In addition to this. the merchants oi London made petition. 
^ the efiect that allthe Jews who were within the boundaries of your 
,^°.^^^,,?e v?nkom «houLd be ejected. Accordingly I detremmed to come 
"^ni se^lf i Äd not wiL the Information I posees, obtain from your 
f.«?Jtv Dermi^sion to go to the isiätnd of Jamaica at my own expense, 



h G-eriBral Dali ana ot-ucj- -^V "^^ where I lived honoraDiy 
l i658 to 1659. in the ^^^5^^^|i^„S "^^ and Smxüu^ for 
Sugli8h u.ed to call »^^J^^j^^^.'^'Sa^ed'^eter ?ino. who 
atito you can ^^^^".^"f ^Jlf^aid Domingo ü'rancisco 



te do-- 

that time, from 1658 

Tn Jainaica the Kugia 

^urther i*^ ° ^^^^j^^^fa" and Te^rn'thät the iaid 

^as a f>J^^|^^^',t,S,on'about *he mines. 

gave me the inioimc^^ jacob Jos 



e tc 
Jacob Josua Bueno Enriquuez 






I 



V« 



~7 

// 



> 



Enriques 2) 

Ever EiDce tne ca.jtüre of Jamaica in 1655 ( by England ), 
th^ trade relations between England and li;.r West Indian pos^essions had 
been oi increaeing proportionr, The resources of theisland were being 
discovered anci utiiized, and the Jews were early on thefsceme. At about 
the s£ime time that the case of the three ^^ws just mentionedwas before 
the Council for decision [ in 1661, ' enjaiiin de Caseres, He r:y de 
Caseres and Jacob Praso ^jetition the King to permit them to live and 
trade in Barbados and Surinam ), Jacob Leosua Eueno Enriques, a Jew, 
resident in Jamaica for two years, petiibmoned tlae King for peiinis&ion 
to worlca copper mme in that Island. ;^Tothing daunt^e, he fu rther 
requests that he and his orothers Josef and Moise Enriques "May use 



their o\^'n law and hold synagogues. 'Ve find no statement to indicate 
whether this permission v/aso^raiited or not, 'but,,.,a Jacques Ilenriques 
appears as a man of ..ronimence in 1695. 



• • • • 



, , the fxrst act afiecting the Jev/s ( of Jamaica ) directly by nane 
is that bearing date of 169o and levying a special tax upon they. , . 
Thi s 1 a\v , w; . i c hw as c o n f i riiie d by H i s ^l- J e s ty in Council, D ec en: b e r 26, xfi 
169o, was one of the clauses oi an act entitled "An Act for, and 
tow ids the Defence of this Island, ^ madc necesaj;a;y ^oy reason .)f hostili- 
tics of, and attempted capture oi the Island by the Trench. Iver f -ur 

thousanu pou. ds v/ere to .e ra_sed and oaid over V7it.i in three r.iontht 

after June 10, l696, Of this su:.. the JevvS were to pay , m ciädtion 
to the other taxes ..tlie xump sum of seven hundred and fifty pounds. 
^ne of the x«Jews nameä aiaong the Jewish ;r,erchaiitE was Jac jD henriques. 

Hateriai for the History of the ^'ews in 
the British West Indies 

by Herbert Kriedeawald, 
Pu,bl. 5, pp. 45-101 



X2^Xü 






Tv^-col Jacüi-. ruu:-D "^i:ri.;Uu£:, a "eLre«, v>ho lived iii Ji^^til^icu 



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iL-..c, c.iiu iuwc e,,r 






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ofucr cn^xor i.lLq to tl-c dccrc^r 



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m JtciL.j.c*. _ 

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G^-ve :jc t: c „i.ror t„o c.bout t::e rixiasE, etc. 

jixob JoEji;. -'üeno .:]i.r-Lquacz 



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tlie rrierchantG inionned againtc! >ier,;..nd rhe ;;a2 c:)nd(,:"ined for a foreijner, 
tiioujn the ve£:!:^el, nastemi scneri, anö ^:ooqf v/ere "^n^aish.t! 



Raloüci Coüty 2) 

Tue cu^c it Ol unujiüL. t iiiteresi; Luid im,yorto.i]ce , iioG aione 

Ol the f cic L t-.^-t ,'üSLice .^-.t :,ie tini^ v;o.^; s.) r-aciil,, .^ra tea t) c... Je\-, 
üut ueco. jse iiis apjeal ^a^: acteu ujoii witu suci; .jroinp tnes ;: arm ciic, 
reviSci ai the ciec £ion oi' the aciinirait.v court iE ;•■... de ii,, sucj. eiiijhatic 

tenii£....LO li^-.ve c. Ce:.Ge aecLae.; vv^taiL a.-]:!0£t c. ^ e;..r Tro-... tliu uc.te ji' 

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tVie orl^:lra.J- triai 



vi:'- n 



a ;erEon oi an lau^rti-aic ^ ^uite oui: oi' tlie Ji*din;--r,: 



,1 



t"; 



£ to-Lemeiab tia.:.;ie oai... ecjo a..a lo t ar ... free ljur,her, whie:.. ic veriiicu 
uy the teLo^norry oi' Governor jove.L...ce, edows t^.ai hi^ i :: jrob; ...I:; tne 
1 irs .. iriKtauce oi -u^ cLuuiijL loii ji a Jcw to iin. t ^uj/^xie r' e r^, tc 
la '^^e-^» ■'rora, anu ,jerha >& in tiic v/::ole oi the co Lonies . 'ai c^ heing true, 
it ou alt to ha notea i'urther that Cout^ naaes no reieren. e. la hu: 
Petition, 1.0 hir L,eiaL-; u ^e^v, ^aia th;. t th^ fae t coi'itt out i ac laentai i.iy 
la onc rej^i't oi l..u ^:;oüaüil o:. the ca-e, aa,. ui tliu ietter 1 1 Governor 



Ljuca Ae his lauiie h^.G not imn heretofore le^a äiccoverea aroiir; bno^e 
.:! -'e.. Yor:hE Jev;±^:., settlerc , it .e poEt:iüiu i:.,c.. _ ..e cde n ^ o^.>-ai 
.r)fe^;ai.oa o. hi.. re.x,^ion, ..a.. tia^t i-e re::a: Da u t.a..e co.a; e.. l^ lerat ;;ac 
adi;uttea to ., jr,__hcr ' t: laghus, i....a tradcu to ti.c hee i ^adian cotoiiies 
urnioi-e^. tea untx. th^ tj.::ie oi tx:e iriei.,eiit heru lacoruea. hurt, er, 
aPije:-..L£ to ta>^ hia;_, la 'iouncii were ao tmc timc a.Li.osc urianoan, .aid 



^i.-'i-' 



th -i. i e ~^ li c :> h t c i 
red ana rt^cordeu . 



rs t , 11 n ^ t tl^e ii - 



oi titc: aind co far d^^cove- 



Ha'b(.c. Cout:y to Lii^ -^iiig oi hrr,lana 



ITov^^Liher, Lo7 

To ti-e rling^: Tost hxcQlierit ■'"ajett^t 
Th liunble Peta.txOri oi Rah ua -ou.,. axarc-an o. 



ho Et hü::]l;l:y' shov^in^ 

r ,.^-i-H f , nr;rT- hc..th -Lived in tl.c '^r^vaG>_ ai.:a cittie 



tnat ho^ petitioner 
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TKP] RISE OF TI-DJ! PIRST SYMGOGIIIÜS IF IiaRTH A^'^]BICA 



The iiisü J"ew±£ii Con^^rt^u-Gion lu Tottii America, Shearth Isic^el 

The 'Rernui^tta. )of Israei., as their laondöps ±hB Itiaileci it, eEime mto 

in i'Iew York 
uem^ XR-ltov>>.Yü.ric wiien the i'irst jd^lgrlms.: .wbxjsxb-Iixe. -Q f Jev/ish 

;äilgxiJ2i£.. iJÜgrims of 1654 had v/on their fight agains u Stuyveso.nt. 

severi these p^oniers of Americeun Jevvry 

But üuaj^x for more than klx. decades ito^/ gatnered xu jrivate homes 

and finaily iii a rented house for ..orship, '"heri in 1728 the 
con^retagation comjjri£edt..enty fariiilies, ±ii]?iEajäsxal the cortr:;iunit3/ 

decided to build a synagogue. KöS»x^fti«3^^XÄKx:^iaigi?i:.i;:^öai-.S^>ain, 
:^j^aß^ then- h:eaci- o-f- tii-e conj{r^^a^tiänv---Xiii:iiIiS- Su^sua tial c )ritr_bution£ 

haW£5riiX 

to the fuiiuSi for the erection of the huildm;^ ./QecKö:t-suf-a:!ic;i.fentx 



to Cover tho' c jc oüv^'-^uis need e^id tj5:e:c:r an ancient tradii^iOi* to^ 

s^L-lcthe supor of aito-r^Lüer already settled com , nities ^^rom.-. ted 

the (feifeders of " ew York to v/e^e i.iau.e \.^. .e ;ber£ of theo om. lUnit. But 
the iiui necd loi ..ai increase of tx.eL-c fu, ds ana ii ancient tradution 
ullowing to Uli aiicieüt ]2^diS'^o.2i:^.-xi'iM;i-^^^KiiuiE^xBJijOOi^ 

j-OTiipted the heau of c ... i.iunity, 'lUis Gornezm "^0 ak£ ot.xer ^ i^ unitieu 
3iEXii.:.a£k e , xor support. .'he folavi^g le\. lex >i..c.\: hc considerea 

originall\ in Spanish 
sample of uje ap...el.,E \vhich ..^re aaaresed to cj greg--oiOi.£ 






yip. ,tJ.ie_01dDanu )th :Iemi£^:.hers : 

■'h- c Dni^reo-^^e-tio SiiEa.ri±h_."s of --ev/ York to t::c 
c HA' r ^ ^ -^ ; ^ - c i n o f Jsuiia i c a 

"^'^he Jevv'E' here being Ißat fev/, v/e have not be^n ablex to carry ut 

our mtention" 



llQYj York, 16 Sebath 5439 
( Jan u a ry 16, 17 2 \ * ) 

Illustrious Gei.tlenen: The ?c- rna£r im ( execibtiveE ) Acljunto:: 
( board i,ie. ibers ) ana other gentle^nen of "the LIahemad ( boara of th-_ 
■;:'ol\ Gongregation oi tn iElc.nd of Jamaica, which 'the Almighty rnayinßxs 
increase and pro^per for many y^ars, Arien. 

:.!o£t benevolent g.nt lernen: 

■.ve the Uiidersigned c^ogomted Parnassim and .',djunto£ of tht^ holy 
Congre^.c-tion for the ^resent year 5489 ( 172o ) glj^ce before vdu thiE 
oeti ..ion on tne laon of the holy congregation. 



S;yriagogue£ 2) 



Y/e earnestely request you all as your hahaim ( Rabbi ) to 
comriunicate it to the merriüers of your Kaha; so that they may cjütribute 
all they cari to the Duiiding of a hol:/ synagogue wnich we have decoiea 
with the help of 0)d to ereet. We have already purchased an a^jpropriate 
Site for the edifice and another for ( another ) cemetary, but for 
want of Euficient means , the Yehudim ( Jewe ) here being but few, 
we have not becn abie to cwrry out cur Intention, and until out hopes 
are reaiized, we must contmue for the pre;^ent to congre^^ate in a 
syna^^ogme rented from a goy ( ^entile ). 

May the Ai-iriighty grant our v/ish, amd may Ke move your hearts 
that you may to the best of your abiiity assiet us m the matter, and 
also help us the build a fence around thv- ce^iietEay, And we will ever 
pray that jou lauj ^jrosper and incre;.se in hoiy servoce, . menw 

irjm your servants and the asiiistants above-mentioned, 

Luis Cromez , Parnas , 
Daniel (romez 



The appeai laet vvit:i a fuli succes.Contnbutions carae from Jamal 
ixjasL whence the first «^ewiEh Settlers of "'evv Ams terdaiü had comc 
ca, Ixam Baibados ,2tKJä..-.Guracao anü other American colonies and also 

from 'i'jondon. 'hus the fxrst Synagogue on the soll of ITorth America, 

coiiSecreated on the Passover ^ay in 1730 
üifi Eituated djn üue Mi 11 Street in ^*ew York was in fact the work 

of the ^jeople of Isiael. 

the neeed for 
It toklcexactly thirty more years before another synagogue 

made feit istelf outside New York, in the rising Community at 

ITewport, Rhode Isi-and, The coniinunity did not exceed the nmber of 

fiftecn male persona and their families. •'llustrious names were, 

among them, as Jacob Rodrigues Rivers^ ^nd his son in ioai^BX law, 

^^evertheless they needed help, but this time the oldrr 
Aarar. Lopez. ^iüULsxiii^.B:3m7it)!U8^:^y%99j^ ^:S>V^^l^ 

sister com:.:unity was already in a State which justified tiut 
a letter like this: 



The heads of the Com am& fQS8onmp^^m^^o the heads of the Co mmunity 
" Rhearith Israel in -^w York 

"We have resolved to crave the asLiscance of the sev ral congregations 

of America" 



Pirst Synagogues 5) 



Newport, R. II. Adar 22nd, 5519 
( March 21, 1759 ) 



Gentlemen: 



The pious intentions of a congregation yet in its infancy.we desire 
may plead a sufficient excuee for this address. Sincerfefcy desirous 
to estalDlisn a regulär congregatio. in this town, v/e therefore have 
latel^^ purchased a suttalDle lot of land wheron we design to huild a 
sinagQgue. And for flurthering our said joraixHBüHHs intentions we have 
liicewise "by subscription raised a smail fund wherewith to "begin and eä 
carry o.: the v/orlc and vvhich in due time we hope to see fully completed. 
Ar present, finding our abilities not equal to our wishes fior finishing 
the wori: in so Short a time as we desire, we have resolved to crave 
the assistance of the jieveral congregatioas in America and as the 
S'eats of Passover is near at hand, a time when there will he the 
greatest appearance of our "brethren at New Yonc, we eiiibrace this 
opprotunity to acquaint you v;ith our proceedings and inten. tions relat- 
ive thereto, intreating you to comrnunicate the st^rae to the congregation 
a£ New York and to supplicate for us their charitableassistance towards 
carry mg on this work, either by a freewill offer..rig in the sinagogue, 
or subscriptioj , or in any way which may be agreable to you, 

When v;e reflect on how much it is our duty to insteuct children in 
the path of vertuous reiigion, and how unhappy the portions must be of 
those children and their parents, who are thro neces; ity educated in 
a place v/here they must remain almost total ly uninstructed in our most 
holy and divine law, our rites and ceremonies, and from v/hich place 
they mayperhaps never have it in their power to depart; when we fixther 
reflect on h jw much it is our duty to assist the distrestes ; L.nd when 
we consider the extensive usefullncss of a ch^^rit;^s üke this for which 
we now supplcate assistance; we can enterta^n no doubt of your zeal to 
promote this good work« 

That God Almighty will be pleased to direct your Councils, prosper 
your vertuous actions and intentions, give us peace, and very soon sen d 
the Redeemer to Zion, is and shall be the devout prayer of, gent,., 

Your obedient and very humbles servants, , 

Jacob Rodl-s Rivera, lacob Isaacks , I. Hartijt^ Aaron Lopez, etÄ. , etc 



To 



the gent., the parnassim of the K.K. Sheerit Israel, in i^ew ^orü 
( Marcus I, 119-20, Publ. XXVII ( 1920 ), 182-3 
"The Jews of l^ew York responded speedily and generously and teceived 
a charming letter of thanks addressed to myer Myers and Jacob Franks, 
the plaH were drawn by Peter Harrisonm a brillliant anateur architect, 
who designed also King's Chapel, Boston. The coirnerstones were laid that 
year of 1759, and the synagogue was fina.ly consecrated in 1765. Ezra 
Stiles... judged it to be one of the most perfect chibrch buildings in 
America; Reveremnd Mr. Andrew Burnaby, a visiting English clergyman, at 



B^PS'gogues 4) 

agreed tiiat it was an elegant structure but thought it totally spoiled 
by the shcool Building which the •J'ews had atüached to it. This house of 
worship, desigiied by Harrison as a labor of love, ist still standing 
today, the oldest syaagogue in the United States. ITow known^ as the Tauro 
Synagogogue, it has become, under the terms of an act of Congres, a 
national historic Site. 



Letter of ti:an::{? tn K.K.S.I rijucd Irj ten iieiber:: oi 
;t'ü\v)ort Gon • re :■. tion 



(xcnt Leneii. 



Ten ■■:ieiii'ber£' of thi. Hc.7_.)ort coii;re X'.bion to tl'ie ?c:.rnasr;im 

of thc K,K. Shcc... r ith Isr^üi 
ciu i>!e; w j'' .) r..c , 

:^^ejort, Sivc.ii Jria, ;;•, V^' ( Mo.;:^ ^-v: , 17:-0 ) 



raliEf :.v tiOi: ti fiijci b 



> ■' 'y' u T XiO o t e I' i' 1 1 i e 



L nur cier:.i 11 l'or ~"üi Idiri; ■ a ;u'b -.ic .^.'l'.cc ol '.'or^;/:!,.; 



itaf.:. ordc uf? :re::. t r^ 

t:) ■■od Aimi/lit2' :icic ii-)t onij i/iet witi- o. ;rob'.'. tioii bü t Iio, tr: Li.:e:;ic'c 
beuii r^ealou^lv" r;u_)_)orted by our "Urethren cn :'"ev; Yayrlc : c a j^G-rc bv 
tbe :yerireour: freLV.'ill oiferin:_;s iric.dc for that lur.^oee ii: :/our 
^b^^brb,^UG in the 7tli Day of Pecacb Last. 

It i^^ our incliriation ."- we are truly sci.sibic .. t is our dury ti 



return t^;c Oo2i'::re;.atioi] at aev. Yir.:C our nnst ra..icerc 



üblic tiuu.bc 



for thi?: instance of the aener-)us . -eae voleiice .ov/ards us auci aa ^riöreau 

yoü 'yeiitieneii to do thie :yood office on our boliali in ^:uc : rnan;.er 
^^ time as clial l seea. to you rno£t ayrealjLc, 

Yomr ae;.-roy aiEiiee for tbe oroE.jerity of our Cori'rrüjatn ax.a yiur 
Sincere aishes lor our Succef?£ conribute hrect.ly ti incite in us an 
ardent to coiiVtlete the aorlc a'hich v/e have uadertaaen 

^7e intreat vou to^r.er;iit tlie aoanies.v;>[iC. . you. ^aaye ripliectea for 
thiJ^: use to Uie tiare of .aesEre .acob Rocl- lUverl, ..oses Ler^ 
.?• Isac 'a.rt iai Gold eicher ia T'äidorE or Johaaaer»r, "''iiilovz \;iil be 

KDEt advatar^-eouE, 



'"- dr-'vou tla.- ,1oia v;i th .you ^ii'i 
■ enalole llis Pe0i)le to do "'^tEv/itn, 



"^ra^'er ""'hat ^ur G-jq /la Oracioui?!'' 



t l'i e G 3 r: , _ v e ■ j a t i o n 



;^.na uve \;i uh uniei neu thanas öo y 3urr:£:eLvef: 
t hev; Yos'irlc 

aeutleirien 

"^ u r r.i s t o b e d i en t fe u: ib 1 e s- e r v:. n t e 

Abnn Ks Riveira 
isaac ?oioca 

A-^ron Lopez 

T^oses TiCvy^ 
Jacob Isaacics 

^^oses Lopez 

I lie.rt 

j2.cob Rods River ra 

lsspacht.r Poioca 



Piepers ].:yer H^ers: 



j^x ..:.^^M^ Jacoü i'ranics 

cirnaspim of th.^' K,K.r.heL.rj.t-.. If:raei 
at ^'evv yora 

?ubl. 27 ( 1920 ). P. 177-173 



'Ea.Tly Synagogues ö) Pulil. XXVII, Itmes relating to N.Y.Congr. : 20-21 

f Lötter written in Hfebrew ) 

The Congregation Philadelphia to thetNew ^orlc Congregtion 

Philadelphia, September 8,1761 

With the help of God. Ori tliis Tuesday 9 Elul 5521, Philadelphia. 

May ÜQ who suspends the earth on nothingness inscrilDe and seai 
you in the "book of life. To the Honorabie t^e ieaders ana eiders of 
the holy congregation Shearith Israel ix. the city of ^^ew York, which 
the Lord may preserve, and to its honored Parnas Presifedente Samuel 
( Hart ) 

We the unuersigned hereby acknowledge that we have borrowed 
and received a Sc toll of the Law from the geritlemen above mentioned 
belonging to the synagogue of the said congregation in order to 
fulfil the BiToIicaLinjunction "The book of the Law shail not depart 
from thy mouth. " 

And we hereby declare that if the MJsuiHiKxgiaÄJix^xmiaiXJä above 
named geritlemen hffceafter need t2RB said scroll, we the undersifened 
promise to return it to their synagogue without any let, plea or 
excuse whatsoever. 

In witness whereof we have pereunto signed oür names 

Joseph Simon 
Mathias Bush 

II)rdecai son of the lc.te Rabbi Moses Michael 
i^an.ard ^^atz 
Moses Hey man 

Meyer son of late Josepg Meyer I have signed concerniriii 
scroll above mentioned. Reading. 

( Frora the above it would appear that there was at thai. early 
date a ''ewish comrnunity at i^ettding, Pa, , that was borrowing a scroll 
of the law from the iJ.Y. Congr. and procuring it through the influenae 
of the Ieaders of the Philadelphia ßoügreg. who guaranteöd its return. ) 



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Few^jort, R. II, Adcir ^i;:xid, 5519 
( ^Tarch 21, 1759 ) 



Gei.tiemeri: 



i?ie ^uouE inteLtioiio of a cori^i;regution j^et in ite Irifaucy ,vie deeirü 
iiia;y plet-cl a euflicierit cxcuee f:>r thie adareee. ririceribliy aer..rouc 
to erialUiE}: a rc-uli^-r cDiigre,,,utio.. in thic towii, v/e tUürcf;.)re have 
iatoiv purchfi.ced a nuitcible lot of land wLeron v/e dücign to Luxld a 
Eina^^ague. /nd for fiurtlieriiiü our Bald Jamt.YHEtlai%B interitioiiE- v/e havö 
li-cewise "b^' fcubscriptioii ruieed a small fund wherev/itl: to begin and bj^ 
cari;y o thc work and which in due tirrie \ve h)pe to eee full;^ compieted. 
Ar prei-eiit, finding our abilities not equal to our wiches- &ov fmishing 
tiie vvoiic in fs-y ehort a tiirie as we derire» \ve have retolvcu to crave 
thü aeiistunce of tiie jgeverai cont^re^utio. c in Amerxca and üb tlie 
Feate of .?a£[:over ie near at hunu, a timc v/lieii tliert uili be tlie 
greatett appearance of o^r breturcii at Nev^ Yoxjc, v/e e bri.ce tliis 
Oijprotunity to acquaint you vätii our procv^cdings ard intcr tionn relat- 
ive thereto, intreating y )u to con. :unic: te the sunie to tbt; con/i"regation 
a£ i-iev/ York tAnd to supplicatc for ui tiieir charitJ-bleasriElance tov/ardc 
carr^/in,. on tiiis v^ork, titiier "by a freaviil of ier .»^g in the einagogue, 
or ßubscriptioj , or in ixny wa^ v/hich Biay be agreable to 2/^^"^« 

'Vhen v/e rcflcct oii hov/ much it le our dutj^ to inL~Lcuct chi Idrcn in 
the path of vertuous reii^iiDri, and hov/ unlicx^py ihe portionc nuet be of 
th)se chiidren and tüeir j^.rents, v^-no aro thro necLLv ity educated ^n 
a place w^ere they mußt remain aimost totaily uninstructcd in our mos t 
lioXy and divme iav;, our leitet: and cercmonies, and fron whic i place 
they ]aa-perliaps never have it ra thoir p")v/er t) depart; vihen v/e ßrtlier 
refiect oi- h v/ inucn it iE -)ür auty to asr-icL the dirtrcuiüß ; nd v;heu 
we considor the eictencive usefuiin..ec of :. ch rit:y , üke th^c for v/hich 
v/e nov; euppicate ai:?,j.ctunc(s; we cui. entürla.,n no douüt of ^oux aeal to 
pronote thi£ good v.oric, 

That God Almißht^/ v/ill be plearjed to direcl your coui.cilc, jrosper 
your Vv^rtuouG actione and intentione , give uc peace, and ver^ r:om f?en d 
the Redeener to i^ion, iE anu cnail be the devout pra^er of, i^ent,,, 

Vour obedxent <^nd vci^y huni.leE servantc, 

Jacob Kodte Rivera, lacob iDaacicD, I. Hartm Aaron Loje^i, et»., etc 

To the gent. , th. pamasEini ofthc K.K« rheerit icrael, in ^exi ^or^ 
( TTarcuE- I, ID-HO, Publ. 7}'V1I ( 1929 ),lü2-5 

'•The ^Jewr of Hev/ Yorlc recponded Kje^dil, and ^eneroucly and teceived 
a chaminc letter of thanics adclrerred to n^ er "^-err and /acob Franke, 
the plan v;erc drav/n b:; Petv.r Tlarxisonn a brillliani: anuteur architect, 
v/ho deciG^^e^ Q-Lso ^'ing's Gha ei, B.icton. The coarrJcrEtoner v/ere iaid that 
year of 1759, and the E:/nuoofue wac fiiia iy coneecrated in 176ö. r^ara 
CtileE.,.juu^ed it to be one of the noet jürfect ch^rch buildings in 
Aiierica: revcrermd ^r, Andrew Burnaby, a viExtin^; "an^rlißh cier4i;yinan, x 



ßPPftgoguen 4) 



agrecd t. at it waj~ an elegant ^tructure ])ut t'.ought it totail:/ c.oileti 
by the g-.c;:)o1 cuildii:.^, which thc ^exjv had at .ac:icd to it. rius house of 
•worshi.). dcExg ed oy HarriiDon aß a. Ubor of love. ist rtili c La:.dii.| 
todai^, tliü D!dec;t £.yü..^o^^;ue m tue iTiriited S .ates. ^^ow icriowr::^:: aß the Tauro 
V>ymißOßOi];ue, it has become, ui.der the fcc-;.ie o. an .:,ot f '-ongres, a 
riatioiial hict )ric cite. 



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The Adventure3_iL£LJüifi Brothe rs l^ernard and Michael 

Gratz 

Langendorf, a xmaifa village in Silesia on the ^enaan-Polish 
border, was the "birthplace of ^ß/^ two brothers who w.re distined to 
play an outeta. ding role in the histo^y of early American Jewry and 
of Amera.cari commerce. "It wae for entrance as merchants into the 
World of business, and for success in business advBBture that 
Michael Gratz and his brother, Barnard, had been educated in 
Langendorf and London, before they appear in Philadelphia, where 
through life, they show also the pains which had been taken to 
educate them in thetraditions of their famiij^ÄX. The children of 
Solomon Gratzjgi^ surviving in 1754 ( they had lost both parents 
prior to 1754 ), when the documentary history of the family begins, 
were Hyman, Jonathan, Bamard and Micuael and the:.r_ydisters Judith 
and Leah. Their patrimony, as it had been husbanded by Hyman Gratz 
during the minority of his brothers and sisters,was sufficient to 
enableboth Bernhard nd Michael Gratz to use tgeir ehares of it in 
beginning as merchants, through adventures underta^cen for theaseives 
as soon as they became of age. Solomon Ja«tf7probably begun in London 




on a similar capital, but between 1750 and 1760, he wms aiready winniig 

the success which enabl d him to for his "Poor relations* in Silesia. " 

"B, and M. Gratz, Merchants in Philadelphia 1754-1798 Selected and 

Edited by Willian Vincent Byars, Jcfferson City, Mo. 1916,, p, 9 ) 

»•BQ-rnard Gratz came to Philadelphia from London, where it is probable 

Henry 's 
that he he wa soon aftejTwards succeeded in SoiomonAx counting house 

by Michael öratz, who would have been 17 years old in 1754, if born 

in 1757, as his tombstone rec ords. He prbably r inained between four 

and five years with Soüiomon Henry..,. Both the Gratz brothers in London 



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Biogr, 



p.P : B. G. came to Ph, from Londod. , where iit xb pio bbie 
that he was succeeded m Soloraori Henry.'s countiijg house \)y Michafci 
Gratz, who wouju have been T7years old in 1754, i£ uorn in 1357 
as hi£. tombstone records, A letter crf 



ijorn m 
■J^^ sTi oW^^ t na t M • G /'^ Ha d t h e n 
left L, Ke jjrobabl^'' rem lend between f our' and five years j/vj^th Toiiomon - 
Henry, in addi ion to tlie routine of cowriTing ' Pioue¥'"*'Wrrnes7' be ^1?mr- 
expected to iearn the principai trade routes of tiie woria.xi-ÄsxiiMSjiJBKfiaE 
how to manage and keep aurcount with an adventure ove any one of them, 
openend by unexpected opprtunity, and how to v/r..te an '»eng osing band", 
as well as tbe'^hand'» iaruady lec^rned and suppose to be g)od enough 
for ordmary occasioBs.. .Btli the Gratz brotherc .. .acquired a knowledge 
of busEiness geopgraphy so rauch beyond the average that those wh) attempt 
to f Ol low them in their uee of it may be driveu frequently to the maps 
of that period, '^'heir raathematics included ability didj make any c Icula- 
tion reo^uj.red by busmese. They were systematic boo^dc^pers. Ti.ey couid 
write cursiv llebrew wiihease anv.. , with eaqual ease co^reponding with 
each other in English, anything t^.e Rogmitt aiphabet expresses, Tlasirr 
manu Script in Roman shows progressive improvement, ana when cxtraordinary 
occasions r^quired the "engros£ijji^ htind", they coul write captions v/i th 
a quill pt;n which , when thej were doing their beet, miglit he mistaken 
for co..perplate . ?rom this, however, they relcipsea ai ler the Ei-rum into 
a handwrxtmg which t ou^^ , near y always legxble, never reaiizes the 
ideal of beau uy to which in bis early twneties, ''ichael Gratz contmued 
to as^^ire. Ile preeticea persistently , i^fter which he used t^e hlanlc 
pagesleft iii his c pybook for keeping the dr^^fts of hos letter-ct times, 
when hi^^ know-teage oi nv.. r ^anu ocean routes m busmcs had extenued 
fror, the Upper Oder to the ^is^iseipi. ^^^Saja^iatoxixJtiiÄXxXBxiJtxixxxn 
JüsgyY&i^iKyxgfxthgxQABx:;^xl3axgji^j&xx^xiLBgxa£x 

As part of the -i^ondon fmish on their -^angendorf educatioii, 
they had acquired, with the es. entials of business ttaining, the_iQ.ndon 
idea of fitnessin dresp and adaress, and at twenty-^ne, Michael G. was 
suspected by his cousin, Solomon Henry, of taste in dresr: which it v;ould 
be time enough to indulge after he had become"anabob. •* 

Under this -^ondon f.nist, was an enduring reality in the life of 
both brothers, - the education which belonged to thCxr family and its 
tradxtion. . . .Print suppiies no definition adequate to suggest to the 
Twentieth Century the strei.gth of such influneces in the life of a 
family group in Eigheenth Century Langendorf. 

The letters, when written in cursive ^ebrev/, are clasical in 
that they perpetuate forms of immemoxial date. Ti.e spirit is thut in 
which the family becomes an Äemainc the unit of value in all reää^tioiB 
of its membert with the oucer world. Suceess is to be sought by each 
member of the flainily for the sake of the fb.mily as well as for his ov;n, 
THe misfortune. the poverty , the failure, and ven che dem.onstrated 
in.orapetence of one is the concern of alt, "'Poor relations'* are not to 
cast ofi and no longer recognized, but they are tobe dragged into 
success, whian xixixxÄSi. incompetent, if that be pos?ible; and when 
it is not, the r misfortune are to be alleviated as the exp^nse of the 
m re competei.t and the more prosperous. 

• .Salomon ^^enry ana Hyman Gratz, as recognizea heads of their 
closely allied families, are addressed by titles of respect, which, 
if they are as formal as those demnaded by the eti uette of thr Prussian 



Biogr. 2) 



court, c.re far more ancient. Thea are "mcogarites '* or "Chiefs "( the 
Word oi'tfenest used as a title is u£ed frr-^'roverüE VI , 7"^'^"' oy "the 
courtesy of a tradition under whicii younger members of the faniily, 
JBst loeginiiing in iife, are addreesi3ea by E.i.iiar tities and are 
exj^jected tojustify therj by succesE. If they were beginning as *'merchant 
ve^urers' in x^Oüdon or Phiiadeipma, they v^ere expe. ^ed to maice qd| 
money , and to give acuount of the.r succes in ter s - money when 
writin,. to other memhers of the famii^ . If, however, they were undeio- 
takmg to i.ecme '|learned -nen", they ..ere not expected to make money, 
A ..earcnd man without money was considered a fxc match for the äigKliyx 
dau hter oi" a weaithy mervhariL, The d^gnity of learniHe' v.as piaced 
even abovt the dignity oi rnone^ ; but in riieeia, London anu 'Phii£ideipha.a, 
betwuen 1750 and 1760, the ambition to^treTTürrB~-a^meTclTaTrr"Tn7^ — 
sDmethli-c mofe tnan the wish to make money. Th-word "merchaat"** , written 
ECrterer-name , wae a title, implying pri¥ii.a^es and exemptions. , . 
As a merchai.t dif f ered^Trorn a shopkeeper, he was exjected to show 
the difierence by "adventures" wh^ch if they began m a rented counting 
house on smali captotai, were to develop him - not into a "capitalis t" 
but mto a shipowner, . . . 



10 ''hd Gratz brothers, wht-n beginriing in Ph, , couid hardly have had 
a more conciderate emplyer than David Franks who tieated then as freinfd. 
11. in 1758, B, G. „ af ter four years with David Franks, was ready to k 
beg^n iiusiüess as a ''merchant of Ph. " in his own es tablishiuent. . . 
If,.,in 1759 Michael appeared in Ph in a coat of the latest i^ondon cut 
v/ith jewelied "bL.ckles on hiskneei'* he sc^ms to have me all ecpecta- 
tioiis ii. th wa^ of doing work th§it required no pride. His emplyer 
beB"amc his life-long friend, and he seems to have hegun rjiekmg friends 
of 'al sortp''..,in ciudirig sea captainn-. 1-. tön years, the two brothers 
h^-d an extraordinary variety o^ friends, inciud ng every kind then 
knovai in America. This, with a smeill capital and restless energy, 
acco nts f jr their euccctiSEes. Ti.ey were so:;ewhat dictatorial in 
advising each other at times. but they loved each othe. aü it is 
probable that two better-natured or more af fable boys never landeu on 
the Ph, wharf dt-ring the "Colonial ■^eriod". ( In several hundred of 
their manuscripts, covering nearly forty years, B.G. does ncrt^ once 
appear as losing his temper, v/hile the intJBxference of doing^ii^-^against 
Michael G, stfiüxxkeonly th ee times of this documentary evide'nce. The 
high pres'.ure of two great war periods seems to have told more on M.G. 
after he passed middle age , but both brothers, as thejir letlers show, 
were continually asked for such small servxces as are'*imposed'* only 
on those who are knov/n to be tr:OC)d-nawUre d and accomod-.ting, . . . The 
acquaintances v/ho .mposed on thmsi grew forn of them. 



By...rs, Gratz 
Barnard Gratz 



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?arnard Gratz to Solomon Henr^f, London/' 



^ 



Dear Cousin Solomon: - 



Philadelphia, Fovem"ber 2o,17ö3 



I have not had the pleasure of a line fr 



I on-;y had the satisfaction to hear fr 
of :your being in good health, which I 



orn yo'ü this great whiie 



heard my brother laichael is coniing b 



otii your L'Orother, Jacob Henr 
wish may coi.tinue. I likewise 



j » 



^ck frorn the East Indies. which 



1 3Kxsi^ am very sorry for. i shouid be glad to Know his reaeon for 
returiffning. l don't icnov/ what advice to give hir that would be for the 



best of hiE interest 



I do not icnow his dispositio 



n, 



f he couid 



content himself with living in the ( that ? ) country, or eise with 
livmg here ^.t Ilr. David jj^rankL' ' m my place, ( he might do v/ell ) 



as 1 intend to i.eave 



hira ( 



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ext Spring, as I've wrote for a 



'to » 



cl 



cargo to -j-oses Franks by direction of ^'r, David Pianks 



'ith tiieir 



asEitsance, I believe I could soon get him my place where he couid soon 
^tt him my place vvhere he coulu learn the business of this country by 
staying with him two or three years,-anü he might do a littie business 
for hiiuse .f as gai;: EORie money of his ov;n. Th±s place requires honesty, 



indusJbry and good na.ure 

pertainin;^ to*^'^15urinesr . ; 

A 



and no pride, for he must do ever^, thing 
if vou and he' th.nlc he is capabie of the 



last - 1 hi.ve nor doufct of his honesty - i^im he has a minci not to "be 



Stubborn but to take advice after 



. J. C ex 



come bv the fi 



rst vessel in the 



r.ival, I would auvic 



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Lirn to 



is m Tay 
iiiyself. 



power as a brother 
'ut if he thinkt in: 



'hat IS i.ot 



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deal 



hi:a as far as 
I am poor 



;if V7ise enough and refuse t "> ti.ke - uvice 



of Cousin j'ö.cob anü myse 



If. tuen let him do Wiiat he pleases. I would 



not 



.civ 



ise him to come here, as it yvould give me much pain anuuneasiH^^s 



I can:.ot remit you your monej' beiore n x u Spring, ioux .v 
alv/uys be uczi^o wleüged u^^ , Dear Sir, 



manesc 



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Jacob Henry, of Langenddirf , 

Cousin of Barniu.rd »ratz, had come to America also, intending to 
malce a fortune . He appears at Lancajfeter m 1754, wi.nessing a moratoriun 
which lengthened credit for Lnacaster für traders banlcru^^ted by the 
beginning of war on the Ohio, The same conditions probaijly account for 
the return of Jacob. Henry to ^irope, unsucessfui .u his first experiment 
uut reappearing in -^hiidelphia ith another cargo eeveral years iater, 

-' Jac /b Henry to Ba..riard (jratz 

"•?ray, tJl^eLl me whether tfte Shiloh os to be Itambro , Pragg or Polarid 

fashion** 



ITew York, January 7, 1761 



Dear Barnard »-»ratz: 

ihe bearer will teil you the irnpossibiijty there is at 
prusent for me to undertake tl.e journey to Philadelphia. I Alavpefore 
expect to have the mortif ication of staying here much longer than iny ^ 

inclination or relish is for the same. "nut what is to üe done, Barnard, 
when one is unfortuante but content m^.self under my unhappy circum- 
stances as well as I can? If^nd the weather here muci: colder than what 
I rfifiember at Phildelohia. As for news, I have none, as I den t go 
out nowhere. And pray pennit me to give you a Short narrative how 1 
soend my days here, which is at foliows : I lodge opposite Mr. Samuel 
Hkrt's and when ^ get my breakfast. afterv/ards I go to ^^r. Hart whcre 
I stay until bedtime. So judge forme what P^^f ^.^^^* .^^^^^ ,^^^^- f..^ 
And if 1 xBBt^T« do venture out and expose myslef, ^ generally sufier 

Pretty well ^^^J^^- ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ,s greal and m.ghty news wit- you 

at Phildeljhia, - that the builciing of a Shiloh is actually resolved 

months ago that tue same would Be tal^ced of this 27 yeais to c^-ie 
thoHKh i convinces me Sternity is nigli at hand. For myseLf. I have 

.-F v.nr tinie oermits. - which 1 make no douot ol this time oi Lne y«^^» 

-'t'e rme'n w'w^xr.t the heud of thi. «-^ V^'o^^ola^d fa'hiL' 
T ,.,v,»+v,PT tvip ^hiloh is to be Hambro , ^rag^ or ^'oiana lasniou. 

^^^"' '.«"^r T tS^c it wili be -best afiteri the old mode of Panns^yania 
For my part, I tnimc it wixi. "^ "'^^ p-.nense= are not great, for the 

Tne sam seemmgly suits everybody. The expense. are noL g . 

Reverend Mordecax Yarnall serves without iee or rew^rd ^nd ^ou 
know that if you get_a nevv if Öiozi. Mordecai he wiii expe g 
things for nothing, ^ut to shorten the long ^pxstte ol ^^^, ^ 

JaRob -enry. 
BS. If my letters per the packet are gone to Philadelphia, please 
to iceep the same until my getting home. Eacuse bad writing. The ink 
froze and it is very cold. Wood, this day , 15 Shillings per cord ana 
scarce. I cannot help taking notice to y ju tat ^ wonder Mr. David Franks 
has bot favored me these five weeks with a line, although 1 did myself 
the pleasure to write him often. I hope it's not lor want of health; 
and please to remember niy love to him and ssk whether the ordcr for 
91 poubds ou Kewes is jjaid or not. 



-r / 



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Byars, Gratz { ] icho^e-t. G. 
99fi 



ichaei Gratz v^ag married .n Lancaster, Tunc^ <iO, i7ü9, to Miriam 



Simon, daighter ol' Jospeh and Rosc 



•a ; XI et' 



uriii 



imon. 



Michael Gratz to William Murray 



Philadelphua, Ji|ly 8, 1768 



Mr. Wi 1 1 i am Mu rr ay , 



Dear Sir:- This goes by Mrs. ¥urray whom I Wxs{^ safe to your 
arms ^and wish ;you both a pieasant and succrssful journey to your 
desired port, I have now the pleasure to acg nowiedge the receipt of 
your only fivor of the 8th of June last, which covered your surveys. 
Ine I huve lodged in the office. You may depend on my doing evecyt^i^ng 
in my powerfor your mterest und disposing of the land as soon as 
posiL^ibie 

The above oilix is for necessaries for Mrs. 'urray, for which 
we have chragea you, V/e have txred to get some shois and stockings 
to sebd up , but could not get a^ny Scotch shoes or stocking m town, 
Tners-forc we must defer se^din inntil Ute next Opportunity, by vxhaich 
time 1 hope there wiii be some Scotch vessets in and to hear of your 
bien^ safe arrived at the -"-llinois with yojr famiiy. 



If you have äoi a mmd that v/e shall "be concci^na v/ith jOuz xU 
thü goods you purchased in joux narne, mounting to L320, please to let 
US knov. before you ieav^ ?ort ■t'itt, if you think best to kecp theni on 
your ovm acuount, jour may, ^nd ei. v/e shall onlj be concerned in the 
goods we sent, as b fore. 

. , ."'ou may de^jend on my doin,_ my best endeavoars to get masters 
for the l^ttie ones, as soon as I possibly Cclh, but you must let me 
know the name of the man they are with,.., 

One thmg I must beg pf you, my Dear Priend: don * t be so lazy 
in writing - as it will co t you nothmg - by evry opportunity; c.nd 
you will much oblige 

Yours etc. 

liichael Gratz 

99. 87-8 Letter Book of F,Ga. Tist. Sqq. of Pei.nsiltjania, ITo 1. 

14: the permanent partnership of"B,an M, Gratz" has made i...s 
first coniiection with Illinois through partnership with '^/illiam Murray 
at Port Cfiartes and Kaskaskia ( 1768 J_ 

342- 345: 1768. '•Western i^en" in America organize the movement 'est 
for "ini-and colomes" in spite of the British c-binet policy. Jube 8, 
'viliiam Murray at Carlisle wriets to B.G. in ?h, as he is startmg 
West, via Pjru -^itt, leaving his Pennsilvania ybusiness in the hanas of 
the Gratz Brothersx of Ph. Military r<-organization oifi the Missisj^ipi. . 
June Ist to July Ibth, Colonel John Wilkins marches from Ph, through 
Lancaster to Pqrt ■t'itt and starte down the Ohio to Fort Chartres tp 
takec mmand of^Hllinois, V/illiam Murray accompanies Colonel Wilkins, 
v/ith the first "cargo * sent to Illinois by B, and M, G], 



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AlDigaii Pranics 2) 

in 1703 
America, jtkiBx aud died äoon af terwards ,while the other, Grace Mears, 

survived him ^|ie he died in New Yonc in 17^. Nathan, Moses Levy»s 

oldest son, while caaatiUKXHligxiiixx maintaining his memTDershi^. of 

the father's New York Kongregation Thearith Israel, becaae the founditg 

father of the ewish coirmiunity of Philadelphia. That he there in the 

also 
Musisp Club played a very good Violine, was only in accord with the 

amitixajUjä:. cuiturai atmoshere that prevailed in the House of Khäk 

oj£bxa£k. 
the Levys, Iio-BlixiaÄe-. XaÄ^S2a:pcjDUM3BX]9ÄKMw5BxxiiB3r^ 

XxgxajoBssiaxÄfcXBXJRXxIBBxyx In the second generation the name Moses -^evy 

xXsxKx:piax^xaaaÄsJB»xx was, in a very f lattering way , linked with the 

historj^ of American Qaw. One of Levy's grandsons , who "bore the name 

of hisgrandfather, became BÄJRxaüxxxxxifenaixikÄJJKx one of the eariiest 
ätBKiÄto. Jewish judges ( ^jerhapseven the first JewiSi: judge ) of the 
;ilxim^. - thje>^xxB:t:'v:^£wxxkj-4^^^ 

United Skates. liiitxjLßiiiixÄxxKRiBxxaxsHtsiaHdxng last office was that 

of the -frsident ^J^Äi^er of ^ the District Court foLXxüisxSüjDgBand CTr^Rty of 

^^JhiJ^^fcdjiJ^iai -His abilities were so outstanding that Jefferson considered 

him for the past of Attorney General of the U.S. 

most 
And yet the colorful Personality, of Moses Levy*s fa,ily was his botä 
Bilhah S'R^ mad e t ^ittn- n a itt a — A>^1sr11 QajYi9 ^^j^^-^*^"^ <''^.. 

daughter Abigail. She was b orn in Londori-and arrived with her papemts 

to New Yorlc. It was a fine testinmony of ner father's affection for ÄiÄ 

/ pure et simple has become a 

Thiough her, the name : bigaii a household word in American '^ ewish history 
'^^^ aKEbJtxÄAfeigail" 

thos his first daughter that one of his ships Wc»,s named after her, 
r-N <1 — — > s u .j p s e d ly 

BifPMbi^ her marriage with Jacob Franks wimha.ÄxiB£:^wv"the wealthiest Jewx 
/a M3t.HXS^ cultivated man of distinction "^^ 

in midale eigateerith Century America," she 3LääBä reached the highest 



social rank 3f t^. 



i 



^■^^ 



Jewxsh colonf'Üa ^r^etocracy. "he manner in 



whiCii she lived up to tuis calling 



{ 



!>£._ ref l-e& ted -ia- her- 1 e t b e r s 



\ 




Abigail 6) 

forms a most attractive chapter in the hdistory of ttox early American 

J'ewry , An excellent ^ 

Ä^lcetch of Abigail's charac er has been drawn by 
Sasaia ?rof , Marcus xax : »»Her tongue was Engiish . . .pov/erful. 

...no need. ...Her chiidren were... 
..••She was no "buEiness woman, . . , ,and die a Jewess," ljBXBQayxaäjä:j:x 

was a deep the 

Ähigaxlx It ±Ä indeed the feeling of resppusibiljLty for s herita^e she 



c-y^v^ ^^'f"- ■<. 



*',> •••'-' 



had caa:ried over the ocean that ani^iated hör, WHen her father arrived 

in Uev/ Yorlc, he l'ound there the Congregation "Shearith Israel" founded 

earlier. 
by the frist «^ewish settlers s^&sMtx^&stJ^XB. afeaBLfc fifty years. He joined 

lateron 
this Community, and tnt^xXxi. his chiidren TTathan and Abigail became 

xtJP^ ±iiÄ warmhearted supporters of the congregation. ISflnile Nathan^ 

atüJiBmgiLxx even after his removal to Philadelphia maintaineajhe 

comiiunity 
membership of his father* s synagBpgHe, his sister engaged in the 

hxstoric task of organising the first Jewish sisterhood and providing 

the Holy Ark, the Menorah and the Scrolls for the synagogue. XiiBX 

to this day Abigail* s 

'^ßWS>jy:j9fyi>l^jMW9y:^^^ xÄLfel^gx ±lie pious deed afxA in recaL Led xxm 

Shearith Israel during the Memorial Services on Yom Kippur. 

Y/e ijosses x however an irnrnediate record of .-bigail's humanes s and 

religious feelingsin her lettersi to texxsjan "Taphtali Franks xiiQ her 

has In them A. ,even 

oldest son,who was sent to London and settled there. XiiÄXExsxa±m3S.t 
without r.iaking 
WS. referfiQce issjäs to Swriptures or Judaid Kiore, irniSÄX fact, although 

th^provide perfect examples" of ei^tcenth Century letter writing, 

capture the :tx»Bxx:^ixJt atmosphere 
succeeds to siL^LfcwijRx exprexss of ^'ewih motherhood. The adraorftions 

which she wiith discretion Ijob used to insert m the letters xsmxd 

üiä:>. seem in spite of their elaborate style conceived in the s ^irit of 

a tradition Lreathing in the m^moirs of Glückel of Hameln. BBt:o. But 

xiKxihses ^4^^ /x^/v.,.*-^ 

there is , h::r3ex apart froin such röminiscences , a tgwriwr struggle for 

the maintanace of faüiily bonus fought in this letters vvith so iEKd 



AlDigail 4) 

V by this tolcen alone 
disarming tenderness that we jf^i rna^/ easily recognize xxi the^ the 

^XB f inest exampLe^ of messages from the expanding Diaspora. 

t3:x::vu.ß.aiiaf oxi:,^-ajäxiöJs:p.nÄWB>.aiid a re 

i:ipcxfc:KSjB£±JbJCL&n^d:£x 

1, itxiBtJtÄx:)^alxßja2Lfsx±xajiJ2l Comfort, aävice, msjgxand a testimong 

of taking pleasure in letter 
writing to a son 
a 
UöiEnx^^aphtali found in London Jkii& streng support by the brothers 

of his father, Isaac, Ac.ron and Abraiiam Pranks, all of whom played 

a prominent part m English Jewry . afxikBia,One of them, Isaacm 

Uaphtaly» s prospective father-in-Law,had dieä m 1336, 2Hb ITaphüaLy 

the 
himself fmally becarae a powerful figure in London Com unity. The 

Variation 
name Heartsey used for him by Abigail is a xariaatiaLK of Hart &( stag ) 

whiCh according to Gen, 49,11 is the rneaning of liaphtali, 

w I should thinlc it a b.escing if it was m my power by any thinfe eise 
but wishes to let you know the place you deserve dly have in the heart of 

a tender parent 

Abigail Eranks to ITaphta.Ly JB'ranße in London 

New York, June 5, 1937 



2. 



Phila*s intermarriage and Abigail *6 despair 



The young Jewish comicunity of ITew York witnessed in the 

love 
forties of the 18th Century a family affair whieh EeemstoxaaaiiiinjB>. 

kiKKXKxjaiax to be curious mixture of , 

the stjiies of Romeo and *^uliet and ? ylock s Jessiea. Phila and 

Oliver 3tx±iiBxÄÄMgto±BX>:BÜx±ii£x were the principal characters of the 



family drama - she the daughter of Jacob atiutxxaaigaHxi "^ranks, 
wealth^este and ir.ost esteemed Jew of the City, he a member of the 
perhaps equally wealthy and most powerful family of DeLanceys, a 
younger brother of the Chief Justice, 



Abigaii ö) 



younger "brother of James deLancey the Chief *^ustice of i^ev/ ^ork. 

One day, in 1842 -^:^ila eiiped with Oiiverand married him without 

GumxBiiixamäxBjrEÄxlcnov/led ge of her parents. Jacob and Abigail Franks, 
Jew. Corarn Parnass of 

the Ornaments of öiB '»Shearith Israel", found little comfort in the 

haptized not long ago 
fact that m neighboring Massachusets , bo "ba^ßtiaaaä *^ew, Judah Monis, 
and married to a Christian, 

taughtKebrew at Harvard, that the 3Qajcxi:BXÄx3oÄi3iauEia:>^.ii£lKfiEiixJEfisi£ and 

the tendencj tov^ard intermarriage was tangibie everywhere ( soon 

and Abigali 'sxJDxatkBrhalfbrother Sampson 
jqaigaxiKjvx tneir soix David waseto bKx:2i&xxx£^:ts a (S^Lrxx^X2in:^and 

ÄxxSdiüastiajixgixixx^.y.tomerry out of their fa^th ); Üiä Phila's 

deed was iflax&>.ihaiqpdDjDdtiiBxx more than faithiessness , its was an 

af front and ojen revolt. aHxJQiaiw In particular, the blow Abigail 

has recei ¥ed f . rom her daughter set:med deadlya 

Abigail granlcs to Haphtaly F rames in Lon drQflSS 

♦•My house has been a prison ever since** 

Fiat bush, June 7, 1741 



The epilogue was no less dramatic aLHiäx than the jdx&max 
exciting main events of the affair. Hardly a yeasr has pc^ssed when 
Abijjailxi-xxÄd tj^xx nature jrroved stron^^er than her will. XiiB-. 
SbijEx 7/hile she tried to asrhieve reconciliation, iuszLxiiHxxJaaiiritjout 
kno .ledge of her häis ..band, *^acob Franks was acting in the same 
direction in secret, These moves too were symptoraatic for the 
things to come in m^ mer±can ^'ewry* a growi. g to leration of interma:g 
roage. 






/ 



Early American Jewry 
The Jew£ of New Yoric 
New h:ngland -nd Canada 
1649-1794 

Jacob Rader Marcus 
Volume One 

Philadelphia 1951-5712 



pp. 58ffi 

Jacob Franks had married a daughter of Moses Levy, 
Biihah Abigail, usually known sim^ly as Abigail. She was the 
daughter of Levy's first wife, Levy had married a second time, 
as mentioned above. The second wife, ^race Mears Levy, was widowed 
in 1728; subseciDjen tly she married David Hays. 

Abigail had little regardfor her stepmother; probably 
some difficHlties in settling the estate of Moses Levy originated 
or increased the dislike, 

Jacob and Abigail* s oldest child was Uaphtali, whxch 
Jewish tradition, bassed on Gen. 49:21, takes to m an "stag" or 
"Hart", and hart in German is Hirsch , Liice other German- Jewish 
familiee, the Frankses called their son Kirsch or Hart; Abigail 
called him "Heansey." 

Some time before 1757 >^aphtali "Heartsey" Franks was sent 
to London, where he was throughly prepared for the business world 
by the numerous brothers of his father, Young Frabks left home 
probabatly in his teens; as fax as we know, he never returned to 
the colonies. Ultimately he became a rieh and pov/erful figure 
in the London Jewish coraniunity, Abigail kept m constant touch 
with her firstborn through letters. This is what she wrote hin 
in the summer of 1757: 

Dear Heartsey: 

I have three of your letters answered. The first of 
them brought us the melancholjy acc(un^H of the death of that 
worthy and good man Hr. Is(aac). Franks ( your father »s brother, 
d. 1736 ) which truly was a very great shock, especiäiliy to your 
father who for a long v;hile had bin very uneasy on acc't of his 
( brother 's ) Indisposition, and, as he very justly fear'd, you had 
not given him a true Information how ill he was. Sam. ilyers brought 
a letter wic: Uncle Asher's (Levy) had inclosed to him axiZÄKxx 
TTgfnrxiaKttflrig and befor he opened it tould him the »orrowful 
conte ts. y(ou)r'Ä fathere seemed imoveable for some time. At las 
he broake out in a flood of tears. He was very melancholy foi a 
long time, but now begins to be more setled. 

For my part when I find a person has soe great a k 
cause for greife I can say but litle by way of reieife, knowing 



Marcus I 



Abigail Franks 2) 

nature has its call upon these occQsions and nothing tut txme and 
reason to aswage the dolor, You teil me I may geus the concern you 
lalDouröd under at the loss of soe tender a paient ( your futire father 
in-law ) and friend, I truly sympathized with you, tut under that 
great misfortune you had the satxsfaction of imjiaioying y)ou)»r indefa- 
tigalDle Ädeavors in discharging your last dutys in such a manner as 
procoured you the comriiendations of all his friends. And I hope you 
still malce it your endeavour in a strickt preseveranceof regard and 
duty to his remains, for that is all wee have left to show cur 
gratitude to the meraory of soe icind a benegSLctor, He was "but a very 
young man, "but in the grave there is noe inquissision whether a ma 
be ten, twenty, or a hundred years ould." All the difference after 
fltlxslixzgxx death is a man 's works here on earth, for that never dyes, 
and one that has left soe great and good narae may be said td have 
lived füll of days and dyed in a good ould age. 

I hope soe great an example of worth may be an emulation to all 
thäse that have the happyness to be his relatifaons, to foliow his 
Steps in dischargin^ theire duty to God an man in the severall 
stages of life it shall please the All mighty to set them in. 

I hope this may find you in Company of all freinds im a happy 
State of heailth , and that Happyness abd 1 ng life may aiiways attend 
them, ¥y best regards to Mrx, Aaron Franks ( your uncle ) and Mrs. X 
Eranks; her don and daughter I saliute with my love, 

Uncle Ssiixjc Isaac has been here some time to make his 

affairs with Mrs, ( David ) Hays ( my ste^)mother ), the particuler;: 
of which I refer you to ( your brother ) Moses 's letter. Only this 
I musr say: she is a base,. vile woman, and her actione has allways 
bin od a peice, tho' I think in this last af faire she has outdon her 
ussall outddeings of malice and craft, (Df you see Uncle Asher (Levy ) , 
pray give my love to him and teil him if, he thinks, he has been 
ill-used and wishes revönge on his brothers, he has sufficient one 
in the plague m^' father ( Moses Levy ) has entailed upon us here in 
Nev/ York by that woman. 



I am sensibly concerned at wath happened in your Uncle Ab 
(Frankes) family with regard to his daughter. But itXÄaüLx it's 
I allways expected, for they will not consent ( by providing li 
dowries ) to let them have r.usbands because the ^ews with best 
nes will not have them, so th-y can't blame • en id they chise f 
themselves. I a; really concerned for your uncle and wish him b 
luck with his other daughters. Pray give my hurnbie Service to h 

f ami ly 

, The sliks you sent are very dear, but gove rayservi 

to Sim. **evy and teil him the tea was ver^ good. 

You« 11 observe I Sit down to write in a hurry by the anco 
ness of my letuer, for I put itaKH things down just as they occu 
my memory. I have very often deigned to answer a letter as soon 
received in order to have s me method, but as I hate writein'g 
pervade myself to take soe much time, However, I would have you 
b'lfeÄve you have all the shc^rei» in my thoughts that a constant 
of thinking can infuse in a mind that is alw^ys anxious for you 



rahem 
wath 
beral 
dourtu- 
or 

etter 
im and 

ce 

rrect- 
r to 

as 
I cajb«t 

series 



Marcus I 
A"bigaii Franks 3) 

l^yppyness and should thimc it a tlessing if it was in my power by 
any think eise Taut wishes to iet you know the place you deservedly 
have in the heart of a tender parent. 

Our little congregation affords variety of news and tatle, 
"but as I ntiver am concerned I don't ca e to trouble my seif nor you 
with yaafl it but refer you to moses's ( your brothet's ietter ) 
who will acquaint, you with some, 

You complain of Cap. Clark and he makes the sarae of you that 
you never came near him. I shaii be very glad of some of your long 
epistles, and alisoe that you would send us some little amusenents 
which you which you have bin very remis£^ of off lata, I sent for 
The Honest Yorkshirman ( a farce by Henry Carey ) and some other 
things wich you have not sent, Pray send me the 2d voll, of the 
Revolution of Poland ( by Abbe Desfontaines ); the first you sent 
some time agoe; ailsoe 2 bottles of the best Scoth snuff for my o n use, 
and 2 pr, specticles of the very best. 

I have endeavoured by a sort of medly to make a longletter, 
for wichl*il make noe excuse, but would have you ta^ce it as a testmony 
of the pleasure I talce ii. saying soemthing to you, and lett this assure 
you that I am, dear child, 

Your most af aevtioria.te mather, 
Abigaii Pranks 

Pray give ny love to Mrs. Salomon ( your aunt ) and Coz'n 
D-vid ( Salomon ) and teil them if I should miss . riting to them by 
this(boat), I shall cer44inly give my seif the pleasure of doing it 
Ipy Bryant ( the next boat ). 
Kew Yorkiji June the 5th, 1737 ( In coliecti)i. of Lee M. Friedman, Bostoa 

Abigaii Franlcs is the first American Jev/es£ we really know 
well, for enough of her Ietter to Ilea. tsey in London have betn 
KBü^pdaxx preserved, She was not a remarkable womun.,.but an 
interesting one. 

Abigaii Levy Franks w«s never calied upon to play a heioic 
role. She was the daughter of a substantial merchant, marri^d to a 
prosperous businessman who aaily grew in prrstige and who, apparentiy, 
never experienced anyserious financial reverses. She was born m an Eh 
England which now gave its Jewry every opportunity to rise, : t least 
in the economic world. A Child of the British world with its budding 
tolerance and of the English colonial iands with their ever-expanding 
liberties, she faced the future. 

Her tongue was English, her Script the roman, and she knew 
and quoted Dryden, Montesquieu, and Pope, She devoured the newspapars, 
magazines, and pamphlets of the day , read books , and enjoined upon her 
sons the duty of reading and studying every day while thejc were still 
young and the ieisure was theirs, She saw that they were taught the 
painting and sjüady ijagxKXJBxyxAajPi^fai^RxtJaByxwEx&ys tl tixyBJiHgxa.n±x:Jüa:g: 
ixxÄMXBX3RKÄxthBixB:i.:K&liBXÄawxdÜaKx the music and the good manners that 
were expected of the children acKJä of the chiidren of the wealthy who 
moved in the magic circle of the titled and the politically powerful, 
^olitics appeaied to her, and she foliowed the strugt^le for ^jower in 
Uew York between the DeLanceys and the Clintons with intellägence. , , 
but at a safe distance. There was no room for the Jew in official 
positions, nat in that generation. 



Marcus I 

Agigaii Fratiks 4) 

She was no bmsiness woman, "but then there was no need. She 
loved gosEip, "but for all that she was a person of high moral character, 
spicing her warm humanletters with apt hortatory and ethicö.l adirijni- 
tione. Her children were her life, and if , unlike many wofien of the 
ghettoBS of Continental Europe, she did not have to lahor for thera, she 
loved them kno± particie less , She lived and worried for her chilÄran 
with all the intensity of the traditionai Jewish mother. Though 
apparently untutored in Hebrai and Yiddish sources, she was no lese 
intens ely Jewish. Unf linchingly loyal to her faith, she was r^ady to 
saurifice hersei-f hy sending her "b. loved children across the sea, tp 
ifl.stajt England, to a large Community, ra]blier than ejcpose them to inter- 
inarra.c.ge with Gentiies. . . .yet her dosest friends were Christians and 
she wa a v/elcome guest i Ij their homes. She wrote of herself as a 
"patriot**; this land was ^•our countty", but she could not reconcile 
herself to intermarriage; she was deter; med to live and die a Jewess. 

The letters which Abigail c.nd Jacob Eranlcs wrote ti.eir eldest 
son permit us to gange tne ramif icationsof the business activities of 
this far-flung family. They were, in all probabilty, the most important 
'^ewish büsiness concern in the American coionies fiom 1730-1770. 
Naphtali. a seasoned man of affairs before he was thirty years of age, 
was closely associated with his father in all the adavantages of a 
resiaent purch sing and sales agent in London, then the greatest 
conmerciai and industrial cBBter ä£ the worlo.. 



• • • • • 



Jacob Pranks had no worries about ITaphtali » s ma riage; he was 
already safe in the fold, for he had recently taken his v;ife ?hila 
(Bilhah ' the daug ter of his late Uncle Isaac Franks..,. 

Jacob Pranks also had a 'hila among his children. In 1742, 
th young lady eloped with Oliver DeLancey, a Christian. . .The flight of 
their flaughter and the disciosure that she had been secretly married 
for six months shocked Jacob Franks and his wife; the were observant. 
Orthodox Jews, and objected strenuously tomtenaarriage. For a while 
the parents refused to see the young bride even though they yearned 
for a sight of her. After about a year, each parent, without the 
knowledi^e of the o .her, begaii to make attempts of reconciliation, 
fearing the other might object. Both of them confided their hopes:tÄ 
in their letters to T^aphtaii in Lomdon. 

Jacob was ready to malce peace with his S)n-in-iaw; he feared that 
if he persevered in^ his intransägence, Oliver might take it out on 
Phila, for the Delanceys were one of the most powerful and wealthy 
families in all Uew York. James, an eider brother, was Chief Justice, 
in addition, they were allied through marriage with another influential 
family, the Van Cortlansts. Oliver DeLancey had called on his Jewish 
father-in-law to obt^ m a .egacy due his wife ">hxia from one of her 
late uncies. Jacob Franks was ready to let him have it.... 

• . • • 

Here is a ietter which Abigail Franks wrote to her son, ITaphtali, 
telling him how distraught she was because of "*hila's marriage to De 
Lancey : 



Marcus I 



Abigaü Fraxics 51 



Fiat bush, June 7th, 1741 



Dear Heartsa^ 



my wishes for y )ur f/lic.ty are as greift as the joy I have 
to hea"t you are hap^jyly marriea. :'ay the smiles of Procidence waite 
allways on yAr inclinations and your dear ( wife ) Phila»s whome I 
salute with terider affections. pray'g kii.d Heaven .cid Heaven to be 
propltious to your wishes in malcemg her a happy mother. I shall thinlc 
the time tedious untilli I shaii have tnat happy infonnation, for 
I don't expect to hear it b;y the returri of these ships, and therefore 
must injoin your carein writing by the first opportunity ( after the 
birth or whatever it shall please God to bless you with ) either by 
via Carrolina, Barbadoz, or any other, 

I am now retired from town and would from my seif ( if it 
were possible to have some peace of mind ) from the severe afflicziogi 
I am under on the conduct of that unhappy girle ( your sister Phila ). 
Good God,wath a shocic it was when the. acquamted me she had left the 
house ana 'oin married six months. I can hardly hold my pen w. ilst I am 
a writing it, Itt's w^- th I n^^ver could have imagined, especial:/ after 
wath I heard her soe often sa^ , thaisiuE noe consideration m life 
SiiO^ld iiuiüSJExxBXiK ever induce her to disoblige such good parents. 

I had heard the report of her goeing to be mamed to 
Olj-ver DeLaneyy ,but as such re^-'orts had ofteu bin oif either of your 
sistsrs ( ?hila ana Richa ), I gave noehetd to it further than a generali 
caution of her conduct which has allways bin unbienish'd, and xs eoe ssX 
stillin the e^ e of the Ca.ristians whoe aliow sge had disobliged us but 
ha,s in noe way bii. dxshonorable, being marriea to a man of worth and 
charactor. 

some time soe depresssed that it was pin ti 
I have over come it soe far so not to make 
but I shall never have that serenity not 
happy ly had hitherto. ^y house has uin my 
prison ever since, I had not heart enough to go near the street door. 
Its a ^jain to me to thinlc off goeing again to tov/n and if your father*s 
busmess v.ould permit him to Live out of it I never v/ould goB near it 
again. I wish it was ii^ my power to leave this part of the world, 
I would come away in the first man of thi..t went to London, 

Oliver has sent many times to beg leave to see me, but 1 never 
would tho ' now he sent word that he will come here ( to Fxatbush ). 
I dread seeing him and hov/ to avoid I icnow noe way, neither if he come& 
can I use him rudly, I may maice him som.e reproaches but I know my seif 
soe well that I shall at last be civill, tho • I never will give him 
leave tocome to my house in tov/n, and as for his wife, I arad determined 
I never will see nor lett none of the family goc near her. 

He intends to write to you and my brother Isaac (Levy)to 
endeavour a reconciliation, I would have you answer his letter, if 
you don»t hers, for i must be soe ingenious to confess nature is very 
streng and it would give me a great concern if she should live unhappy , 
tho* its a concern she äoes not meritt. 



T.r, 



ly s^,irit was for 
me to speaic or see any one, 
my concern soe conspicuous 
nor peace within I have soe 



]y[arcus I 
Abigail Franks 6) 



I thank you and your dear Phila ( your wife ) in behalf of your 
sisters and my seif for the profusion of presHs sent us. I shall maie 
maice mine up iDut can't teil when I shall wear .i-t , for in the mmd I am 
nov/ (D have noe inclination for dres£ or visittng. The giries will make 
thers ;up as soon as they gow to town which will he thi latter end of 
the suimner, . . . 



My compliments to Mrs. Comp ton and Capt. Riggs. I heg they will he 
soe good to forgive me tnat I don't nswer there apgreeahie favour 
hy this. My spirit is to depresst to write. It is with reluctnacy I 
doe write to anyiuüäy one at present , therefore whoever I omit you must 

exe se me to him. 

I think I have spun this to a considerahle length and shall conclude 
with the repetition of my prgiyers for your health and happyness. I am, 

my dear son, 

Your afiectiont^te mother, 

Ahigai IL Franks 



In 1749 Oliver DeLuncey and some of his friends, having hlackened 
their faces, smashed the Windows, forced the doors, "broke into the 
harne of a Dutch ^^ewish emigrant in TTew York and "pulled and tore everythm 
to pieoes, and thenswore thej would lie with the moman, which put the 
man and woraan in great fright. Oüver sworö sje was loke Mrs, Clinton, and 
as he could not have her, he would have her likeness, and used very 
indecent 1^-aguage." The indignanthusband appealed t) several att^rneys 

to iüitiate proceedings against Oliver, hut no one would take a case 
a^^ainst the brotlier of the man who was Chief Justice and the -"ieutenabnt 

Governor of the Province. 



"iaiL 












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Looez 4:) 



l Lo jez the ^erchant 



Tiiu Siiip ..iiiCii lic.d letijhed Abriiiam Lojez anu his f ai,ii .L:^ fron 

vast merciiant 
Portugal was imi:--- a u^rc of l fiect SvLiiiniL: iiaron Lojjez ov/rieci c.t 

tiiat tiiie, t ivO k süverai ;yeare of c. lu.rü £oru^^_,l-(B ajaiüct 

£'uch a ..jro]".iir]cnt 

mi sf ortxiie aiicl ciit'„icu.Lties oex rre he liaci [^-aii^ea i.ii£x:.-JOG(ijf inn 

traue 
aß:^.Eixl in Ariiercaü com erce, a±":. In 1762 he had lost i-uipail 



1 i£ faithful \vil'e cLiid comjanion in the des^^erate ili.^at iron Lisuon. 

ap-am 
*"oso Ol tiiC suvei. children had died, ... ,d life had hecome troubloEome 



f )r ±ioä Lojez. '.'is fate toolc, hov/^^er, a turn t3 the bettcr hy 

his inarr^ge to Sarah, dau^'hter of Jacob Ri-YJsrÄ Rodriguez Ribera, 

a dis tinguished iierch nt of ^-ewport, v;ho lilce Lopez h^ad co:ie fro:";i tiie 

Iberi^.n ^^enij.culc... Xe.:-. i.. com_;an^' v;ith o^her ^^'e^s of !''e\v.jo t, Kivcra 

intitiated s,penriacetti candles 

hau founded the i.ian . i'ac ture of (candLes froi.i the head i^.tter thit 

Ä^^^ne of t-nd rai ned an autstandina Position 
ca.ie fron sjern \/hale£3 :Ji;i©:.&-aräiä2«^t;tl'-c^näl;ii:-bu£inß.E-S--b£ca:-ie 

Q^e^.^j! in this reinarlcable buGines:. . hooez now ^roved not onl.7 an able 

and 

faitiiful öUid coriijanion aif:JilE-vfa:thEXjr'.xnr.l2iTfL bu t aut-o ai. indeoendent 

:.ier^nant of ^o ud iriitiaLive and Vision, it v/as his snippinc activity 

the of Lopez 

that made hii:i, sls 1:ijls great Christian friBBd and adinirer, Ezra Stiles, 

Said of ilii:^i, " a merchant of the first eminence ." Acc jrdma to a 

or had .. £,i^pe 

conservative estii.iate he owned bv 1775 in thirtv s iin:; vesLels, 



They sailed To England, Iloliand, Spain and .Portugal, to Jar.-.aicc,, 

cruised 
the Azoes, the Canaries and Africa, hxs whalers rsinaJiKd the Arctic 

Seas, öiKu. ana reachea as far as the j'aliciband -'■sles, off the coast 

of Paragonia.lt was perhaps ai. exa ^erction v/hen "J^zra Stiles dec ...red 

that Lopez "for extent of com lerce propbably f v/as ) snroassed ny 

no merchant in America", but the dictum may v/ell be true if ap ...ed 

hardly 
to the ^ev;ish people. ^'or never ..efore in the course of Jewisla hictory 

a orofes; in^r ITew had at his conciand anKiilESiJXEaii arsünaflasuch an 



e X teilt an d ränge. 



Lopez 9) 

early a period that melancholy spot for what we are now ajoying 

Your dweling house l understand has sufird'd much. Your neighour 
Augustus Johnson was found dead ^t his house. )^' neighbour Gideon 
Seeeon's wife is crazy, and what I lament moät, is, that the virtue 
of severai of our reputablfe ladys has been attackeaand sullied by 
our destructive enemys - so much for poor Newport. ' 

Capt. Benj.Wright ( ray ageiit ) continues at Jamaica. His zeallous 
wishes to put me in possession of some part of the iarge property 
a I have had loc ked up in his hands since the commenc einen t of this 
war, led him to address me with three vessils loaded on my sole and 
proper account , all of which have oe-en taicen by our American cruizers 
( priyateers ). The first faliing in honest hands was delivered up to 
me by a reference agreed to by the parties. The other two were 
libelled and contested, one of them was adjudged at Providence to be 
restored to me; the o^posite party appeaied to Congrss. The thirä and 
most valuable ( the ebhooner "Hope'' ) was ( contary to the opinion and 
expectation of every spectatot ) condemned at a Connecticut Court of 
Admiralty. I appeale'd to Congress, which has brought me here ( to 
Philadelphia ) in füll hopes of obt^-ining redress« 

Irs. ( Benjamin ) Wright was left porly at ITewport, wben nurse 
Lee came away, whicri prevented Mrs. Wright Coming off in the sarae 
fiagg ( of truce ), as,she in^ended, but w^li äoit soon as she 
recovers. I have oi&fer d the poor distress d woman all the assistace 
in m^ powere to e,rant her, as I esteerae her an objectjof real merit. 

Uow, iny dear friend, I have only to aud my sincere thanics for 
your kind invitation to spend a day or two wit- you at your habitation. 
I shali irifor myself ( not being acquainted where Exeter lays ), 
and if I can any ways make it convenient to call on you, may expect 
to 86 e me. Meantime permit me to announce you and Mrs. Sthony every 
good wish pure etteem can suggest, being very truly, dear sir, 

Yo^r affectinnate friend and humble servant, 

Aaron Lopez 

( Marcus I. pp. 183-86 ) 



I 3| The heyday of Aaron Lop 



ez 



Tne early seveÄtees was the Heyu y -^f A.L.g. Ke had itßa&xi^e 

come the head of the crniiiunity. His .^ro^jerity seeeäto be firrby 

esabiished, His iiaiaj£:/.Kas:vknaiBaiy^' .-• ships cru^eed m cLi water^iais, 

m England, 
his nameE was icnwon in all the coionies and far be yond them, and 



in che 'Test ind xxxaxÄxi^iLKaix.-Eügiand. "There hxs mterests were 
protected by his eccentric ^ut devoted und efficient agat, Capt. 
Eenjamin Tright. «?ooi Old yankeydodlel " he cailed hiself. There 
was a close personal relationship bctwe^n the two men..." 



Early American He"brew Doisruments 

By Isaac Rivkind 
Publ. 54 pp. 51ff 



A Letter of the year 1770 

69-74 

On August 11, 1767, a great Dire broke out in Lissa, Poland. 
The greater part of the city was destroyed, includuing the Jewish 
section ....After zhe fire the Jewish Community dispersed to 
neighboring cities. Some left the city permanently ( Rosenhach, 
Pubi, 2, p. 161 ). The braver were driven by poverty and homeleseness 
dar acrosE the boundaries of their fatheriandand went xn search of 
their fortane as far as the new world. Because of this, and not becauee 
of thepartitions of Pioand, as the majori ty of the historians asaiane, 
Haym Salomon, who iater became so famous, was forced to emi^rate. ... 
The year of his arrival has not been aecertained yet.... 
An ther probable v ctim of thie fire was the Polish Jew Abraham ha-Levi 
of Lissa. . , 

From an entry in the diary of Ezra Stiles we learn that a 
Polish Jew of Lissxa paid him a Visit on March 15 and 16, 1770.: 

The Jew visited me again to-day, His name is Abraham Levi. aet. 
44. I shewed him thr Computa made by a German Rabui placing the 
appearance of thr Messiah 1785. He smiled, <?>: eaid they looked for him , 
every day.,.l accidentaily sneezed and he prayed instantly, At sunset 
he excused himself Sr rose up & went to my last Study window & prayed 
by himself. r? then returned & sat down again to discourse. He set^ms to 
be a man of Sobriety, spake of the Deity with uplif ed hands & eyes & 
witn the most profound Reverence ( Kohut, Publ. 5, 27928 ) 

It was this Visit to ITewport, v.here ha-Levi was forced to 
rema n tillafter Pasi over, 1770, that caused the present letterx of 
thanks to be wrioten to Aaron Lop«z.,. 

It is not ciear when h-Levi airived in America and what was 
the purpose of his comin^- here. That he came after and because ts. of 
the fire can i^e learned from the abureviation which foliows in refv^rence 
to destroyed cities. Jtx is hardly believable that he journeyed so fa^^ 
away , as so many others did, in order lo collect alms. Very iikely 
he in ended to settie in this country«.... .Whether he act^ally did go 
to Jama ca ...the writer has not been abie to establish. Ali traces of 
him are lost after the spring of 1770. 

Levi expresses in thie letter, written a few days bcfore his 
d^rture for Jamaica, sentiments of deep gratitude to Lopez for tö.e 
favors received in Newport. He mentions a letter of recommendation 
which he received from Lopez and Rivera which helped him Iater and 
made it pocsibie for him to obtain some favors in ""ew York, it is 
niturally hard to determine whether this refers to Moses or David. 
Besides the first Hazan of Newport, -l-saac Tauro, mention is made 
of the very prominent Jewish inhabitant of Newport, Jacob Roflriguez 
River§L, the father-inelav/ of Lopez, ...The erid of the letter contains 
greetings to Lope.- from a certain Reb Haim Lev^ and his family oi I^.Y. 



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Lflpez 10) 



There were, however, many captains to who sailing ordenwere 
isEued "by Lojjez. And even vaster was tne nuiii.er of his correspondents 
on the American continent, the Islands and oversea. The personal 
affection which they cherislied towards him perraeates many lettere 
particularyl of his cor-reiigionu-sts. Even strangers turned to hirn 
with requests touching Jewish ways of Life, as tlie folowing letter 
froin Jamaica demonttrates. 



A glimpse of the friendly relations v;hich prevailedbetween 
Lopez and his Jewish correpondnAtsof fers his correspondence with 
Joshua Hart, a businessman of Charles Town, Souoh Carolina, a 
friendly and pious Jew who '•rarely in his ettesr. did fail to extnd 
greetings for the Coming Jewish holyday. whichever it might happan 



to be. 



J os.lua Hart to ^aron Lopez 



•»You'l please accept of a small cask of sour orabges as a tolcen 

p£ our sincer friendship" 

Charles Town, 15 th Pelruary ,1771 



Dear Sir: 

Your Icind X&ttJßx and obliging favour of the 20th ulto, 
which was handed ine b^y Capt. Earl, I have now before nie, and am 
happy to find your goddself and family continue enjoying a perfect 
State of health. May the same be long attended with every other 

desirable felicity. 

You'l please accept of a small cask sour oranges as a token 
of our sxncer fremdship. Mrs, Hart joins me in our äncer ixxBiaiiÄiaßX 
thanks for yaur kind fa.\Jour of the salmon which came in due season. 
Mrs. Hart and family joins me in wishing you and family, your 
brother Abram and family, the widow Lopez and children, axi Mr. David 
Lopez, and the rest of your worth^^ fiamily, a merry purim, and May tht; 
Good ( God ) of Israel set a bles^äng :)n jou ali, and am, 

with smcereity, 

Your as£ured friend and most ebedient servant, 

Joshua Hart. 
P.Sä YouU please excuse my curtailing (this note) being Priday 



aiternoon, tiierefore not abTe to enlarge. (MatcusII, 250 






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Lopez 5 



rO 



( Ezra Stiles: "He did 'buE.nes^ with toe -reatest ease and 

cleariiess; always carried about him a sweetries- , , , , Roth, p. 168. 

St. could ho.rdiy be unaware that a suustai.tial ?..rt of che com erce 

^erioimed oy L. was siave trade. He found no contradic tion in it to 

ham.-nesi: of uopez which he ^..a-aised so hi,;h. Thi- fact is mdicative 

for the 1110 rai blindness of tht epoch in this respect. Uhat L. Ejan:: 

himself sucuumbed to this iiinesL and even l)ecame an instrurnent^üs 

j-^£t as the oa..er c"ewj.sh inervnants ;i t-.;. o mc, cthis and the next 

oi' t is d±seafce, Ai^as tne pr^ze tixx:.tKi^.o^ thExgenration ana the xqüIxciw 

haa to pay for tue asL^iini lation. . .) 

•^eitere to ca^tains - a new -henornenon 

Lopez* sa^Iing ordere to Ga^jtain 'VhoraaB Brown, who comiianded the 
hrig "Charlotte, "v/hich carried with her from i^ewport a load of luraber, 
turpentme, v/hale oii, ugar and even some firewood, are typical of his 
career at the tinie 

Aaron Lopez to Thomas r )wn 



"I wouid recoraii^nd you to use the utraoEt disjatch and endeavour to be 
here in the inonth of November" 

Newport, <Iuly 2d, 1766 

Sir: 

Th brig "Charlotte'« now under your com ano being ready fitted for 
the seas, youare to emtsrace the first fair wind and proceed directly 
to Bristol v.here.uppn your arrival, you are to deiiver the ine los ed 
to Mr. Henry Cruger, Junior, of H>ristol, and follow his directions. 

I am not able to deiermine whether you are to return directly 
here,or to Coric i.. i-reland, and from thence to Jamaica. If :,:r. Cruger 
dir^cts you to come bacic to this place without first going tp Ireland 
and Jaiiiaoica, I would recom:.it;nd you to use the utmost dispatch and 
endeavour to be here in the raonth irovemoer. 

But in ca^e y u proceed to Goric, you are to apjly to ^Tess*rs 
Lane, ^ensons and Vau^_,hanx, merchants there, and foliov; th^ir directo-ons, 
uging the same dispatch there as 1 cocoiumenaed you at Bristol, 'Prom 
thence thy v/ill dispatch you with a fright for the 'est j.ndias, 
probable to Jamaica, But should you go to any other Island, you are to 
get discharged soon as possible and pr:)ceed directly for Safeannhh La ITar 
at Jamaica, wherre you are to apjly to -^r. Abraham Lope.^, merc-iant there, 



v;he 



re I shal L lodge fartjaer i. structions for you. 



Lopez 6) 



In case LIr. Grugür has disj^josed of ray two shi je anü remitted 
Eome efiects I order'd before your arrival to Bristol, there will be 
a Chance of his putt^ng u,j the brj.g ( "Cha. lot^t^'-' ) to sale. if so, 
ana she goes ofi ( sola ), I will pro.ide another more sui table 
Yessel for the traae upon your zreturn. 

I coiiclude recommending you in the etriutest manner to maice 
the best dispatch you cn iro:.; '::xx2lol, c..nu v-iEnini^ ^ ou a protjerous 
•voyage, conclude v/ith perfect esteern, sir, 

Your most h'ble servant, 
Aaron Lopez 



Letter to Captain Samuel V/iswall oi: Juneioti. 1V75 




■ acsirnile in LibmcLn Lebesa;i,^ilgrira Peojjle 



Hui'iry isreall to' Aaron liope^; jaraaica, £t. "^-nii^ , .th Ju .y 

1770 
"lecil Roth, AJX, pp loöf. 



n 



r> 



i'i 



,. Revolutionary '»^ar 

V ^ / Lopez and his fleet in the lJi^x:>:jafc<.3LJiäBjiJKn iä]^Hg.g: 

^i-L ^eL.r,1775, CüC , wur tlc/c ..it n^c^.eci hu outkrce,!: .)„ !.■ 



Tlev OL tionai., ...c.r, 



.ji.Z'. L-.LLO a ic. co_ü.L ,L-<-..i' ... n c.e 



i^c ')± Lo^;.. :.i. For, 



.tia^ieali^ , hc ^ Lartca m thiL ^ era the ^las-u Vc.CuCt au^i nio^'i. u. rin^ 
cntor vi'iLu .0-. hii: c:.-rüvjr. 1 



cju.,...n^' v.ith t-.c t\.ent,, livu ^ ^.rr olu 



rri.-ncxj- hotth , the ton of a v/e ■-I,..x.ov,i. "^ua'cv;r ai.d WLaler, ;-.nd.)i 
Iiic-:c.rd Smith of ■^ost)n and Lo c ;n, ::c "^utfittcd ...'ijv..t t\;eiity shi,.;C 



on an c--^>editi9n ...lonj-; the South i^::eriCL-n coast ar far a:: the 

raLlcaiids \i.t:. U/^^'s. of brin^cin^: hone \,hale ül, 

c i. ab r . . t e' ^ o hi . L o c h 

The c --i^rchei e^ve ocierf: givc. in a.'... .:-CDi:ivr.o.. . .. leni_;thy etter .. ^ne 



-lialelvone ana ^. e:.. li^in. 



of t:..u .^a.;tains of the ^. hi^.-G r.. a..,£: .ikß: a 



r^ f C 



^.i: cerpannox ox . . 



"7e 2!iust ...enjoin ^/ou,'' v;ü r- q here a on^ o ther adviC-, " oO h^.ve no 
co^-imnec tion ..ith any '^ovtugir^T.o or Spanich vesF;el in any ..ay \;hc. ttver]i3 
when you ap_;r:)auh any vecüel, \iQ \;ouIä liave :;0U holst ., our \;hite ci^ni 



at :,'ourf oroto,; gallant nas t heacl, anü in i: fev; minutee hov/l it öo\.n, 
and after the sa:::e rjace of tl:\c holst it a^-am, and if you are aiicwcrü 



in the game way , you may "be assur*d is is one of our vessels, bnt 

if not, we desire you will keep intirely ciear of them unless by 

any other circums tance you can be fully satiai^ied they are Snglish 

the whih 

whalemen." By a stränge irany, tta danger iclua^ threatened aoiÄx 



ÖaJLiijcxÄBeiuaaiBd the boats of Lopez came not form the Spanish arf 

KkxsLii already m this ewaly stage of x&x the war 
Portuguese bot just f romthe English, British warships taüt|iX4a? 

tXXMx were busy to seiiie American ships suspected of beionging to 

ships ITewport 

the revolutionary . Thas its happene.d that five of the fieet.ÄJbcihx 

by the British 

amo g them the "Minerva*«, kxsxlmxB were hel^ up and convcyed to 

the ships were 

England. Although tiaji: finally released tteangh upon the piea of. 

Prancis Rotch and Smith, the damage caused to Lopez näupc a faithful 

Colonial cause 
adherent of the RBTgtutl n could not "be undone, Moröover other units 



of the fi.ee t that made the Fiakland voyage went down at sea. Xixwas 
Thus for ■ . 

Tr e great enterprise turned out tobe a major disaster Ör -^owpz. 
It is a splendi testimony to his fiith 

yYBTtIgKixExyüxB tenacity and unshakable fäth that L. did not 

euccumb to this blow, Nor became he despondent even when he had 

CO flee witb his family from Uewport upon the British occupation 

to Philadelphia. A letter v/ritten on the beginning of 1779 to a 

friend, Captain Joseph -Anthony, who like Lopez has been forced to 

leave Newport and to settle in Pennsylvania, iExhBttxÄxnäixa^x 

r-flects both 

mirrosttoxx the firmity of Lopez • mind and the criiäs to whichhe 

was explsed at that time: 

Aaron Lopez zo Joseph Anthony 

"I consider myself under still greater obligations to Heaven, 
having hitherto enjoy»d everyone of those inestimable blessings 
you are pleased to teil me of , without the least merit to them" 

Phildelphiam i'ebruary öd, 1779 
My dear and very worthy feiend: 

How shail 1 express my gratitude to you for the satisfaction 
you have given me with the cec(eip)t of you frendly ana obligmg 

favor of the 27 th ulto. which this moment has be^n 



Lc 



O' 



Lopez handed me by our mutual friend, Mr. Hewes ( Josiah H.", a Hila 
delphia meichant ) who teliirig me its bearerm returns gain to Excter 
tomoarrow m rning. I wouid not miss the opportun! ty of acknowledging 
its agrieable contents, and gratifying your wiskes of hearing from 
me , from my fajnily, and some thing from the distress'd inhabitants 
of our once flourishing Iland ( Hewport ). 

But before I render you this inteligence, perrtit mei to teil you 
that I am extremj happy to ieain that the Aimifety hs been pieased 
to guide you and good famiiy to so safe an as^ lum, ad that there 
he has biest you with hualth, peace, and .lenty around you, Äing these 
times of pubLiclc and aimost universal callamity. Bur what I eitefim 
still a greater bles£:ii.g, endowed you v/ith a grateful heart, 
susceptible of all those divine xbounties, which I pray majbe continued 
you wtth all the additionil felicities this sublunac^yworfid is 
ca^jabie of afiording, For my part I have the pleasure to acqaint ray 



good friend that I consider rayseif under still greater obligatins to 
Heaven, havmg hitherto enjoy'd every one of those inestimable 
btessings you are pieased to teil me of , without the least txti:£ 
meri L or title to them; ara therefore to acknowledge myself infinitely 
more thanifull f )r so mercifull dispensations. 

Sxnce we left our Iland my principal object was to looic out for 
a spot where I couid place my famiiy, secured from sudden allarms 
and the cruel rarages of an enra^ed enemy . Such a one I have hitherto 
found m the smali in^and tonship of Leicester, in the Massachest*s 
Bay , whre I pitch^d m:/ tent, erectin^^ a proportionaole one to the 
extent of m numerous famiiy on the surait of an high heaitjiy hill, 
where we have experine'd the c^vilities anä hopjttalityMc of a kind 
neighbourhood; and moved in tht same sphcre of business I have been 
us«d to foliow, which, altho much more contracted, it had fully answe- 
rAd my wishes. -^^nd you know, my friend, when thätt is the case, it 
never falls of constituting real happiness. And to this the satis- 
daction of having for a next doo neighbour your truly well wishing 
friend, my father-in-law, Mr. Rivera, who v/ith his famiiy I left 
in good heaith, spending in peacc- the fruits of his last summer's 
labour on a saall farm. The old gentleman i now sixty ^uulxx two ye«rs 
of age ) improves with much the same farming fac^lties you tel me 
you cultivate yours, and I can inform you that while his hands h«?e 
been imployed in that usefull art, his agitated mind hae uniforiy 
accompanied yours to poor Fev/port where I do still hope, we shall soon 
have the pleasure of meeting each other agam and re-enjoy those 
injur'd habitations, we have so long beun deprived of, with all 

satffisfaction. 

By this week's post, ^tz. Lopez has inforra*d me that the Widow 
Lee, who had the 1 berty of going down from "^rovidence in a flag 
( of truce ) to l^ewport , after stayin^ there some days, she had 
the indulgency of returning to Providence, and being engggid to nurse 
my daughter, Mrs. Mendez ( who I have the consolation to teil you 
leaves ( lives ) also near me and next floor to our good aighiaiaxi^v 
neighbour, Capt. Jno. Lyon, formerLy of Newport ). This Mrs. Lee, 
Coming directly on her return into our famiiy, inform*d Mrs. Lopez 
that the poor inhabitangs af that town have been very much distreseed 
thxs Winter for the want of fewell and provisions, those individuals 
of my Society ( Jews ) in particular, who, she saxd, hadnat tasted 
any meali but once in two months. 5'ish there was none at this season 
of the yearx and they were reduced to the altematire of leavmg { li- 
ving ) upon cho®late and coff». These and many other callamities and 
Insults the wretvhed inhabitants experience ought to excite our 
thanks to that Great Being who gave us resolit^on to exchange at so » 



Lopez 11) 

Tiie cordial atmosphere which prevaiied b tweeri the house of the 

merc^aat prince and the Bi5iÄ»»Xx famiiy of the moäest 'busraesEman xj&£ 

can be gathered from a letters of Hart»s daufeter Esther: 

Esther Hart to Aaron Lopez 

••l hope my fr^end will excuse the liberty I have taken in adaressing him 
with this scrall" 



Charles Townm örd Sept., 1773 



Mr. Aaron Lopez, 
Sir, 



Your much estet^med favour came safe with the astürances of your 
kind wishes to..ards my papa and mama and famiiy, which you have our 
greatful acknowledgments In return for them. If my papa was preaatt 
he would v;ith a grea deal of plasur answare his worthy friend*s 
esteem'd favour, but as he fis) not, is deprived of that satsfqtion, 
as (he) is gone to Philadelphia for the benefit of his health, for 
he has been very mcu ind-sposed this ^^urmner. 

My ^apa had thoughts of paying your place also a visit if he found 
himseif better, which I hope kmd prividence will grant him, I hope 
my friend will excuse the liberty I have taken in adressing him ^"ith 
this scrali, but as papa being absent was the reason of my being so bold, 

JÄy mama joines with me in congratulating you and my dear Mrs. Lopez 
on her safe delivery. It also reuders us happy to think she is so brave 
with all your dear branches. A continuance of tiit blesL^ing we sincerely 
wish you all. 

Good Sir, you will pleas to maice mama aliid slef respects 
acceptable to Mrs. Lopez and Mrs, Mendez ( your daughter ), and 
Mis Ester fLopez), and the rest of the famiiy. You will pleas to acept 
the same from one that sibsctibes herseif, 

Your obliged humble serv't, 
"Esther Hart 

( Marcuax, II, 254: MS Lopez Paoers, Nev;port Historical Society 

Library ) 

J he Family Life of Aaron -^opez 

The all.sij^n in the Letter of Esther Hart to the brave conduct of 

Mrs Lopez, daughter of Jacob Rodr. Riverji, was fully justified. 

She had to take care not only of the seven chilären, the fir- t wife 

of Aaron "'opez has born to hiambut also of her own progeny v/hih in the 

end comprised the same number ofcisiix. Aaron -^opez has become indeed 

the father of a ramified famiiy the members of which are siill p^oninent 



Lopez 12) 

in the American Jewish coimiunity. But it happened unfortunately 
at the cLose of Lopez» Ufe that a 3Öiato3SXBi»sßiir:B]i>.x an unhap^.y 
family affair added much to his woiries caused by the failure of 
his expedition to the Talkland Isiändö. 



Lopez 15) 



The Bnd uä Cxl orv/of Aaron -^opez 



y- 



The most famous aiiDng the mm Gentile friaads of Aaron Lopez 

was his countryrnan Ezra Stiles, the eminent scholar andpresident of 

Yale University. The cordial linfe Tsetween the two men was instrumental 

to the origin of another unique friendship. Fot itst was Lopez who 

then a pastor in $Jewport. 
mtriduced in 1775 a stränge visitor to Ezra Stiles: the Sephardic Rahbi 

or Haham Haim Isaac Carigal, a native of Hebron who came to Uewport 

on his journey through all the countries of the world aoixiiXÄ:': for the 

sake of collecting money for the schols and poor of Palestine. rtiles, 

with his friendl^/ incli aation towa ds Jews and vivid dui:tsxjSLat though 
incidentally 

at least.partly missionray interst for the Jev/ish poaple "became fascinated 

by the personality and wisdom of Carigal and thus a profund friendship 

developed be^een the two men during the few months of Carigal 's stay in 

Newport, They discussed >•!•. ^ sermon preachea by Carigal in the 

synagogue ^^ this Icind 

church of ew port , the firsu one delivcred by a Palestinian jew on 

America. sotl, was thu climay of Carigla»s e^Journ on Bhode Island. 

tiie two scho ars 
■^exikK he parted for Barbados, ^ promised each other to ^ceep up her 

connection by aaxxBiAa letters. This correpondence maintained m .he 
Hebrew, Spanish and English would, if preserved, constitute one of the most 
telling recoras of the epocn, liice the two contemporapy exc;.ngeE of letters 
between Lescing and Jaendelssohn in Germ ^--ny and its English counterpart 

the correspondenc of Joseph Priestly with David I^evi 

Carigau died an Barbados in 1777. "In ^ay, 1781, just about 
foui years iaifter ttR ( his)death, Ez ra ^tiles, then President of the 
Yale Colieg, write to Aaron Lopet, who was still living in his haven of 
refuge at Leicester, Massachusetts, He asked that L. present to the Sis% 
College a portrait of the late rabbi, pointing out that ••it would be 



Lopez 14) 



honourabie to your. nation as weil as ornam ntal to this university.« 
Lopez assented gladly and asked the Newport artist, Mr. Samuel King, 
who was then living in Boston, to undertakc the commision; this was 
in the month of August. On May 28th of the following year, Aaron 
Lopez ( while on a journey "with his wife and sone of his family 
on a Visit to >Tewpor t, and within five Miles of Providence at 
Scotts pond as he was \vater his horse, the horse, the horse 
plunged "beyond his depth with the sulky, when Mr. Lopez ieaped 
into the water, and though his servnt attempted to save his was lost", 
Eariy /juerican Jews hy Lee M. Friedman, Cambridge, Mass. Ni.rvard 
University Press, 19^4 j drownea in Scott's Pond v/hile kkuj^Mu.bX 
aanjäalRJiKe on a trip from Leicester to i^ewport. Ezra tvtiLes wrote a r 
note of c naolence, on t^eptömber llth, to Lopez» father-in-law, 
Jacob K, Rivera, and at the sauie tirae ac -nowledged the receipt of 
the üarigal por.rait v/hich Rivera and otners had paid for. Rivera 
answere... the note in which President i^tiies anu the Corporation of 
Yale College acknowledged the receipt of the Carigal portrait and 
expressed their sympauhy on the death of Lopez. ( :^arcus 1,194-5 ) 

Jacob Rodrigues Rivgra to lüzva Stles and the Corporation 

ofYale College 

**The honor you are pleased to pay the memory of thatle-rned man, 

as v;ell as to tho se that ha d the pleasing satis faction of contributin g 

to that dona t ion infinit e ly surpa ss es the valje of so small a gift'* 

Leicester (State of ^Massachus- 
etts Bay ) 
Dec einher 20 th, 1782 

Y!oTilrj Gent lernen: 

your muc esteeijied favor of t j e llth Sptember last did not comt 

my hands tili two raonths after its date, I was happy to be by it in- 

formed that Lir. King had transmitted you in good order the portrait 

of the learned Haham Isaac Haim Carigal, the which you proposed 

(after framed) it should be deposited in the Publick Library of Yale 
College, 



Lopez 15) 



The honor you are pleased to pay the memory of that iearaed 
man, as well as to those that had the pleasing satisfaction of 
contributing to that donation infinitely surpasses the value of so 
small aggift.Frora me, the President and Fellows of the *-^ollege will 
please toaccept my cordial thanlcs for the greatful sence you are pieased 
to entertain of the late Lopez» s iiberaiity. The condolence and lcj.nd 
sympathy you are pleaj^ed to expresson account of his immature death 
hrings i'resh to our idea ( mind ) that sad catastrophe, that deprived 
his disconsolate widow of the best of husbands, his numerous off spring 
of a tender and indulgent parent, ra:^self of a worthy son, whose verx 
life and soul was closely in ervovedd with mine, and thea comriunity 
in general of a usefull and vaiuab..e member of society, all whoin beg 
leave to join with rae in returning you our unfe±gned thanks for your 
hearty condolance on the melancho ^y occasion. 

Being desirous to complete and perfect that portrait b^fore 
i.'s depositedjt, if you '11 be so obligingas to let me know the cost 
of the frame you have bestow» d upon it, I will reimburse you that 
expenee with pleadue by first safe band that offers. 

As it allways affords me and faraily great pleasure in every 
event that can contrilu te to the happiness and welfate of te Reverend 
^r, Stiles, we shoul be wanting in the high esteem and veneration 
we bare him and his worthy farnily was we to omit this opportunity 
to felicitate him on the happy state ( of remarriage ) he has lately 
eAered into, on which joyfull occasion Mrs. Rivera and Mrs. Lopez with 
both our families beg leave to unite with me in our hearty wishes that 
indulgeiitHeaven may pour down his choicest biessings on the hap^y pair, 
and that their future days may be a series of health and prosperity, 
whichare the most ardenti wishes of him who with the highe st sentmients 
of esteem and respects beg leave to subscribe, gentlemen. 



TO th; 



Your most obedeient and very humble 
servant , 
Jacob Rodr. Rxvera. 
Rev*a President and Corporation of Yale College 



( Marcus I, 195-6, MS. Yale University Library. Printed in 
Lee M. Priedmann, Rabbi Haim Isaac Carigai, Boston 1940, pp. ä2-35. ) 



Early American «^ews 

Lee M. Friedman 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Harvard University l^res 
1934 



P. 14fi': 

icaxaiLxitx -after the ca^otufce iy^ijasxx of l^ewgort by the 
British in 1777, some of the most prominent Jewish patriots fled with 
their famiLies to Leiees cer, Ma< e: . where th y rsided for about six 
years.... Aaaon Lopez iived in great stute in a l..rge mansaon which 
he erected and which Later became t j e Leicester Academy. Hev.was known 
far and wide for his hospitality and for the raagnificence of his 
entertainments, 

At the tirae of the det^th of Lo ez ( 178ki ) President Ezra 
Stiles wrote on hirn m his diary, as foliows.^ 

In 28th of ^ay died that amiable, benevolentin most hospital & 
very respectable ü.ntleraan Mr, Aaron Eoyez, who retitmg fiom Newpt Ri-d 
Isl in these Times resided from 1775 to his aet^th at Leicester in Mas£. 
^^e was »'ew l>y l^Fation, came from Spain or Portugal about 1754 <^ sttteled 
at '"hode Isi'gL^.He was a Merchant of the first Sminence, for Honor aiux 
& Extenr of Commerce probabLy surpas. ed by No Merchant in ^raerica. 
"^^e did Buisness with the greatest Ease an Clearness - alwa^/s carr ed x 
about a Sweetness of Behav. a calm Urbanity an agrreab-.e & unaffected 
Polirness ofi maiuicrs, w'ithou a sibgie Snenmy Ä, tge most universaily be- 
loveu by an extensive Acquaintance of any man I evcnicnew, His Benficenoe 
to his Fmily Connexions ,to is Nation, and to all the '.7orld is almost 
without a Parallel. He was my intimate friend and Acquaintance! Oh! how 
often had I wished tha;: sincere pious & ca..did mind could have perceivcd 
the Scidency of Xty, perceived the tri^th as it is in Jesus Christ, 
Icnown that Jesus w; s the LIESriAH predicted by Moses &, the Prophets! 
The amiable & excelient dialteters of a Lopez, of a Manasseh Ben Israel , 
of a Socrates, 8r. a Ganganelli, woulu almost persus^ä us tohope that 
their excellency was infused by Heaven, and that the virtuous & good 
of all Natffions and Beligions, notwithsat ding their Öeluscbons, may be 
bro't together in Paradise on the Xtian System, finding Grace with all 
benevolent<Sb adorable Sraanuel who wicfch hir expirong breath & in his dee- 
pest ago ies, prayed for those v/ho icnow nor what they did. 

Mr. Lopezs was J urneying with his Wife and some of his afmily 
on a visist to "^^ewport, and within five miles of -t^rovidence at Scotts 
pjnd as he wa watering his Horse, the horse plnged beyond this Depth 
with the Sulky, wlaen Mr. Lopet plunged into the ^ater; and though 
his servant attempted to s me him hewas lost. His Corps was carried tcD 
Nevjport & there mteriee in the Jew Burying Crround - the Demonstration 
of universla Sorrow atteuuex the funeral. 



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corr:i.na uifi;:iiijt:£.:ii'£:iui ar:c"ia2;iX'JCi: c.n 



c^vtc.t cu.d run^_,ü* 



Lo öz 7) 

iti th<^ Ev..nu v.t'.^' , yoii i:a;^' be aei ur'd ir ir onc of )Ljr vcc^e.lp, "bat 

nirj othcr circüiiD taixe :;0U can be full^ catioilod thuv are AHt^lii^h 

wiialeväi:!. ' ^ u Btrunt,;e i-ron:,', iisß. cian^^-er xiixEl<i tl- reuten cd 3c5ijliv 

£i&^iiyj jd.ßc4K:L^3tBd the coJ-tc of Lo^^ez cu:ne n^t form the r.^aiiieh arf 

aüixxi.:; uiru-cij -ü thi^ ei.vaclj' stö-tic of 3ö^x tiiü war 
Portüi^üccc jj t jü£u f ro Iho Siit:;liJ.:h. i'ritieri warrhipt; K£jU>: ux 

txxi^: v/ere bus^' to f^Cx-e /jnerxcaii n-hips surpectod of beioiii^-it^t^ to 

Ehi^.'E: irewjort 

tue revolutioiiar:>' . Thtie ite happened thut fivo of thü £k(i<-i,m.t:XiiM 

b> the ■■■riciL-i: 

: mo i^: thcn the "-Urierva.'», toBy^aen were iieiö up L^nd cohve;yt;d to 

the ehipc v>ere 

Eriijlanu. Alth.^ugh tii^ finall^' reLei^eed to-nia^h ujon the plea of 

FrunciF Rotc.;i ai.ci Fm-Lth, the dama-j.'e cauced to Tjopez Kiiaiv a faithfui 

CoLoniai ci- t:e 
adher^nt of the KKi^jaiiitl n ^ould i.ot bc undoiie, iÄort;over other uüi t£; 



of the f eet tr.at Wude the Fi-alcland voyai^Q weiit down at sea, :;{::t- ryac- 
Thü8 f )r 

T e cTQut eiiterprisc turnod out tobe a muj ;r diraster «D'r -^ov.'pz, 
It le a tpiendi testiiiion;^ t) hie fixth 

Xaiax'JtliE-l-MjaJiiB tüi.acity aiiU uüshajcable fith that L. Gidd not 

Buccu:.ib to tiU^ biov;, "^'or Iccane he d^jfj.'or.deiit evei^ v.hei. r.e had 

.0 fiee wit hie fa'Uii^- from I^ev.port üjol the British occü..;ation 

to .^hiludciphia, A Lütter wrxtLeii on the be^iriuir./^ of 1/7'^ to a \ 

frieiid, Captaiii Joseph -'^nthoii;, , v/ho Uice Lo^ez \>u^ becii forcea to 

ieave ITev/porl and to cettie in "^en r^^lvanic.-, i»:v^Dül:^.a;x-lixx.a., 

r fLectf..- "both 

- -irroßtkjß^w. the iiimiti/ of Lojez* mii.d and tne crj.iie to v/hici:h^ 

was e-.pised at tnat time: 

Aaron L^jq^ z-) J seph Anthon:!iL 

^l conriider mytself under etill grcater obii^iatione to T{e..ven, 
having hxtherto enj);y*d everyjne of thocc ii.es tmiabie biesr^incic 
you i^^re picased to teil ni<j of, vviUiout the least iiierit to them" 

Phildeiphian i'^ebruar^' od, 1779 
!'^ dear and verj,- vorthy f ieiiu: 

Hov; Ehall x ej...jrö£{,^ ny i_:rati. tudt,' to y lu for thu- ei txi-fuc tion 
you huve oxvei. n^ wit. the ccc(cxp)t 3f you fiei.dly anu 0ülii.äni,; 

favo- of the 27th uito. \;hich thxf: inoriürit hu^ be n 



Lo .ea 2) 



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dir et?- 'j 'Sj' to cone buciv oO CiiiL ^^iuc- ....u.. -vit rxr;:t ,. 'm. _ o^ _:. uii...i-ci 

^i.de.T-na' t^ k)c liore in thü iiontn '•"ovi-r.:..Qr« ^ 

. j'. 2... c..-S';i ;.' r^ceed to Cor:, ;. ou :..rü ^'^^-j ^-^ -^ ''^^-^ ^^^ 

T,^.iiC, -'i-i.J:3iif?r arid ''uü, liC.iis:, nerclit^ntL Uiür^, d.c r^>*. .jv. •. ; ir v..ixxc t-onr , 
jcii.j tlivj j;c.r:C GiCjLvtüh tlicre c:,i: i. coco!:i:.:c;.::^oc. ^^-^ ut ■^v.i.-tol. ."ro.: 
tliCiicc t:v ^iiii- aij: uGoli ^oü .vitli a iri^.t -■)r u'ie ci- 1 -.airr , 



at jL.rx.ijc^, '.iit^rrc .;ou 



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Vuerui Tor tlie tr....uü u.,3i: ;^our xrütürn. 

J. vJ W JL . . .^ fc. u i » Cl »~ l:. C X ir i. -i . V' y 



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thc frJite of iij.e lar 



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c 1 



A <-. ^ i v.l. < 



riavi 



;;;'0ü cultiVc-te j'ouri:, oi^t 1 lx.:. ii;ior:.i j'ou önut v,;;ilc.- 
becu ii;:jlo;/'cd i;. tlic. t yccful-. i>.rt, lue £..gitt-ted mind iaac uniforl:^' 
t-cc onjuiiied ^^ourr to ^)oor * e-.;_Jort .v^jcri; i da ^-cill hojci, v.l t i.i. IL :. 
have tlic plci^rure jf ncv-tii.t. ei^ch otlier L.^c.^ri and rc-^Ljo^' tii^ce 
ii.jiir'd habitt-tioi.t: , v;c liave ro ioü^: be.n dc.'riveci of, ■,.itr: IL 
e: tie facti on. 

V-j tii^i: wcelc'c jojtL, -^rc. 'iO^Jcz hci^ iKfor;.i'd .lu tl.al u..^ ::'ido.v 



.-) 11 



Icu, wlio hau the 1 Lerty of ^^l^^G c.ov/ii f 



X': 



rrwiaeiice lii a 



ilc. 



ü 



( of truce ) to ^^cv.i^;oit , after £ta^.in therc conic da^^T, r: c h^^c 

tht xn::ü l^ciic;. of retiirnxii^ t} ''rovidwiiCt , aha buia^ Ch^agcd lo nurrv. 

TT. 



ToviawiiCt, aiiG ^'üia^ ci 
i:^ dciü^^hter, ^trs, r^e.ides ( .*iO I havc ti^o c Mro La tion to lux.l ^ )ü 
Lcavcc; ( !.ivc£ ) alcD liuar ne aiid no.t door t :> our ,.,o )d iu.^;iü:aüx. . 



neid,- i>our, Ca^.>t. Jüo. ..^ ): 



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U0...X1.,. uxiccok. ")i- --^r returii into our f ani l\ , infoiin'd 



■<-; 






jO ;ü:i 



that thc joor iiihv-.b-. tui.j^i: af t:u«.i. towi. h^-ve bcui vcr;; r^uc.. dir trer?: ed 
th e v;inl,er for thc wai.t of fewelL and ^.rovii^ion^ , thoee iiadividji -c 
of rc- rocict;;,' ( Z^\iz ■ m jarticulär, v;ho , thvi Ea._d, hidnnt taslcd 
an:/ neati but orice in t o noLti.E. Fiel" there wi^r noi:^ at th-.r coaroi: 
of the ycarK ix.t thej v.erc reaüced to thc aLtc.Lative of iuavini;,: ( ii- 
viHij ) UjOii cho<2).Latc and cofa'e, Tht:e arui manj^ other calla^nx tice and 
inc-ültc th^ \!vrütvh(jd inhabxtai.ts ex^ciicüce ou,_:ht to excite our 
thaaicc to that Grcat "bein^; \/ho gcvu uc rcrol. tox* co c:vc ■:ai..gc a|:rco E 



Lo ea 9) 



early a oerioci that mel«.nchoIj' cjot for vvhut wc are n rw o^o^/in^ 

Tour dv;elin^ iiouee I unaerL-tui.d hc.-: g.;fferd'd nuch. Your nuii^bour 
AuguetüB Johiicoii Y/ai round duau äi.]li hj.? h)uoc, 't nt^iiibiür Gideon 
DcßLon E wife le craz:/, aiiu „üat i lamaÄ^l^^pIt » ir, that tliu virtue 
of i^evcral of our rejutab^^^ Iad:ye hae beeil" attuckuv.at.d suliied hy 
OUT dü£trüctive crieriyc • £o muui. for po jr ITüv^^ort. 

Ca^t# Beiij ,V.*ri^ht { nij^ n^Q.xt ) contiHücß 4.-t Jaraaica. ■lit:' zeallous 
wißhes to jut iie in poseeesiari of some part of thc iar^c jro^c. ly 
s i have had loc iced u^; in hir^ haride i^iiicc tlie c3i;ii.icucc:iw;,t of u.is 
war, lad hi:n €0 a uress rnti witii thxee veeci^is loadcd on i:x. i3oie ai;d 
proper acc )unt , all of >.hich have lc eii ta-.eii b^ our Aiierican cruisers 
( x>rivateerE ). Thu fireb f al uirig ^i. lia:iest iua^.dc \juv: del^vurtd üj to 
ine üy w i-efurünce agrecd to b^;- thc jc.rtiejr. Thc other tv/o were 
li"beLied ai.d coruestcd, one af tüeni was adjucljcd at Proviacncu to ue 
rüi;tored to ri'.. ; the o ,.>OEite partv a^jpealed to Coxiiztü^. The tha. rd ^nd 
moiit vaLuable ( the oGhooner **Iiope** ) \'m\: { contar.v to thc ojinion i-nd 
e:>...)ect<. tion of ^vqtj r:jec mtit ) c jnde? ried ^ t a CoriiiCcLicut Ca^rt of 
AdruraLt:/. I appealc'd t^ C mi^^os: , wbic:: ha^^ broujhb m^ hexe ( to 
^hil&dv.ipliia ) iii füll hopC£ of obt- lüinj redrers, 

'Ire, ( Bcnjamiri ) ^"vi,A:z ^ap left ^)xl'j c.t ITewjort, w-.cii nui-ise 
Lee ca iG av;ajf , v;jiic jrevei.teu "rs. '"ri^ht coriin^j off ^n the Ec^;::e 
f3ia£5j^ ( Ol truce ), ae^clic in Ci.aed, büt v-iLi äoit roon ui i:he 
recovers, I havc ofi'er d t^ic joor du treL'f.: d >voii:-ii all th^- uc;irti.ce 
iii m,, powere to ^>ai,c her, . ^ i erteer:^ her i-:. objecttoof real merit. 

1T)W, r(ij dear friena, I have oni^ t) a.d ray cincwr^, thaii^cc for 
your kiiiii invitation to {::jena l- da^ ;r two ..it you at ;>'our h«^-bi ti/cioii. 
I 8hai L i-for mjrseif ( no b beini^; acquamoed where j'u'.ccer ia^e ), 
ar.a ü' I can any wa^^e make it coi.V-niei.t to caLi ou jou, i^iuy e>;ject 
to eeu lae. eaiitine per.iit ne to ani.ounce ^ou and -in- • r thony eveiy 
good v/iLh jjre ß^teeui can Euj^estjbein^ ver^ truVj , dear lii, 

Yo r ctfi CG tioi^ato friciid aii^ huiiblc i-.. rvant, 

Aaron Lo ^eis 



( l^^arcuE I, ,jp. iOJ-06 ) 



o] The he:y'dii/>'' of Aar)ii Lope z 



"\ u ^ariy revejttäoe w:^.£ t, e JU 



;'e had ^.i-OJL-.ix. e 



coiic the iiead of tiie c ]:i::ünit^. ■'.i\ 



r),. tiity nc.euLo ^-e fxrJ-j 



cea;^.Lj.ehea, IIjlL iiiu^^-iva.!:- ..n-Di*-.. - j::.ipE cr^ reu -lü 4. v;a lerciiaxr , 

in EXigiand, 
hii3 i.ai.:v.ii wac .;n\;on rn all the coi.oniv.r aiiü f^r be ^ onu the:.!. ai.a 

in .he ' es u ii.Q iai^-aüü-^Äü^ja-^. Ii*i4viaiia . "There hxC rntcre:::ts^ .;ere 

pr)tecteü uj ..±i: ecceiitrrc - u t di«voted ui.d cf-iwicut i-.^.iit, Ca.jt. 



T^ 



j:C. a.-)xi. ri 



i^^^ 






00. Oia 



•tir 



iit; aoalel " hc vaLlea hiiiei-f. ri:ere 



wai; a clorx. .enrmal reiatioarhrp h-.tije i. thc L.vo i'^j^:!.. . • * 



Ljjpez 10) 



There v;^re, ho.vcver, many cujti^ius to who eaiiing oracr were 
ißLued bj/ Lo^eü. AiA even vacler v/at t;.e nui. er )f ho-c cor^ee^^onderite 
oii tliti Aniorxcui'. c uitinct, the islai^dc and oversea, Tiie x^ersoiiai 
aiTecbion whica th-y cheriched tovvardc hXin ^jerLieatetf muro' letterj; 
paiticuiar;yL of hie cor^reiigion ete, Even straagerr turned to hin 
with requests touciiini; Jewish m^^b of Üfe» as tiiu foiov.in^ lettcr 
from Jarriaica demona-tratcc. 



L t^iimpßu )f the friendi^' relations ..hich prevaileabetv;een 
LOi^cü and hls JewiEh corre..'OndBifefiL'OxierL' hiL^ correrijoi.dtiice ^.vi th 
Joßliua iiart, a bucineEcnian of Charles Town, rou..h Carolin-, a 
frieiidij' aiid piout JfcV; who "rareij ü* his euuer diJ Xuil to e^'wtnd 
tirectxLßS xor the cornii.g Je\vi^:h holyaa^, whichever it :nitj;ht ha^jßßn 



t ") be. 



Jdc.Iuu licurt fco ^Kaion ^o^jez 



♦»^'ou'i pieaee accojt of a smaii caelc of Eour orab^^ee ae a toicen 

.^f oJi* cjLHcer fricndchip" 

Chariei: Town, 15 th Fe rjarv,1771 



Dear Sir: 

Your Icind ±JbXiiiX aiia otliging Tavour of the ..Oth ulto, 
whicl: wac hai.ded :ue b.. Ca^.t. Eari, I have now before i:.t.. and ari 
ha^jpy to find your godueelf and family continue enjoyinü' a ^.erfect 
scate of hfcaLth. 'lay the sane be long at Lended ui Ui evcry other 

decirable feiicit:^'. 

Y ^üU ^jleaee accept of a cm^ai cask eour oranges as a toicur., 
of our c„ncer frexndchix^/'.Irs. Hart joine ne in our äneer lxiiiiüi£hip3i: 
thaiiiwc for yaur kind f-teour of the salmon which caine ix. uue season. 
Hr£. rart and famil, joine me in ..iEhin^j you and f anil:, , jour 
brother Ab ran and farrtil^ , the ./idow Lo^^cz and children, ad Äi\ David 
Lopez, and the rer t of }oür v.ortl-; fi.nily, a rierry pürim, ana :!ay th^ 
Good ( God "i of Israul cet a bies- in.^ n .ou al-, and ar., 

V. i th E j- nc e re i ty , 

Your ae; ureu fnend and mof t eb^^dient ecrYaijt, 

Joshua Hart, 
P.r . You*l pleare excuee niy curtailin^ (thic note) bcxn^: Fxxday 

-im' 

axternoon, tiierv.fo:.e not able to enlarge. ("'Tatcurll, ,o50 



Lopez 11 "> 



Tiie corü^c-i atnosphere v;hich ^vreybäied b tv^ecu the houre of the 
raerc üa'it i^riuce anci the E!iD.^BE:t>. f uriii ly of the laoöett buekeecjauii xei! 
cari be gi^tUerea fro^i u letters of Hart'c cli.v...feter Esther: 
Es ther l lL.rt to Ac.rori Lvez 

— lill W I ■ III1WI1IMI»1W»— — ■IIIKBM— H IB,— lilB^IIKiMWW—i^Kfci'— I I ■ H IHI I — ■■■ III M »Wlii<fc— — — WW^i« 

*•! hope m^' friEenci wxLl excuee the libe*t^ I hi.i.vt; tuicen in ad^reseing him 
with tliis ocraLl« 



Charlee Townii: ord Bept., 177ö 



Sir, 



Your riuci: estewined favour ca-rae Ec^i'f v/ith the ae: .rai.CwC of :,'our 
Iciiid v/ißhes to-ö-rdc r.iy papa o.rid maiia and farnil^ , v;hich you have our 
greatful acicriO?/led{jneritc i . returxi for the • if rij' papa v/ar presatt 
he v;)uid v/ith a ^jrea deal of plaeur arieware his v^orthy frieiid's 
esteeri'd favour, but ae he (is) not, is deprived of thal satsfctiori, 
ae (he) is gone to ^hilaciolphicv for the beiiefit of his health, for 
he has i^ee^i very mciJ ind cpoeed thic pu^rier. 

IlS aupa had thoughte of payini:j; your place also a v-.c:j.l if he iound 
hiüieeif better, v;hich i h »pe icnd priviclei.ce will grant hxm. I hope 
m^' frier^d v/ill e:.c'j£:e the iiberty i have taicen in aurerGinti riim with 
thic Ecrall, but ac ^jv^jt-. btiHij abeent was t::e reacou of r.iy bcmg co bold, 

*Ii' iiaTia joines with me Jin con^^rc^tulating you a^d my dear I.Tre. Loje^ 
DU her cafe deiivery, It alro rei dern ui ha.-py to thinac nhe .ic £ > brave 
with o.il your dear brar.cheG, ; c)ntinuancc of tbt blee; ii.^ ue slnccrely 
v;iEh you ai-. 

Crood Eir, you v/ill plea£ to maJce lama alnd slcf respects 
acceptabie to i-Irr. Lopez and ITrc, ''^endez ( your daughter ), and 
Lliß Ester (Lopez), and the rest of the faniily. You will pieas to acept 
the eame fro:.: one that sibtctibec hereeif, 

Your obliged hunble cexv*t, 
sther Hart 

( 'larcuox, II, 254; r.IS Lopez paperc, ^^ev/port Hictoricai. Society 

Librar^; ) 

The Family Life of Aaron -^opez 

The all Gum iu the Letter of Esti-er Kart to the brave c^r.duct of 

llTB JJO^;ea, dau-hter )f Jacob Kodr, R.ivei'p., was fuliy ji^Etified. 

rhe hau to taiie care not only of the seven children, the firjst wife 

of Aarori **opez hao bon. ti hißribut also of her own prOi^:e.iy whih in the 

end conprised the sar:ie number aX eh:., Aaron ""opez lias become indeed 

the father of a ramified faiiily the rnenberu of whicl: arc sti^-l p oiax-ent 



Lopez 12) 



in the American Jcvyigh conniunity. -^ut it ht-p.ened unfortunc^tel 
at the clope of Lopez' i.fe that ... ^Rä^^,c.ahiicuj:Md...^ an urüiaj. y 
family affü.xr idded m.ch to bis wo, ries cc^useo by the faiiure of 
his exjed..tion to the FLoUrltaid is^tede. 






Lopez lö) 



T..:e Knd o f (lloryjjf AaTonJ^o^jez 



The moBt fa-aoue am ng tlie käk Gentile frinadn of Aaron Lopez 

waß bis c)untr:/.£Ui Ezra ntiiee, the emiücnt seh )iiar anderer ident of 

Yaie Univers:'a.tj. Th^ corait.! iinfe between the two men wac inetru lental 

to the origin of anotlier ULique frienüehip. 'Pot itx wae Lopez who 

then a paetor in ^Jewport. 
intriduced in 1775 a stränge vieitor to ":^ra r^tiies: thu Tephardic Eabbi 

or Ilahara llaim Isaac Carigai, a native of neuron who carne to !Tew,jort 

on hiE journci? tlirougl:! aii the countries of che World a^u^hi^E-. for the 

sake of collectinij noney for tiie eolioLs and poor of Paicctine, ''tilee, 

v;ith hie friendl:,' iixli aation touas ds Jcv/£ and vivid tiitQXiiBX thou^^h 
inciduiitaily 

.•.t leas -. paxtly missionray interst xor the Jcivitrh poopie bcca c faccin-ted 
by the _.er£onality and wie dorn of Carij^ai i.iA thus a jro|i^Ui.ci friündship 
duveioped betv/een the two mc durine ti.c few nionths of Carit^al^s stay in 

IJewport. ^hey diecuiced ......„,._ A ser on ^reache^. ;.y Carigai iL the 

synagoguc ' ""^^ -^-ir.u 

cnurch of ^ev; port , tlie fire )iiL de.xvv^red by a Palee tiniaii j e\v du 

Ar.erxca eoü, \vi..t' t.. ciimay of Carigla's o^Journ m Khodc -tciand. 

t e two Ec: arfc 
"he.-hii he pL-rteu for Barbadoc, kJB ^.r)LaEeu each other to .uep up her 

coi.x.ection by B.Qrxi2.-o lettere. Thit- correpondcce i.iaintaincü. ±u he 
Jlebrew, Sjanieh and English v."iuid, if pret-erved, conetitutc onc 3f the n ^ct 
tcliin^' recor. c of the epoc , Lilce the t^o contempoiae^'' e^x ner of ietters 
betv/ecn LeL-iing and Mendeitiohn in Cem -ny/.and its ngiish c unterpart 

the corres.-'Ondenc of Jocejh ""riectly with Da vid ^üy± 

Ca.riga . dxed (in Barba^oe in 1777. *Iii -^y , i7Gl, juet aboub 
fou- years la^f ter ij^iit ( h.iE^)death, li^z ra •^tj.lee, then jreLa.dent of the 
Yale Colieg, wrxtcj to Aaroi. Lo^jet, who wae stiil. Üving in hiE haven of 
rtifuge at Leicuster, aceaciiusettE, Tle asiced that L, prereüt to the 
College a portrait of the late rabk.!, pointxtit, out that '•it ;vould be 



liOjez 14) 



honourable to :^oux natiox* at weil ue ornti^n nUa to thic uriivcreit:, , ♦• 

Lo^ez ust3enteci giaälj ui.a ae^wtcl tiit i^cw^^ort artiet, :";r. r....:!uei K:iric. 

v/ho was then iivin^ il Boeton, to uncierUvk- tlie com-ariori; thie was 

in the nonth of . uguct. )n ?!ai 28th oi' the folijwin^j 3/e;.r, Acron 

T.opez ( whilc- ou ci Journe^' '*väth hi£: wifc c-nu sone oi" iiic rEchil:/ 

on a ViCxt to '"ewpor l, ancl väthin five 'iles :)f "Tovideiice at 

Scotts ^.)c>Ld uj.; he war v/ater bis horspc, the hort-e, thc horre 

jjluii^ec btyoiid hiG cic.t:. \uth th^^ EuIIcy, v;hüi. :^r. »o^jcz ie^^jea 

into the Y/ater. ui^d thou^i.. his scrvrit attc^pteti to L-c.ve hir v;ac loet*' 

Eariy /.r:erj.caii Jewe Ljy Lee .'I, 7rxedinan, "amürid^e, '^laci. . rvard 

Un^ vun: it^ i^resi. , iJ54 ) drovaiea in rcott*E ^ond whi-^ iL.j.alü- oX 

aandziliiJiüü on u uri^^ froru lieictiEter to -Gv;jort, ' ;ra f- ci i.crr wdcc a ä 

note jf c üaoiciice, on re^jt-ei.ber llti., to Lo^jüz* f;-tlier-in-lL.w, 

Jacob '". KiVöra, and ai ti:c £fi::ie tx^io ac novrleiigeü thc reccijt of 

tlie '\ Ti^kil jov i-axt vvhjLch ?^vera and ot::.erF had i^aid foi\ ?ivera 

answere the note lu v;h:^ch Precidsi.t 'tiLer ano thc Cor .oration of 

''r^aie ColLu;-e aC'Ciiov/icd(:ed ti^e recei^^t of the CarigaL portrait and 

exjrecred their c:,rapa.hy on thc düath of TiOjea. ( 'arcuf: I,l'M-5 ) 

Jacob Rodri^gues Rivcra to "..ra Stdcs and the Corporation 

^^^^^^ College 

'^T'he ho nor ypu are plea ged t o pav the meraor:; of th at la i'ncd m an, _ 

aa w ell as to tho s.£__tnat had the pieasinß- satigfact iorj o f contributing 

to tli'-c dona ta.on infin i telj gur^>aL'£ es the vai..e of so g-ic vll a t^ift*' 



rieicertcr frtaoc of ^«^acrachue 

ctts I'^a;/ ^1 
Decei;:bcr iiOti. , 1732 



^/orchi^ Gentlenen: 

■j-yuv muc ecteer^icd favor of t j u llth rptemler lar-t, did not comt 

rn;y= hands tiil tv;o monthj;! aftcr xte di.te, I wa'n hap^j^,- to le b\ it in- 

fornea that Mr. .^linij haa traneL^itted jou in good order tlie portrait 

Ol ih^ leiirned Hahain Isaac Hain Cari,:aL, the which yoü jropored 

(cvfter fraried) it Eh )uld be deposited in thc "»ubliclc T.iLrai- of Yalc 
College, 



Lopez 15) 



The honor j'ou are pleaeed to paj^ the memr^ of tliat Icarsed 
man, ar v/eli ae to thoce thiit hiid the p.-leas:jing satinruction of 
contributin^" to that donatior? infinitely riurpas: er: tbe value of so 
smali. a.^if t. Tora me, tlie Prej?idenl and Fei Lowe of the ^ollet^e v/ill 
please toaccept ir^y cordial tharikf:- for the i::reatfui eence \ov are pleasec 
to e.auerl.aixi of t:ie iate JiOpez'e libex^•-^2ii±J'', The- c 'ndolcuce and ic-nd 
B^mpatl]^' vou are pLeajped to cy.presf on accoünt of his iinnatüre death 
"bxings - resh to our j.dca ( miud ) that sad catche trophe, that deprived 
hie daßcoi..8olate widov; of the "b^rt of hüel>aiid£', hiS nui.erous of r^px^in^; 
of a tCi.der and ii>aui^'ent jarent, n,;Eelf of a v/orthy Eon, v;hose ver^. 
life and eoul wae ct^eely in ervovedd witli mine, and thea com. unjity 
in geiieriil of a usefuil aiid vaiüab e menher of societ;/, all v/hoi ' bog 
leave to joih with ne i. rotuining you )ur ..;nfe..gned thanks for your 
heaxty condoLeiice on the Mclancho .y occaeion» 

Bein^j; desirous to ciimpiete and perfect that portreit b fore 
i 's depor:itedi, if you^ll be iSo obli^ängaci to let me Icnow the coct 
of tiiG frant: you iiave bectov/'d u^jon it» 1 will reinburee :«ou that 
experißc v/ith p.ueaüue by firct uafe band that ofi'ers. 

/.f.: it i'.Llv;tvE afiordc ne and far.iil;/ ^reat pleasure in every 
event tJiat can coritxil» te to the happmess and v/e ».f ate of te Reverend 
*^r. Etiler, wc ßhoul be v/untin^: in the high eeteen and veiiüri^tio:. 
v/e hare hin and h-iß worth^/ faniiy WciG v;e to oru j t thin opportuniti^ 
to fulicit; tc hin on the happv ctete ( of renarriaf^e ) he has latel:,^ 
etercd into, on which Joyfull occasion -^rc, Fivcr^. and "^^re. Lopez v/ith 
both our fi^riiliec be,^: leave to unite v;ith ne in our hecvri.y v/ishe: thi^t 
indul^^e t^c ven oay poui* dova-i hin choiccL-t b ■.'cr-vm^t: on ti.e haj^i^' pair, 
atid that tlieir future da^ c ::ia:y be a cerier of health and j,>i-o£- jerit:^' , 
Y/hicIiare the raoei ardentdt witihet of hr i who v/i Ih the hiebest cCi-t-.: entc 
of eetee:. aiid rce^jectr be^, Ic? vc to Eubscrlhe, gentlemen, 



TO th 



p ft 



luv .. 



Your rnoet obedeient and ver;; hurn.le 
cerv^-nt, 
Jacob Kodr. r...vera., 
^resident and Cor^vor^tion of Yale College 



( r^'arcuc I, 195-6, 'Tf. ^'ale Univerrltj- Librar., , :'rintcd in 
Lee ?£• FriedinaKii, Kabi^i Faim Isaac Cari^jal, hoston 194''), t)j. ^^-öö, ) 



Looez 2) 



Aaroii Lopez to Abraum Isaac Abrahams 



"Therefore earnestiy entreat ^. our devotion to iead -ou to bethe 
rneritioriouH; inctrument oi" theor obtaining the covenat wViich 
happily characterize ue as a peculiar flock'* 

TTev/port, Sep'r 6, 1767 



■""r , b ': 1 I s . Abrahams , 
Sir: (p.post) 

I have thesubgular pieasure of ad.,reEi:inc you on thu joyfull occasion 
that presents mt the arrival oi a brother of mme fvDvi "^'ortugal uith 
t^LRtz.-^XRS.Riit:^:-nm his wfg and three sons. 

Their errand beiiiM' founded on the grand object of gi-oryfying the 
?r otector of f sraei , (they ) are inL-Direu wit.. a sparte of ( Abrahain, ) 
our old father s zeali and ready to obey the divine precept, 

therefore earnestly enrtreat 5? our devotion to lei.d you to be t,.-e 
merxtiorious ins.rument of ti:eir obtamibg the covei.ant \vhj.ch hap.jüy 
characLeri^e U2 a p..cuiiar fioclc. 

U wouid have joined them before now in anticijationg thi^. request, 
but the ppor s^siJbß es täte d)£ heaith my brother has been in nade jrie thmlc 
it prüden t to wait his recovery. 

Should It suit your coTrcn_ency to improve tlie first opjortänity , afte 
this rcches y'r hands, it will parzicu ua ly oblige one that cincerely 
jr fesfics to be, sir, 

your most h'bie serv't 
(/aron Lopez ) 

Abre.kcuasarrived m I'^ewoort iL Oc tober and .:)erf ori'ied the Operations 

at that time 
at tiverton.Abraha:: Lopez was fity-six years old, the age of his tnree 

Eons r nged fron seventeen to twenty-eight, 

had 
"Lragically, Aaron -uopez suf ered ät the same time the loss of liis 

brother -^oses, A letter to Isaac da Costa, a scion of a tiien dis tinguished 

v/ho . 
En^.lish faraily, had come to Charles town sometime 1 efore i750y and beLide 

kEin^ havmg beconie engaged in commerce, s^rved as i. cantor of thu newly 

organized com- unoty, is i-. testi mony al:. to the deeo femliy fbclinfs 



of Lopez ±a3?£ax±E- 



for his family as weel oo the rise of his C)mv:ercial 



atatusa 



LOj^jez o) 



Aaron Lojez to Isaac DaCosta 



'•The smine Powffi-rful Being that de^jrived me of a good "brother has 
MeliVer*d frora the reach of babarouL mquizition a younger brother 
of rame tliari the deceased, wit , his wifo and three sons. "' 



Mr. Isaac DaCosta, TTe..port, Sept'r 17, 1767 

Sir: 

I am indebted to y }ur Icind fav'r of che 14th May p. my brother 
David which ^ should have ac aiowledged before now, but the tasic of 
businesE often steais me the pleaeure of waiting on my good and v/orthy 
friSWls. 

The deep coücexri :you are^ pleased to expresE on the exit of my 
bt^loved brother ( Moses, d, April 6 ) is a natural cons.. quence of 
the mutual regard that subsistea bet\;e(.n two smcere friends, u.-on v/hose 
eternal separarion y'r teiader sentiments are eo dolefully deliver*d. 
The particuia esteem hc profes^ed for you justly entitles hxm to your 
poschumous and cordial declamations, 

The same ]powerful Being that deprived me of a good brother has 
deliver'd froLi the reach of barat^arouslnquizition ( i^braham ), a younger 
brother of niine than the üeceased with hi£; v^ife and three sons. They 
arrived here in a ship I ordernd there for the better conveniency of 
their transportation. i'his piece of ne^s I talce the liberty to impart 
you, persuaded it will m^rit your appiauze, both as a Judeo and a 
f riend, 

The truiy obliging \;i£heE your benevolence is pleaseci to pronounce 



for r.iy weif are are fresh proofs of the benignity od 



r mind. a-ay t?ie 






Itighty Hand retribute so generous iilieart \;ith iiultiplici ty of v/orlui;>' 
"bleshings and termxnate al L your ui.ur otakings ^jorfec tly hapxjy , , , 
(l) ibserve your late rezoiution of declining to acept any 
consignenenls froiii abroad on accouii' t of the badne^^: of txi.iLS, anu 
t'.xiX you cannot ( ajz j-)u could v/ish ) render yci'r frirt^L^ to a^reable 
E;alec' an^ quick ruturns, Jhe di tiiiteres ted principles tha c ^ .)verii 

ur equi table si^IrRa Trg^.Tii^;.qaixciiL -XEtiirn conduct justly excuses you v/ith 
me from the Imputation of your rejecting my iddresses by reason of 
L.ny dislilce, bu^ ratlier for the esL^ential obstacles you are pleased 
to p0a.nt out, vvhich v/henever removed, and y^u find any better prospect, 
1 shai L not faii reviving our com. .erciai corres jondeiiue. J..eam7hile 
shaiil f latter myself, be 5?ontiLnued :.nd cherished by a friBuuly 
mtercourse, 

...re, Lopez he£:t respectc joiu wiiii^ to ilrc, I^aCosta, y uv gooa-celf , 
aiid re^t of the family, b.in;._- v/ith ünfeigned esteem and defer^nce, cir, 



X.jur moGt ebed*'^ anu ii'ble serv't, 
(Aaroii Lopez, ) 



^'ray you to f v'r me \/ith forwarding the mciosed to our niutuaL fr^nd 

( :Tarcus I, 1Ö9-140, Lopez -^''aperr:' , Tcv/port 
j'istorical Society Lib,rary, ) 



■From the Gorres jondencc of thv_ Merchcint "^rinces 



The ::iL.in aciiiev^eniartit oi coioniai\ Jewry ha,s ^ü\.li jjerfonned 

^ '■'■ \ 

in tiiü s^j^iere of ^nue^i-iational and .tritercolonial tl?ade. 1-4— i^ true 



F 



ttoi fT '--^ ^^^ YQvy first 'beginriings of the ""Torth American settiement 

Jews jartici^jated m alt k^ranches of social iife. Only two ^ears 

i an ding 
after the SLXxiJial of the fxrst Jev/s m --ew Amsteöam Dr. r col; 

Lumhrozo i Jevv^s.. jh^. Sician,arriveu in -aryland on Ja nu^c^y <i4, 1656 

E^'j^}&Mxi^lMM2oaL.MbiB^SQ.lMaMB.Au.:Xi^^^ Jewisix Ijoctors fractized af ter^.vards 

in many colonj.es,-' We L.ay see a Sj boi of thii. ^. .j-Cxiüraci.ig limc 

vj^th coloniai ocj.ety in thv; ufe oi one of t-.e twenty tnree fir^t 

sttierb, Asser Levy Vau Cwellem. ' itn Ui.domitabie energy he javed 

hi^ way i: > the adiiiis;:ion to the mounted guard of the clony, to the 



i/v>^de , to iandownership and to the license as a "k.u .eher. - 



/ 



And «-ev/L ".vert fouiid, as has been asuertamed by ,7c.c ;u .^.rcui^, n 
pxactically all the trades, Th. y v/ere tal _o"w' c'ianlers, watcoinajcers. 
so.--ji.La.cers , sadL.iers, bakers, &hO'.;e. a.cers , \vj.girialct:r£ , dxStx.Li.erE, 



M 



ey e^\üelied as craftsisa - üiaz.. rs anu siiver- 



anu _..aigo srreEiL, i.^ey 

. bove ai - . 
Si.iiths. tney ^^erforLied ±n a ^ oün^, society sc .ei-j importa...t Services 

as pedv.lers and £ho jiceepers . xjL];ia.±l^:.agxaßiijJ:iir£..a]:Ld:.th£-.li:;e^-^- 
Jven -A.n those f j.e -ds vJi^re ^ev/s on ty s^iaxajä Ict^; ..^a i-.rs. dx. -^ 
s oraa-c^aui^ u.cairit; activu ,in a^ncu -ture ana the lega.L profesio.;. 

e .1/ IL ±:^ - ^-J eu. j.^ej-i ^^-arc» 

co.i.-unity )i" the 
■' ver t.-tlesF. cl-e lc-,. oered huudre.. s of Jews of coloniai days iud 
to contiibute to the nev/ society beyond the atlantic by malcing 
not liniit itsel^ to caxiXKiiiisjtuxi'isict' fuli use of the pos'^ lui .ities 

neu World 
ofiered by clie i-.jä3c.£.:iiiiJ£tj>:--Xß;^^ii]i:.j;hJeo-Jtxx2iniiSL. tncj a -i o did 

a j^oneering work v;hich ;jas v/xtaiout Proportion to t.-eir smali 

nuiabers. Tne t-raoito., e:;.pericnce, einteiligen, e and the wo .rd v/ide 

coniicctions enabled them to take the .Lead in one fieu..: the sphere of 

intercoloniai and internation^-l coLii.ierce. 



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Aarayn Lopez, merch- nt of rewport 



iL Portuguese Jew§ XMEiias5'£3fi..af--iExa£i-,---\7er^ the founders of 

the restored ''ewish Community ^n England. Even the chctnipion od rector^.- 

tion, "^enasreh benisraei, had originally caine from Portugal, It was 

almos t 

exactly hui^dred years after his arrivai an the Briti.£li Isai ii, that 

2Ji3iiiBXXJc?.QX±iigaiy.x another refugee froin Portugal made hist^ry on the 

American continent. Te v/as not a scholar like the P^bbi of Amsterdam, 

heitthr did he - b ^- e^mg^^'a Itym ^fte-r of .tlie i..evr.^..caiiuüuux.ty . Put Duarte Lopez 

W-ho Tbntil his tv/enty firet year had lived the Ixfe of "htt'.i-r-' tian in 

?rotugal and a.n 1 752 fled witn his v;ife a.nd family to KE3spaxt:...i/7kere 

America .11 order to escaoe the danger of inquif:. tionx , xn^E- KaB:^. vviihin 

i:ac in hie v/ay jroved a joweriul piüoneer of a rising ne*/ ^ev/ry. '6 is 

the firrt _uy/ ujon^)lfcjfn the ti le mei uu^-^nt pr.nc has be^n Lect")wed 

in the -^^e;. V.^.. Vorlu, / l^rti^i ^t Jf^c^ r ^ ^^ ^^v^^Y ^ -y* v<v /t-f'<'-T 

choEe ^- ^ - -— -^' ■ -™ — pA . ^ ... ^^ vJ ^ iocoo ■ 

Looez RSJ:L±BÄ:.in iTevv jrt on -^oim: ■'-cland v/here nis brothur had 



EOttied j^ever:-.! yearc bc ore as h^^ residence. i^JsncjaJioxtir-hjkH-.naMe 
X5i£:.JLa^an5,^eic he rciaarried hi^i wife :ain£i aucording co tho '^ui-ieh 



ritual, and toolcs the nccie of iv-^v:)i\, jetreminecl Lo iive heii'.ui rth 

the Life 01 a jrof es^. ing '^ev/ he turnedcl to 5iDndiaji:.±o "'-brahiii ^lart:^: 

in -^ondonfor rit^al obj ec ts such as laniJt , ora.. er books and iiiezu zaco l 

iri"l759 
whxfihSv Hhen the Synagogue was erected im --ev/oort, Aer ui Lopez was 

lai'^addy so respected a memeber 01 the conr-iuniii ty t l t he laiä dtrie forst 

of the four cornerstoneg . Herne years later another biother, Abrahem, 

coj.iing froiii '.Portugal, joiid x^aroia in "'ewport ukomo-st at the same time when 

he 2^p 1 j TiuEiL . t iiBi^v ^üffered the los-r^ of -^oses, Tne zeal ^.it'.i v/hich the 

embr^^ced Juaaism 

two brii-thr£nuhxe iwo reunited bretiireiL.g^ay_E:-iLe:-±: to. iiieax ic relUecteu 

in a iu^oüer to x^brahara I.s Abra:;,as, the msot populär mohel ( corcu £c±£ 






o.ii^..i&tö^4e^^l-£.nd, v/ho at thiat tiv-^e had l. Lr.ady 



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-er-oiii ea ni£ lUnCuion iii 



the afiiiiiKjjan aßvvborn sons of Aaron and Iloses in 17 57, 



i. -eric 



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David L/iid Hichaei Hays 



At the outbreak of the Hevolutioii ^'■iclmei Hays wle a £»rrner 
at Ivortiica; tle and his ;youngest 'brotlier, v/ho liad served in the 
l'Iew Yonc contingeüt at -raddock's f..eid, had returned to peaceful 
occup^.ions:^ ac a fcirmer c^nd ^tireke..per at ::^edford. Michael was a m;...n 
advanced m ^^earc, Davxd v^ae m the prime of life, iiliiup- beuii iDorn in 
1752. 



• • • • 



David Ila:;.'^: amd rnost of the other heads of families were alt^ent 
v/ith the patriontic aiiii:v . . . ."'rtf . llayL: ( 3i^ther Etimg ' was at the 
tinie of the ""'ritish raiö(on Bedford) iyinc upon a Eick bed v/xth a 
nev.-born xinfant at her ureust. Ker husband and eude^rt ^:on wsfre ith 
the arm;>' , ana siie ^.ith her dL^Ut^nlers and her baby "boy v/ere attanded 
by cxn old negro £:lc..ve D:..rbj and hie wife, v/hom che had i.a)'ou_ht v;itii her 
frorn Baitinorc, . .!Tot ::iriti£h soldiers, nut Tory n'^ighbors, entered the 
house oij the eleventh day of Juiy, 1779, au^..deirinaded fro. Jlu:e sic^: wonian 
xnf omiation slie was L-upposea to .josr-eL^t. c:)ncerning the patriotic -^jlnfj. 
'hl her refusol to play traitor, the house v/ac -f^red witü a br;:.nd from 
it£ o..n he rtctone. The uiother ana chiLdrenwere coi.veved bj th^ faitxiül 
negroes o a slielter in the v;.'oai. and there cared for until sucuor caine 
tothem and to tli'^ o there who ;: u-ier d fr m Tory malice. 



M chael -tlays appears to have b^n a man .f some c )ii£e:iuence m 
his coiti.-iunity . 'rradj...ion rel tei: t:iathe war concerned in th-.- drafting 
of tiie GoiiLtitu^tiiion of tiie state^f I''Tev/ Yoric, 



3e u.ecii ITi^nael iL-^ye ana h±z broth r David taere ex^i (feev. a profouid 



li.c üer...E of ':xGiiael'e \Vj.i-L ( 



■a^ 









bü t 



love, videixceti ao c oniy ...j li.c üer...E or :xGiiaei'e \Vj.j.-l i Dx 

inwhic.i he i-et alL hi;- jrvjeit, to Xliis "beioveu brolther Lav:.u. 

,.y ::ian^' Lc.oerc-; not oi puLlIc inter^r. .. '''w ) ie.ter, howiy^er, ma^; ■.. 

quoteu, ai, iiuuswratxve of tu^ fxri:i a_fect.. n wit wliich ti.^ ecatterea 

familie^ ii -ewL j... t::e earl, aav g if our countr\ clung to the oi.s^ rv ances 

of ther.^ reli^ion.... 



To Hr. Michael Kays 
^ ^erchant 
in :'0rth G^-^stle 



3e ,ford Hepti.ieb 



1734 



De 


ar 


TJ? 


ro 


th 
i 


er 

sen^y 


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ou 


a fe 


t: 


e 


:r 


ua 


X. 


1. ctfc; u 



senz/you by Jacob •,-• 
u a 4<^od fast f^habo^ 



mutton icilled yeas^erday, also 



Cr- 



-bbath; on vmac. 



a . ;eo.rr t-3 



of 



"ü in C '.le; . t 



y "}i;r Deegi; 
i,VG fallen 
other 



': alt j HondajL le yorsite for 
( Alah Shalom, -^'eace be upon her : thiiv le evidently the first ai^n-i-vei^aiy 
of r^etty Hays's, Davia'.. rnother's, death i :3soher ^ :b'amilyDes ..re t > be 
re::iüaüereato .you anu v.ishesyo v;ou1ü Com a- Keep Yontob ..'xti 
tnursda:, ölst^'yöf Septe.nüsr ;i fr.da^ the Ist of ictoer is tJ 
Days of ucotli; v/edBBsda, Oshina.abah ' ^eveath da^ of tc 
th. 6 ?■■ th.rsaa, k frida. tüO 7 .-: 8th ^f '-ctober is the two last aa: 
^ write this for f ear you v/ont Com.; ...utic will Please us all very 



M i2 » e^- ij 

.c tv/o firtt 
ernacles / 

nach 



3^ 



to have you here 
"ad Ink a l*en 



tuen, 1.^ haste as 
from yjur äff 



^ac') . is \7..iting 
:^ rother Dacid Hays. 



David Pr. Hichael 3-Iays 2) 



iii ^:' rtii Castle 



Bedford l'e, ruarv ::: )th 1785 



Dear ~:?rother, 

I YiOjQ this ifiay find you weil a^.' we are ab ^resent , 
I jusi: iet 'j\,u icnow tiia ^ Lhi. ri^da^ the ?A iz: ^urirn aud we shaii be 
giaa to se.- v ou here; aico that r idiurda., Ilarcü the 26tii is ?isac 
aua V'/ouid ais) be ^la of j ur G-odd Com an^^' tiieri. ' 'e ai - j o.y n In iove 
fxoia your afic. rrjther — 

David Havs . 

^rayer -^oolc w th deiet..oiis of "v^jrge t .e thirä .iD-tiii. etc in 
tlic prjur fjr t c^ Govern;::eiit, . . 

■ ,e ardei-t r^-belL: , iiu^iband and v^if^, in v/hose eerv^ceE tnis booic 
v.Lv£ u^eu, uei'c- not "-^^ra^, ^n^, .. oi "-cor^e 111%, t/.eir ancecors :.l.v n co. ;e 

frO'ii IIoj-Lanu uO tiie I^ev; 'ret.-eriand: , m the tat. er _jart of the i7th ve^^nt. 

a c'oya_n;:^o a ti'c.dx 1:^011 they cai: e m tli-ir :>..i. Lhi^), '..itu tiicir o..n 

servax.ts,' cattLe , setJUL i-uu the Loois of a^-riculture. T'heir fx.st 

settle eiit v^as near '^e\v RochelLe, w ere David II ys wat uorn, un ".rarch, iVö2 . 

He d-ed ab 'ount -ieasant, I'c tober 17, 1812, havin^: surv ved h . 'j noble. 

\v±fe iiearly tv/ei^ty years. 

An u -ver^fied trad^txOü j^- vuc bo him a sw'ora na ..hicli '..ears a 

pjamc le jenu thal. iTia uc re^-aered: 

Drav/ i'ie not v/otiiout rtaEon - 

f^ h e a t h e 1 ;i e n 1 w 1 1 h u t ii ) n o r . 



T^6t^ c : . e e r n 1 n /^ Da v d • 'a ^ s a n u "cu s t b © r 



'•c'-. 



Ebtin^ his w.fe, anu LTichael 
and Reuben ^Itt^nr:, thexr brother^, 
'atriits of the Reviiution. 

bv roiomon '^ol^s-Gohen , "*hilL.Ql.^hia 



Publ. 11,64-72 



Da-ViCl 



Lichuei II 



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ITaym Salomon 



Haym Salomon to the C o ntinenta l C ongress 

^A Y:)ur memor^aliE't ) has d^ en of great service lo the .Vrench änd 
American ^j-nsonerE, and has assisted t:iem v/ith rnoney and helped 



tiieia off to iriake their escape 



u 



Philadelphia, August 25, 1778 

Tp the Honoratole, the Continental Congress : 

The me:;iorial of Haym Tolonon, late )! the c .. ty ol" e York, merchant, 

humlDly shev/eth: 

That your memorialist was some time before the entr^r-bf the 
British troops at the s^^...d cdity of i:ew York, and soon ixfter taken 
u,j as a spy and by General Robertson coinmitted to the Provost; that 
by the interposi tion of Lieut. Generü.1 Heister - who wanted hxm on 
account of his knowledge in the French, -i-^olish, Russian, Italian, etc., 
languages - he v/as giver over to the Hesr:ian Commander who appointed 
him m the coniv:ii..sary v/ay as purveyor Chief ly of the ofiicers; that 
being ät New York he has been of great service to the French and 
American prisoners, änd has assisted them with money and heloed them 
to make their escape; th t this ana his close connexions with such 
of the ?Iessian oiiicers as v/ere iiiclined to resign, and v/ith Monsieur 
Samuel Demezes, has rend*rea him at last so obnoxious to the British 
head quarters that he was laready pursued by the guards , and on Tuesday, 
the 11 th inst. , hc mc^de h^s happy escape frorn thence, 

This Monsieur Demezes is now most barbarously treated at the 
Provost' s and is seemingly in danger of his life. -'^nd the memorialist 
begs leave to cause him to be remei.ibered to Gongress for an exchange, 

Your i.iciiiori^. ^ist has upon this event most irrecoverably lost 
all his efiects and credits to the amount of five or six thousand 
pounda'sterling, iBLStXÄXtja: and left his distressed v/ife and a child 
of a iiionth old at Nev; York waiting that they may soon have an opporjiui.ity 
to corae out from thence wi thJR empty hands. 

In thesc circum^: tanceshe mj t humnly prayeth to grant him an 
emply m the way of his busmess wher-by he may be enableato sup^jort 
himslef and familj'. i^nd „.du memorialist is in duty bound, etw, etc., 

Haym Saloomon, 

Papers oi" lie kontinental Congress, -o. 41. Yol,IX, 
PP. 58-59, Division of manuscriots, Library of Gongr. 
Publ. I ( 1905 ), 87-88 

S,'s Petition was referred to the "Board of ;/ar and v/as probaijy 
buried there under hundredt' of sxmilar req.ests. 



Marcus 11,159-40 



Haym Salom n 



Marcus II, 145fr. 






was in the habit of iendibg irioney to some of the deigtes 
Ol' the (Joiitinetal uongress who were in desjerate need, among theui 
James Madison. In Aug. of 1782 the future President had written to 
Edmund Handolpö: "I cannot in any way maice you more sensible of the 
impottance of your Icind attention to iDecuniary remi ttances/for me 
thtui l)y informin.^; you that 1 have kESLn: for some time oast 'been a 



pensioner on the favor of Haym Salomon, a »^ew broicer. 



( lu a later let 
"I am almost ashamed t 
he wrote to Randoiph ag 
irnpossible to suppress 
Front Street, near the 
f r m ex t r ■- nii ties, but I 
as he obstinateiy rejec 
usurious tnco he thinxcs 
who aim at profitable s 
gratiously spares a sup 



ter ) Madison does not refer to him as a »Jew. " 
reiterate my wants so incessantly to you,** 
ain, "but they begin to be so urgent that it is 
them. The Icindness of our li^le friend in 
colxee nouse, is a fund wh^ch will preserve me 

never resort to it without great mortif ication, 
ts all recompense, The jjrice of money is so 

it ought to be extorted from none but those 
.jeculations. To a necessxtous delgate he 
ply out of his private stock." 



( in Sept. L782 ) S. had the pl^asure of attendmg the dedication 
of the first real synagogue bullding in Pennsylvamia, a buxcoing which 
he more than any other man had mc.de possiblü through his fmncial 

contr.ibution The buLdiug cost L 1.815; actually collected by ^onas 

Phillips L 1,000. S.'s congribution was L ö04, a lar^e sum for a man 
who had arrived in i'hiladelphia more dead than alive just four years 
before. Later he added to his benefactions and gave the synt^gogue a very 
fine Scroll of the Law which he had imported from Europa. 

S.'s good fr±end wa^ Eleazar Levy, a former Ganadian trader, 
one of the New Yoric emigres to Philadelphia, "from ,jrinciples 
repugnant to British hostilities. " . ..It was to hi , that S. turned 
m January, 1785, in the matter of the money sent to his family in 
Poland. ..he asiceu him to write to his friend Samuel '.{yers ( Samy ) 
in Amsterdam. . . 



fn€(ß>zeTLevy to Samuel Myers, Amsterdam 



"You will judge of Mr. Salomon *s anxiety to hear of his parents 
and his ardent wish to relÄeve them" 

Philadelphia, January 9,1785 

Dear Samy , ' 

At the request of my friend, lir. Haym Salomon, I enclose you two 
letters for Mr. Oumple Samson, a -^ew merch't or trader, at Amsterdam, 
which request you wi^l deliver into his own hands. The intent is to be 
as'cured that he has recEived the letter, and you will be pleased to 
advise of the delivery, 

Some considerable time since, ^r. Salomon, reflecting on the 
circumstances of his family in Polc.nd, which, ..hen he left many years 
ago , consisted of a father, a mother, brothers, ar^d sisters, from 
whom he has not heard, thinicing it his duty, now it is m his power 
to afford them as^istance, he upv/ards ol a year ago remitted a bill 



Haym Salomon 

Marcus II, pp. i45ff. ^) 



on Amsterdam for fxve hundred guilaers to Mr. G-umple Sarnson wxtii 
airectuns where his relations iiveu, and how Mr. Sarnson was to 
disjjose of tiie money aniong them. Tho' man^ opportunities have offered 
and vessells arrived from Aniifterdam, ?,ii. Samson iias toxiäi-^jaziÄX 
axxJüiEy.DmiiÄ^LaÄüaK.g^JbiBaix not answered J^r. Salomon *s ietter )r m amy 
mauiier acicnowiedged his receipt of the money remitted, tho' t.-e 110^.6 
on v/hich tne hiil was dxawn advise the oili was presented anathe money 
paid t^ ti.em to Mr. Sa-.son. 



• • • • 



Thüs haviug related tiit circümsatnces , you vvill judge of 
riir. Salomon* £ anxiejy to hear 01 hxs parentrand his c.rdent wish 
totelievc them, lor could he once Icno.. -.'r. Samson v/as not incimed 
to\trouL.le himself with this charj. table, tho' un^jrof itaoxe commission , 
Mr. Salomon v^oul.. xmiaeaiatelj use ha.£ utmost endavour Wx t":/ s^nie o.ßer 
people and remit another "bill. 

I need not er 1 arge für iL er on thxs matter, vour ovvn fcelmgs 
will direct y -u what's laxH. m order lo uimg ti-u accomplished relief 
to thos- -joor relati ns of -^'r. Salomon, vvhose blesEing must f ol ^ov/ 
every individual tüat -.n öiny shaoe i£ intru:;.enual therxn, I am, 

V.'itii ttame regard, 
10. r ai'iecG. friend 
TCleazer -^evy 

Posenlach- ^ipenhcij] '^oliectijn, Ietter uoo^c of ':.ay '^a.lomon, 

. mericaii ^ .II.S.Liuic.ry , pr^ntta ii. oa-rt ü. '^hartes liidwara Rus^eli, 
Haym Salomon and the: ...evo .ution - e\v Yor , 19ö0 , 2ö0-ol 



A few months later, in A^.ril, Salomon finally heara iro.;: 
his folics b^-cic home. They money vvhich ht sent Ithem had finally come. 
All told, he received four Yiudish letters from them. Tnese Salomon 
for..a.raea to x^ew York, through the courtesy of Ueazar T^evy, to Israel 
Myers, with the request to answer them. TTyers no doubt was proficient 
in :iebrew and ^id^ish. Ilere äs S.'s note to him: 



Haym Salomon to Israel Ifc^ers 

'^ou will partake with me äfi the j oy that I feel on rece-ving those 
letters so long wished for*' 

Philadelphis , April ^9, 178ö 

'^r. Israel -yers , -^'^ew York, 



ike the l_berty in se amg you, by 21t, 3leazer ^evy, sundry 
reo ' d from my parents, which I have to beg of you in the best 



Sir: 

I ti 
letters 

manner you can apd according to the directions that Mr. Levy will 
give you, I dare|say you v/ill pattake with me of the joy that I feel 
on receiving those letters so long wished for, and in relieeving them 
in their necessity, Beg you will answer the four letters, and also 
please to to write äuplicates of each which m so doing you will confer 
an Obligation on Your very obe*t serv't 

naym Salomon 



Ha;ym Scilomon 

Mcircus II 145ff 6) 

N.B. Please to mention to riiy father that I have latoured 
under m not having any learriing, and that I should not have.dcnown 
what to have done had it not been for the languages that I learried 
m m:>' travelE, such as French, ."Snglish, feto. Therefore would 
advise him and aii my reiations to have their chilären well- 
educated, iDarticular^iy in the Christian languages, ar.d sho'^ld 
amy of my brothers' chi Ldren have a good head to learn Hebrew, 
gouid contribute towards his being instructed. 

Rosenbach-Oppenheim C. in part in Russell, o. 2^1 



::ai't ( }:arendt, 'Barnelt, Bernard ) M ses Spitzer, Deputy Grand 
Inspector of Masonry fnr Georgia, appointed by Iloses M. ftay g . 

Haym S alomon to Bar ^ t m. Spitz ea^ 
( Charlestown, South Carolina "1 



Philadelphia, June 20, 178Ö 



Sir: 

writing 
this is 
and can 
deirous 

of your 
return, 
And one 
thebett 

you may 



I am surprised after the rnany asturances that you gave of 
to me that you have not yet done it, Jowever v/^11 admi t 
an axcuse, that your v/ ole time is dovated to the ladies 

*t spare time to inform a friend of your welface, how ever 
he may be of hearing*. 

I doubt if the ladies here have to same reason to complain 
neglect. Am certam you would not maice it long before your 
Y/as you to know how deirous the ladies are of your presence. 
in particular who wishes that no pecuniary views may get 

er of the partiality yiu always entertained. for her. 

Time will not permit me to enlarge, but be asLured that 
command any thmg that is iX in the power of 

Your obe't servant, 
( Haym Sal^omon ) 



ibidem. 



S. was the chief broker for Morris, an agant for the French army 
and navy, lor the French dipiomatic representativex and consuls, 
for the DBtdh and the Spanish. 



Th following is an answer to a wandering uncle in .i^nglahd - 
Joseph 7;lis? - . . , • 



Haym Salomon 
Marcus II 145ff 4) 



Haym Salomon to hie uncle ( Joseph Slis? ) 

••I wÜL at my leisure explairi to you the nature of this councry: 
Yinig Yidishkayt ( "little Jeiv/hsnese'* ) 

Philadelphia, July 10,1785 

Dear Uncle: 

I rec*d your last letter inclosing a letter for A^ron Levy 
( the fouiider of Xi-ronsburg ), I . ili n )W answer your several letters 
fully. I have ordcred fifty guiiders to be paid you by Mr, Gumple 
Samson in Amsterdb.m, v/hich letter gxving that order you must aiready 
have rec d, and I now send jou an oraer for six guinies. 

Your blas of my riches ere too extBBsive. Rieh I am no , bug 
the little I have I thinit ±% my ,duty to share with my poor father and 
mother. They are the first that are tobe provided f ^r by lae, and must 
and ihai-l have the preference. '"hatever iittle m)re I can squeeze ojt 
I will give my ^Laax relations, but I teil you plainly and truly tht^t 
it is not in my power to give you or any relations yeariy allov;ances. 
Don't you dcdt any of them expect it, DonH fill fill your mind with 
vain and idoi expectations anu golden freams that never will nor can 
be accoraplisläed. Besides my father and mother, my wife f Rachel, 
daughter of Moses B. Franks i and children must be provided for. 
1 have three yo ung children, and as my wife is very jjoung ( Rachel 
wag fifteen when S. , thirty seven, married, on July 6, 1777 ) may have 
more, and if you and the rest of my relations will consider th±nfes with 
reason, they will be sensible of this 1 now write, But notwithstanding 
this I mean to as; ist my reiat±ons as far as lays in mj power. 

I am muci. surprised at your Intention of Coming here. Yo^r 
yikes ( family ana academic bacicground ) is v/orth very little here; nor 
can I iraagme what you mean to do here. I think yo.r duty calis for 
going to your family, and besides these six gumeies you will receive 
in Amsterdöjn fifty guinaes of '^ät. Gumple Samson. 

You are pleasea to say you have done a great. deal for my family. 
Let my father and the rabbi of ÜisFa write me the particnlar Services 
you have done to my famil.v, anü I will consider in what raanner to recoin- 

pense them. 

I desire no relations may be senu here. Have I not children, 
are they not re-ations? Uhe I shaöö be fully informed of all the young 
peopie of our family and their quaiif ications explained, I may then 
perhaps aavise sending one or two to this country, and I will at my 
leisure ex^ li in you the nat..re of this country: vinig yidiEliiceit. 
I am, with true respec , dear uncle, 

Your affec'te nephew, 
"our very hum'le serv't 
(Haym Salorann) 



Ibidem, Russell, p. 262. 






'■'M 



Hay« SalOBon to hl. »"«J^J^JrÄaf Jüly ^io. 1783 (SngU-h) 

•...I ..111 at mjr leleure explain you the nature of thie counti:/ : 
vinig yidiehkeit. " 

takee oare of a golden ohaln whlch h« gaye to nie no ther 



HaymSolomon - Tewele 2) 

that she shail not "be aTole to seil it, I dcsire c^iso that vigilance 
be constantl^ exercised iri this conncetion so that the heir as well 
shall be prevented from selling it. 

( a later postsctipt ) 

I also wish to inform you that the entire matter of the 
inheritance was settled in the foliowing manner: We chose two people 
as arbiters. ( Ii we had g ^ne to court the matter would have dragged 
on for many years; besides Reb Jacob is an honorable man and does not 
resort to litigation. ) i arranged the matter very cleverly. Sach of 
US deposited a check for four thousand ductas with a third person as 
a guarantee that we would accept tue decäsion of the arbiters. Reb 
Jacob Cohen chose Samson the son of ITathän and I selected the learned 
Joseph the son of Wolf Carpeles of Prague. Their decisinn was that 
Reb Jacob Cohen should pay the heir eight hundred ducats as foliows: 

400 Ducats on Maorch 2iad, 1785 
400 Ducats on Septe-her <ind, 1785. 
Out of these eight hundred duc4is we are to Jiay a draft for i 
three hundred ducats v/hich the deceased Reb Sphtaim owed in England 
and which was sent here for collection. That would leave the heir 
about five hundred ductas, If you should desire to maice an advance 
to the heir, I shail make payment frora my own funds even before the 
above date. 



This letter is only a draft of the original wuich was raade 
on the secona of Ei-ul, with one postsctipt probably added ai the 
same day and the other on the jieventh of ^lul, when the original 
letter was dispatched to Rab--bi Schiff. For some unexplamed reason, 
jrobably as a means of identofication, our draft was sent to the 
heir ac -^issa, who set out to travel to Amer.Lca to collect Hiäis 
inheritance, On his wayhe tarried at Amsterdam where Rabbi Saul 
Lowenstamm, the rabbi of the city, write a tes ^imonial on the 
reverse side. ( It reads as foliows: ) 

I have seen this letter and I Icnow the writer, the perfect 
Scholar Reb Joseph the son of Wolf Carpeles of Prague, who is now 
in the city of Philadelphia, in America, This lütter was v/ritten 
in his hand while the late philanthropist Reb Haim of Lisaa ( whose 
Signatare is well icnown to Guraple WB ( Wolfen biiutel ) of this city) 
was still alive, I attest to the fact th- 1 the bearer of th^ letter 
goes to maice his claim to an inheritance that has fallen to him in u 
Order to sustain the lives of many people who have nothing to look 
forward to but to this es täte. He mu.st make a lon^ journey 
overseas and he needs help, aäd a^^d guidance in crossing the ocean 
by boat. He is er.tirely destitute. It is, therefore, obligatory 
on all of our brethren of the house of Israel who see this letter 
to aid Reb Jacob the son of Abraham of Lisaa in every respect with t 
funds as well as with advice to spe^d him on Mb journey until he 
reaches his goal. There 3cü± he will undoubtedly find trutnful and 
righteous people who will help YiiiQ. secure that which he is to inherit, 
as is testified m this letter. Blessea is he who listens to these my 
wordE: and renders kindness and truth to Jacou; his reward shall exist 
forever in this world and in the world to come, for himieff and his 
descendantL. Signed by me this day, --^onday, the 46th day of the 
counting of the Omer, ( 5546-1786 ) 

^^^LM?iigRy(5?^?itlTOaii of the 



2. Ha^'m ralomori to hie uriciö ( Jaee^h KLIb? ), • 

'*♦,,! will at rnv IclEure ex^jlain i'OU the nuture 3f thic couütiv : 



ti^cc' cur« of a ijolden clit«in v\,hicir he ^uve to^'^Hac nother 



A Haym Salomon Letter to Üa"bLä David Teve^ce Schiff, Loi>äon 1784 

By Hy man B, Grinst ein 

( }*'rom the Archives of the Library of the Jewish TheologicaL 
Seminary of America:) 

Translation from the 
ii-elDrew and "Jidaish 

Copy of the seventh äay of Slul. 



Praise be the Lord, "Philadelphia 
the second day of Slul, 5544 

( 1784 ) 

Oh friend who is enlightened in all ways, whose knowiedge equlas 
his icetneessJ famous abroad for hj.s learning; teacher, master and Rabbi; 
cele.-rated for h-s genius and wisdoin, whose name is praiseuam^ng the 
»Jewish peopie everywhere - Rabbi Dvid Tevele ( Schiff ), may his lighl 
shme on forever: 

Your letter of the first of last Mslev, as well as the power of 
attorney and the teetimony of the heir Reb Jacob, were duly recöived. 
I did not let the matter rest bu t hurried to communicate these things 
to Reb Jacob Cohen, Ssquire. Upon seeing your letter he changed his mmd 
and said tome as foliows: "You need nät go to court over this matter. 
I shall permit an examination of my books that pertam to the oeriod of 
par nership with the deceased Ephraim. From this you will be able to 
draw up a current account and I shall payyou v/hat I owe tne heir Reb 
Jacob, "^leaye though allov; me some time. " In truth, as you well know, 
the accounts of this partnershi need considerable exam.nationa Almost 
every day I took leave of my business ( which is qui e extensive ) 
and speedily finis the matter. The hindrance is as I have stated; 
I am confident, however, that the entire matter vvill be settled in 
favor of the heir, as Reb Jacob is an honorable person. 

I also attended to the matter of my father*s clothes, the membership 
in the Community and the burial plet. I have written to Gumple WB 
( Wolfeiibüttel ), Ssquire, to send my father fifty ducats for this 
purpose, as my father mentions in his letter. I pray that almighty ^-od 
may reward you for the kindness that you have shown me and my father 
aind. iji retiarn for this may you and your family be inscribed in the 
book of life and may you minister to yourx peopie for many years to 

come, 

Your servant, 

Hain the sn of Reb Solomon 



(Postscript) 



I spoke to Reb Jacob Cohen a moment ago and he promised to arrange, 
in a very short time, the entire matei in the heir*s favor. ^ay it 
please God to be so. 

Llay I also tiouble you to s^jeak to my mother, may she live long, 
concerning the gold cham which I gave hd. I wish mt to be understood 
thai this is a gift given on condition that it must be returned, so 



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Haym Salomon's['.last fifTfe \^lorious/ years 
The Nine Years of Haym Säömon giory 



<x^ 



^7hen Haym Saiomon, native of^lssa in Pdäiand, axiived An iVXS 
in l\[ew York, he wa^ a, inai. -©^ ^ . There wer« 



more thaii nine ye^rs 

left to him , n more than to Theodor , erzl when'he had .-ubiished thc 

a Span of les£ than a dec de ijroved 
J^WxSh State, _n both case£, ümjp-ÄBXE sufiicient to ma :e a man 



iraraortai ^y 



(J j ? ^A-v-:- -,/ <d 



Lhe fuj. ueveipe.un of hii chaic ter a.-d abitlities. 



-i^ 



/H/'^VZ^'! '■■'' 



years coincide almos4; exactiy wi th the most momentous period 
in «^merican history : /r- 







i^^T-7«7>.,i^:^ 



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ä!^ >^ <- <^'<<e^j ' -J^"'" '•^-a:""' ^1»^-, 



"£'*-- v-s* 













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Haym Salomon -Tewele 



The draft was probabiy sent to the heir at -^issa, who set out 
to travei to Anierica to collect his inheritane. On his way Äe tariief 
at Ameterdam where Rabbi ^,aul Loewenstainrn wrote a testimonial of AÄe 
reverse side. 

Wolfenbüttet, a wealthy Dutch *^ew, was Salomon 's busmess 
represenatative in Holland 



The letter was not written by Salomon. .it was wntten by 
one J )seph the son of Wo-uf Carpeles of Prague. Salo )inn coul read 
but could not write the language, , .Car eles was probabiy one of the 
most learned men among the Jews of America at the end of the 18 th 
cent. ,..lt IS lixterest- g that ^n quoting directly a Statement 
g ven by a person, Carpeles uses the Yiduish, indicAting that Yiddish 
was used considerably in Philadelphia 

The decäesed was one by the ni^^me of Ephrairn. .P.sibly he 
died in xgyiijia -ngland, where he and Jaco C Jhem were in busmess togfejer 
probabiy btfore the revoiutiona^y war and that upon the cessation of 
hostilities the rabbi oi uOi.don secics' to huve the Claim settleä, 

,, .V/e are inciiend i^Ä^ to accept the Jacob I Cohen of 
Ric hmondij;! Va. ana Phildelphia as tht one rnentioned m theletter. 

The description of the court arbitration is extremely 
interestin^. This is probaüly the first record of such a proceedxng 
m iunerican *^ewish history. The arbiter. v.ere Simon Nathan, parnass 
of Mikve Israel, and Joseph Carpeles. .Poth H.S and J.(Sr. were 
required to deposit personixl cheuxcs of four thousand ducats een, co 
guarantee the accepetance of the verdict. . . Cur letter also givesus 
an insight mto how a native of a European town wou .d do anythmg he 
coüld for a landsmann, even willing to advauce funds to the iieir of the 
rabbi consäers it nccessary. 

The personal refpcences to Haym Salomon are q.ite mteres tin. . 
His father in Litisa is to be p^rovidea with^^clothe^ probabiy u shroufl 
which every Orthodo:?; *^ev»/ arianged for duririg hj,s life time, a burial 
plot anu membership m the local (yomrrunity . . .The paragraph in our 
letter rcferri.g to a gift of a gold chain to his mother is very HiiXÄ 
obscure. . .\Vhy he refuaed to aliow his mother or her heir, to seil the 
Chinin, we caruxot say. Perhaps it was a memento he cherished. 






ue :,• e-^- 1 e 



^ -ncn ru,n '~a.Lo..an, native .f -.„..a .n ->q4..k:, u ...cd in 1775 
iXi "^e.- roric, he wc;.£ .. -c.. of oi; . t...^'-. v.,v. .. 



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cr:ui*c..rv oi ;; crxcu: 



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h:)r c li^.re it: ;i-.i; l w.: i li. the 



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[:i:-.*.^ Cj^i i:;r^vur: 



c:.t.ürii^., : iiU the i:c. ii.; :oi ^ )j' tl:c ;;^ir Ke^ J: cü'ij, ucrc uuL^ ^ccöivcd, 
X dxd not iüL tr^c i.i^tc^r r^n w du. nur^ieu to co::";. i-jüxc: lw tc.uL'c tl'xi.^r 



w4iü Ci-iu "L. 



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üL^-K. i: "Yo.-' neu liit c:-,j t) toüit ovui' t.is:; riutoCr. 



1 rh;.Al ^.;jr::.it Uü c:-u ii^.. ti 3ii oi' ki^ boo^a tia:t jortc^-.ii to ui.c _;cj.iou di 
, i. r .-crrhi ..it.: ti'w clccec ceci '\..]irr i*', '"r") t-üs: ^)i; ..iL. u-^ . blc to 
drr^v. uj :. c^rrent ac:. oi'r.t ; cl i cl:dl j<. ;,\, v i.h^ t i o\.\- t ^ liOxi' Reu 
J: cob. 'U. rc tiiou^i: '..llo. MC £ ) e ti.ic. ■ x^ trutl-, c.r. ^ ju ..uLi kiuw, 
oi;L c-c. oUi^tL Jx tiJic ..^ rtüLiclii iiü^d c :)iieidcri;.-u Lo v_:.i...; ... Lioi: ii-Li et 
ovt;r., Cic.,^ ± to:}.: 1l. v*.. of .:^ Larxi-erL f i;: ic ir. ^^ü-. o oi.tci.i'ivü ^ 
. ixd PjCcdii^ fxi:ie thi. .1:. tler. 7iiC ilixidr^-LCc xC UC x liö. . ^ L i,i^te^- ; 
j. c. C OiAiüül.'U, ilOWüVCr, t .... l> tliv-- ü*it-.rC; :.^ tlOi' X '. l b^ Lcbuuüv. xii 

x^^vjr •>.^' tiic, L^ii*, :-,L iicb Jc.c3b ic :n lion')ri.tl^ .jcinn, 

. :. uT :> ^-ttü uüü t:; thc .:;:..tlc;i: ol :.g' xc..t..ei:*L cijtliei, :'::c ....ibcrrlii.; 



X i . o . 



:c CO luiiit^' c:.i.u t'i^. üuiic- L jiot. i iH.vc \^ritten t) Güu^ic 



( ' ■ jxTl i.:;.'i jcI ', ;e.^(..x;:L , to rcnKi -j^ fc..üi:cr Tiftv duü-^tr aoi 1,1.15: 
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Aaron Levy to the fu ture g^tt leir Q f Aaränsburfeli 



"Know -ye t. c.t I, tiie Sc.id Aarin Levy, at tlie request of several 
advei.turers of t. e sanid tov/n ( of "orthunberianü ), do herehy 
acIvnowlied[::e , confes^: ar.ci dec Lare that the severai ianes, streets and 
aile^/s of the said tovvri of Ao.ronshur^:h ...shali be hereafter forever 
open puLiiC roads or hignways for all persons malcing use 



of 



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!Torthunheriand, -^enns Iv- ni; 
Oc tober 4, 1786 



X 



01 

oi: 

as 



conveyancesx and 
Scixd Aaron Levy, 
tract or parcei o 
in the Gount;^' 



all people to whom theee presents sha;-ll coein, I. Aci.ron Levy , 
the town jTorthuEiberland and county of Horthuriberland, in the stL.te 
^ennsy Iva. ia, merchant, send greetin^'. 

'A'hereas, by force and virtue of sundry good 
urances. m the law duly had and executed, I, the 
becaine seized in fee simple of , in ajid to a certaii. 
land, situate, lying and being in -i^otters tov/nship, 
aforesaid, adjoining Davjd Dunca, David '.'/atts, sheaicpear and others, 
part of which said tract hath 'be^n iaid out in small i-ots for a, tovm 
by me Aaron Levy, and called in the general plan of the said tovai 
*AaronsburJh, ' and in c ^nsequence thereto have Iaid out and lots of 
^round granted to sundry persons , adventurers of said to.-n under ^zj^x 
cerrain reeervations in their severai c inveyances iientioned ( ezcept 
v/liat shall be herafte. exc^pted and reserved ), ■^''ow, Icnow ye that j. , 
the s:-^id Aaron Levy, at the request of severai adventurers of the said 
tov/n, do hereby acknowiedge, confess and deciare that the severai 
Ianes, streets and alie:;''s u" the said to..n of Aaronsbur,:h called 
Aaron.'s Square, Piume St., Wine ?t., North St., ^.Vnite Torn St. ( then 
West Sc), Pine St., Rachel^s 7/ay ( named -.fter hiswife, Rachel ), 
Chestnut St., Säst St., shall be herafter forever opne public r jads 
of highways for all persons malcxng use fo the same, and^that severai 
ianes ana alleys of the said town, to v;it: — Blaclcberyy Alley, 
Gherry A^ ey , Strawberyj Alley, Apple Tree Alley., Mulberry, Gooseberry 
illey, ^Valnut AI le;^ , Spruce Alley, .:n.on Alley and Liberty A3iley, — 
shali likewise rei/iain ^ len and be fora the use and benefit of the 
ov;ners of lots and ground bounded )n and adjoining the saue, and I do 
further deciare this plan of th^., said town of Aarinsburgh to be an 
accurate jlan, and that the sever^tl ways, streets, 1 ';^ and alle:-?: 
therjLn delimeated snall be and remain finnjiy fixed to .all intents, 
constructions and purposes whatsoever, Eut be it remernbered, that the 
said Aaron Levy has excepted and reserved, and doth hereby except 
and reserve ninety feet in breadth, and from Säst St. to V/est St. 
m iength in Aaron* s Square of the said tov/n, allowing at the said 
time t.-irty feet, fronting the buildings on each of sia.d streets 
for public uses. But he, the said ^i^rron Levy, doth confess and deciare 
for hinislef, his he^rs and assigns, to surrender and deliver up the 
said ninety feet abpve reserved to the public as soon as he or his 
heirs shall see the said town of Aaronsburgh settling and improving, 
L..nd that there is an absolute want of s..-id ground so reserved for 



P 



ublic uses and bulding 



But the said Aaron Levy doti; reserve ol nxii 



ninety feet in the centre of "^aron's Square as aforetiaod described 



shall not be obstructed by him 



the said ftaron Levy, or his heirs or 



a 
u 



sei. 'ms, but shall remain 



free, clear and unobstructed for Lhe public 



ses of the town of Aaronsburgh 



Aarori Levy ( Aaioni-burgj 



V 



In testimony whereof , I the said A ron Lopez, have hereiünto 
set rny hand and seal the fourth day of ^ctoToer, in the year of our 
Lord one th'Usand seven hgindred and eight:yo; ix. 
Sealed and delivered in the presence of 
John Aurand 
Christian Gettys A'- ron Levy ( Seal 

On rovemher 16, 1889, Aaron Levy gave to J. cob Siiover and 
M-.chael Motz, as trastsees of the Salem 'Ivangelical Curch. lot IMo. 167 
for the use of the members in cornniunion with the chuich called 
Lutheran, for a schooi, chmrch and burial ground, 

During the Revolutj-onary war he loaned a considerable sum 
of miney to the Continental CongresL, partiy through Rober irorris, 
the fmancier of the Revolutj.on, -^^h-S money was never fully reapid. 



The foüiider of i.<^r j>nsburgh continued his specuiations and 
was icnown as one of the lärmest land proorietors in Pennsylvania, 

owning iimnense tracts in neariy every county in the State. Aaron Levy 
was oi;ie of the i3a:gÄ£±xii!UiiLvjixiiij:xÄJLars--in:^Änns^ jriginai 

meubers of the K.K. Mikve Israel, and after he removed to Philadelphia 
( 1782 ) was a regulär attanedant at the mettings of the congret^ation. 
He died v/ithout issue.,.,In h±z early career he became acqua±nted 
wit the Gratz and Etting fainilies, to v/honi he becair.e muc attached, 
thi s friendship c jntmumg through life, IIis v/ill, dated June 1, 180^, 
bequeaths var ous legacoes of siiver, etc., to ^ac . inernber of the Gratz 
ia,iiy (to -Benjamin Gratz all my H^brew and 3ngl^sh T^rayer iSooks :,.. 
He died Fe.ruary 26, 1815 smtx ... Kic w±fe, Rachel, died Deceniber 2o , 
1810. 

A.L., the son of Attron Levy, v/äs born in Amesteruam, Kollana, 
in 174-, and carrie to Aüierica about 1760. 

He speculated ..n landt to a great extent, and oy Indian 
trading and fuinishing suppiges to the colon^ soon becamL a ^.^rommcnt 
laerchant in the town of Horthui];ibeclanQ. 



AAron L^vy , 
Ey Mrs. IsabellaH, Rosenbach anuAbra .am 

S Wold Rosenbach, of Philadelpohia 

PuJb. 11,157-160 



ne was 


vast 1 


eviden 


out as 


He wa£ 


tcent. 


he s ta: 


He fum 


he kep 


Durinff 


CiHgie 


But it 


^^e nam 


he iet 



On^ pf the .aost busclm^, ene^L^etic of rnen v;as Aaron Levy. 

very loicely one af the most successfi^-l in his fxeld. For the 
and holdings, the sales and üurchö.es of lande in his name , are 
c^ of his man., e terprises. He had ..iria^ination, too. :^"e Stands 
t::e frsrt Jew in /anerica to fönind a ^own and name it for hinisoii. 

born m Holland in i74<i and canie to his countr whil^ in his Ibt; 

F'rom Horthumber Lunc. , -Pennsylvania, which was his headqje-rte. s , 



rted aetv/orK of tradmg opcra.ion-s. H^:; traded with the Inaians 
ched suplies to his colon.y. 'Mater hu aioved to Laricaster v/here 



imon. 



was 



ja tri t. 



a iLirge sum of iioney to the Continetal 
xIorriE. He heipeu furnish supplie:; to the Ari;\ 



t a Shop ana became a ^artner of Joseph 

the Wai , he adv^-nced ■' 
SL'' .hrough Robert 

was the acquisit..on of land whixh v.as his de^^-rest ambx^i )n. 
edtht town which hc founuöd ''* roniiburgh. In the na.iing of s bre 

his ianc:y h-vc free reign. 






Aaron Levy ( Auroiieburgh ) 2) 



One of tiK. stre tc ..as nanied for häs Wxfe Rachel to wliom he 
deeply attached. They liad no chä)idren. 



■.'. a£ 



Piigrim P^ople 
"by Anita -^ibman LelDeson, 156 



Auroii ijQYi, ( Aa: oiu üur(2'- ) 

lix tQt-tiuohj v;l:creof , I tlie ccicl. A roa ^o..;üz, havc horetato 
ret irc lianc and cciU thc fourt.: da,^' of ^c toller, in th^ :,'e:^r of )ur 
Loxu onc th uei-.-iid ecvcü h^ii.. red c.nd ^i^Iit;/o i:.. 
realed and delivercü iL tlic i;riji:üi.C'w of 
Johii AurL.nu 
Christian Octt:,-E A T')ii Lüy, ( Sec-L 

On ":)ve' Ler U:, l'^S'^, Aarn"i liCV^. tj.^ vu to tl cob riiovtr Lvnd 
^^ c]u.-üi ':iotz, ac tru£it:H.cc;t] oi the Hulc... xui.icelic<. l Cürch, io t "T), LG7 
■£ox tliv. ur;u Ol t.iü : .e; :l;e>e i,. co 'i ULiou v;ith thc cii -cl: c:. Lied 
Tiübhcran, for a eciiool, churcli c.nd burii.l ^^junu, 

:)ürin{;i tiiü Kuvolut^on' r^ wc..r Ix lo-^-^d o cjriciuuru.biü euin 
of lldl^lU^ t'j tliv. GoLtiiiCiital C in^:rcr: ; , _.i-.rtl^ tl:r>ü,,h ivOLer -aric , 
ti:u iii:ii.:i.c-.ur oT the :.cvoIjt. j... -^h c .31:^, wC ! ncver fullj' rc£^.)id. 



'h.c; xjj^.der of ^^r xirbur^.- c:^i.tiuüuu ui; r .^cui^- ti oür ^xl 
...j: :no..ii <-r ol^ ^r t-.c l. r ci t lern ;jio xict,)^r ii: ^'oii..r. IvuiiXu^ 

o\vri_iitj i -(Ji.i. u tr:.üti i.- i.üi..rL, cver^ c ;Lii..t^ iL tI;L rtutL;. Auroii ijcv^ 

. .ü uLic of thü X. /l, 'i:cvc icrucl, . x.v. c;xöo: .: v- rc:.;07Ld t) "^hiludci^^hiu 
( IVG . ^ ;.:.; r. rc^jlcr c.ttc ixo: i.l ul thu ..ctiL^t: oi Uic con^^re,_.c. tior:. 
:'ü dl LG withDüL ici. je..,.it h„; 



L^ r L, c^ re^. r 1:^ .. <^c 



C Cl_ i.\ « ii i/ 1 Ü 



\jit t ,c rü.tz Li.u ''t..iL^ ih:..i Lj.u;: , li \:\~o liv^ Lccc. c .uc att^-ci-cd, 
tl-ic iii^i.drj-i^; c i.tiniixi.^. ti:rou^_h Iii\. . xt: »..iLL, d^tcd Jüiic i^ 18)., 



1 o 



UqjCl.oJ-C V- r 'Li! i.Ü_,LC3<,: ,)^ I.l.Vcx, l u.., . , l") -^ LvC 



Ü ~ UC i' ) J. tl- 



I. 1 , 



:z 



"v, diüd "'0 ruur.. 'jo, uBi^ sa.ii- , . 1: ;. ii^» .c:.i-L, died '"cco der .j, 
LG 10, 

iL 17<I.-, ' liv.; cc. (^ t.) /• criCc- L.^i.^l i'/C^. 



< uxii : L . LI iüinxL>.:iL 



U f •' ^ I. _ V.. •. U 



'} l c C Jl ni, C) )ii Lv-C 



^ 3 . . } _ ii <w i « 'ü 



lüi'c.^Lv.. b in thc t)Wii Ol * orthüi^hcr L^.iiu, 



y . trL . icc.^ullap» rotrei^LLvC- -: ü Alru c.:-, 

^ "old "oceL'bL.c :, of 'hx l;. dcljjhic^ 
""^ui, I_,id7-lGo 



h.^ ox tiiu JS-t ^ü;: wl-i... , 0..^ ...^tic Ol ^cii Wv.<: ^.ar^ii Luv,, . 
i^t ^vu!.: v^r; loiClI^ oüc ii ti-^ .. m:. c f. ücuv.;::' 1 1 il hiL x-cld, 01 th^ 

VUCt l-ilC L'^L.in T. tbc Cllür i Lü )U^l:\\ LI 31 lL-*iU: lii hlL iiUr,'^ , L^I'L 

cVj.cc.-. )S L:ir; !:-....ii c tcrjrirci:. 'e '.l-u ru-^iLutiOi., to ^. 'c j: il^luc 
out » r c c -'rir.. 'c;; in y-icriCc. t) laouc :.■. o\;.- ^.il ll. ;c _l lo. i.i' :r .. i-i. , 
'c wL.. \.ii.. „L ^'0 ll.-i-i.. li: .-74..^ liL.: ... c t) LiL- c)üi.tr -..:ii<-. IL hie: l€>. 
ovAi-t. r ): . ""^rhu L'cr-... , -'c. . i:;^- Lv: li^ , .. ichi \a.- hj.: hw...u4 .. r j^ i: < 
.-^ Cotcrtc^. c,c'U.:'">r: )i i:r^ d-ux;.,^ j . r:.. ioLi:. "'v. t^rLucä w„ti: m^. ^i....i' ..r- 
\j fü L r!-;cd ru^iic; l:) -lif c ilon . .; t<. : h. : -ovc 



c ::ü t . r h) .. ii: 



•■> .M.C. C i.cl ..-.C 1- 



p. rt;..o: ^1 



1 )... -c \.::f 



u ^ 1 b • 



D: rm ^ thc " 'a 



::c • ' V 1 c c 



■I 



r^.. c J ; )!' : onö^ t > chv. ^:3ntii,..t..l 



C.Lj^ ^f: '• hir-'U^.:. v..obcri iom£. :'c hclj^; i'urriic!: ri;j>'.iv l-^ c/c .: r , . 
?'ut"..U U...L t.:;c c-C':ü..: ^t .)... ;)i" iL-nc: ..hi:-:h i.r !:^r de- r...rL ^-]d_..i^n. 
"^i: i:L..;:cdtL^ tOwL vlic- i: .. lOULaed ''" roiibhurji, 1:.. thc l... «.i-,.. i'^ r Ue ,e 
hc i.ct hir Tm/C.; 1j v- i'rec rci;i:L» 



AaroTi Lcv:»' ( AurauiLur, 



^a) 






i:C' 



b^^ Anita -^^ibru ii .ucleeon, Ibü 



Jam 



<L, 



'Fo e ter , tiie- ro j:^ ei:,' te 



James Pos ter to the_ T_rucj^e_(^s_£f^K. k;^^^^^ 



^'^ew York 



Juri 



d 



5, L,:48 ( 1733 ) 



Gentl einen ' 



I came into thi 



City 19 th of 1 



clt: b 



i- T 



:. rc n 



tl-i 



d 



ecire 



to 



bcivC 



hold Oi Croä^E lioly CovenLut uut ; 
rLirit ne my de Lire t.t this olcxe 



t 1!: not tiio 



..'''•. ■*- 



nt e:we 



I do eo.rnestly reyue^t. jou m cne 



dit;nt to 
th. 



j lamu i 



11 e 



the Goa ox isarel to asiiet me ii 



ray p i o u k u u £■ i ,:::n o 



vemn 



£UgI;. letters ol 'neoviiivienac 



täion 



aL £ 



:hc:.ll serve L'^ i: 



'0 



duce :e to 



ji t^GOucdnccince \^izi. 



u u c 



Je\.s 11 



i n 



:c ^eradn \7nere 



I ho )e to 



C L> 



d^sire i; 



..rt fuliilled, ,ävc nc ieave co 



Ol Piuth' 



eol: 



to 



>Tr 



.oini 



1 ter tnu 



tre 

xO 



iie no i: c 



iGcve 



,he^ 0^ LO rc 



-f- 



rn ir') 



1 ol-1-o..'in. 



r v.hi her 



chou 'O 






i .L L , ■ - 'HU 



ü i c 



tho 



le.c.:ect I \/ili lod[.e, thy ^eoi^le Sxic.u- oe ny 



peo. 



ie and tj 



G •■ d :a: 



God 



VI« 



here thou diest v^ill I aie, an., o 



here v/iii I be bur^ed. J&JS>Ji 



The Lord do so 

with all due r 



:> o 



oect you 



ficerv. 



I 
friend clq lutended hrotli-.r 



to me if I au-ht out deatn par c chec. ai,u me 



J::.:-aes Poster 



Aduressec. on l 



-1 



i:e DLoG. 



ol . Lo.-s 



Gtriell- t 
i 11 t"-" e c i 



uc 



if the Con-r: 



a.o 



n Ol' Je^ 



^ ) 



r^T 



1 r-^ 



L-0' 



Col 



.ecti 



Pr 



sen 



fed t^ the A. J 



TT P 



i-\' 



>n 



:ho f::.]'^ily o 



.!.» .'. 1 - 



Uiiej 



p 



ever> nd ;:i:i.ü 



J c. 



C h U L 



u a; 



L 



>K. Cj ;, cl 



:10 



ri-a 



7oiLfl: 



' o 



II 



:>}U;...::.n:Ln 



1., X <- 



ni:crip c: 



anc. 



ci.. 



. Ü ; LL . i i I. 



;c rui 



( 



:a 



VLc'v, ^"^uhner 



"O 



U 



hl. ;.:7 ( v^20 



44 



Jl<..^.. i y-) L t e r ^Mie ' r .) ;:. c 1, , t c 



'circr: j-'or te.:; tj tiic ?rur toer: oi' K. \rül:Oc ri bl:: lorc,ci 



■^r- 



:.e\. x'jXi:, 



,i uno 






( J.7:v ) 



i c^.''.e ii. to ti.xf: CiL,, ].3th Ol: lc.rt > rc!i v.it:: ■■ c^ • .ro to t-kc 
]:oiu .}r G-o£i'£ xiuij OD-\jiJU^nt iJüt -c et j; not th:'>;jhu :...^> v^is,:. t uo 

i.:eiL!u icUei*;;-^ oX . oo j.i^i.auolon cu. Li.]-.. Li. Torve t'^ i^itrodjce c to 

t3 ::o^ni..utro . ^K; ri;ii: *.- Ic. vc: t^:c., o ti rv..tnra fr. i;U.)\;ii^^ 
<..i'G.;.. tiicc, Tor vviii ;:^i; u'.-t;: l>' - - -^ "i'-- --^ - '■■*^^' ■ '^-^ ^'*^^' 

UiO.- di^i- o will i die, i... ;;.:;s:ü V/ill i 1--^ ..■cii.'a.A., "^'JR^h 

^ •^' "^ au ;lTw bu t. c^:.. L. ^i-rt U'ec ;:i... uu, i c. 



GrOCi, wilOic 



^Tii-i T.oru ilj ro t^ i;ic ii i 



'.iiO > 



«j ^ 



ncf^ ror t::r 



( -» . o ) ) 



J- - UC 



Kevercuc Siiß 



^^oiärie ii 



,l:er;:ii:..i.rcrit 



'-" 



I • • 



■M 



Jaco"b Cohen, President C 'iigregatio.. "Beth Elohim" , 

to 
George Washington 



"We. 


and our xjos 


teri 


ty, 


, wi 


11 


not cease to 


chronicl 


e and 


coinrneraorate 


you, 


, v;i th 


Mo s e s 


, Jo 


ßhi 


ja. 


1: 


hni e 1 , G . 


Ldeon 


, Samuel, 


Davi 


d , Nac c ü 


ibeus 


and 


ther 


holy 


men 


of 


old 


1 


who were 


rais 


ed up "b:,'- 


God, 


for the 





deliverance of our nation'* 



Carleston, S.O., July 15th,1790 



To the President of the United States: 

Sir: — \Ve presume to divert yourattention for a few moments 
from the more important matters v;hich require it, in order to 
express the sincere desire and lively gratitude \ve experience, 
in common with our fellow Citizens, in your eiection to and 
acceptance of the exalted ofricre of President of the Unied ''tates, 
As soon as the Federai Ge'VQcniaent was instätuded, the eyes of your 
f ellow-citizens throughout the States were drawn tovvards you; 
their unanimous viices at once procLaiined you the most v/orthy to 
preside over it, atid their anxious wishes awaited your consent to 
assume your proper Station. Tiie spontaneous effusions of hearxfelt 
satisfaction ;vhich "burst forth, the unstudied. plandits which 
universaily and pubiicly resounded on the occasion, seerned to us 
to US to obviate the necesiLity of any particuair address. ..ut as 
these have "been presented to you from different classes and sects 
of f eilow-citizens , ae additionai attestations of your eminent 
deserts, and their well aseured prospects of increasing happiness 
from your v/if?e and virtuous adminis taEc:.tion, we are desirous even 
thus lata not to appear deficient in this respect, especially' 
as every day ^/hicn has mtervened has tended to reaiize what was 
so fondly anticipated, Various, extensive and invaluable are the 
"benefits v;hich your f eloow-citizenc have derived from the glorious 
revolution v/hich, under Prov.Ldence, you have been the ,)rincipal 



Instrument in effecting. 



To 



then it has secured tht natural and 



inalienable rights of human na tute — all the requisite Privileges 
and immunities of freedom, and has placed v/ithin their reach 
peace, plenty and the other hl es rings of good government. To the 
Buual participation and enjoyment of all the^^e, it hac^ raised us 
from the State of ooliticai degradation and grievous opprescion 
to which partial, narrow, and illiberal policy and intolerant 
bigotry has reduced us in aim.ost every other pb^rt of the world. 
Peculiar and extraordinary reason have we, therefore, to be 
attached to the free and generous Constitution of our respective 
States, and to be indebted to you, whose heroic deeds have 
contributed so much to their pceservation and estblish. ent. In a 
degree comrnensurate to its wise and enlarged plan, doesthe general 
ffovernment attract äur regard, framed on princi.JLes consentaneous 
to those of the ConstitutotionÄ of the difi'erent States, and 
calculated by i ls energy to embrace and harmonize their vairious 



Jacob Cohen to George ^Vashirigton 2) 






interests, combine theri scattered ooisers, cement their union, 
and prolong tlieir duration. T.^ey hä.ve already feit their saiutar: 
effects. Tixe great exploits you performed while you coimnanded in' 
Chief the arrales of the United State;:, during the arduous and 
perilous conflicts which purchaseci their freedom; the teils, 
fatigues and dangers you surmounted dunng that glorious warfare, 
entitled you to honorabie exemption frora public Services, and to 
spend the remainder of your valuable under the shade of your well 
earned laureif? in sage retirement and dignified repose to which 
your truly magnanimous disposition invited, and for the pure and 
rational enjoyment of which your consGi:)us virtue fitted you, 
But the infoaicy of the Federil Goverriinent isj^xtX&yjiaEiixQLnäxniiXxjuBJL. 
particularly required ^our foptering care, and invoked the aid 
of your virtues to animate its friends and reconbile its adversaries. 
The genuine aithority which you alone possessed, whi'di has its source 
in virtue, and is built on the sure basis of merited asteem and 
implicit veneratxon, and which once recognized, has more irrsistible 
sway than arbittary power itselx, was requisite to launch the 
Pederal Governiaent on its new and untried voyage into the ocean, 
clear of roc.s and quicic sands, and with favorable gales. Your 
consuinniate jrudence and firmness were necessary to trace out 
to y ur succersors the courses they shouid Süeer, your exaraple to 
enlighter-, excite and strengtlien them. Mien 1 udible arnb tion had 
nothing more to tempt you with, when famqhad v/earied itself in 
trur'ipeting your renown; yieluing to the d'isincurested impulses 
of uniform protestations , and the urgent inisrocations of your 
fellow-ci Lizens , ., ou quitted y )ur peaceful and Jleasurable mansion 
to invoive yoursdf in the cares and fatigueGwhic:: novv throng on you; 
and you have shown you rs elf as eminently qualified to preside at the 
heim of govern::ient, as at the head of annies. While historians of 
this and every age shall vie with each other in doing justice to 
your chax"acter, and in adorning their pages wxLh the splendor oi 
your endowments, and of jour patriotic and noble simsmsR^s 
achievements; and while they cull and combine the various good and 
shinmg qualities of the Pa-an adn modern heroes, to display your 
character, we, and our posertity, will not cease to chronxcle and 
comiuemorate you, with Moses, Joshua, Othniel, Gideon, Smuel, David, 
::accabeus and other holy meri of old, who were raised by ^od, for 
the deliverance of OLir nationx, Hid ^leople, from their opprrssion. 
May the Great Being, our universal Lord, continue propitj.ous to you 
and to the United Skates; perfect and iHBXBJUBJS give increase and 
durition of prospei ty of the great empire which he hae made you 
so instrumental in producing, May He grant you heaith to preside 
over the same, until He shall after length of days, call you to 
eternal felivity, which will be the reward of your virtues in the next, 
as lasting glory must be in this world, I have the honor to be, 

Very respectfuiiy , your obedient servant, 

JACOB GOHEiT, 
President Congre^oiation 
"3wth -"loljim. " 

Leon Hühner, The Jews of South Carolina from the Earliest 
Settlement to the end of the American Revolution, 
Publications 12 (1904) 39-61; letter: 59o61 



Jaco"b Cohen 
Hühner, pp. 49 f: 

A fev/ of the names of members of the King Street Company 
( of Charieston ) have "been discovered "by express refercnce made 
to them. Thus,in a letter to whic Dr. ( J.H. ) Holländer ( Publ. 
2, p. 5. ) has called attention written by Mr. Joshua l. Cohen to 
Ja red Sparics, the writer says: "You will prohahly recollect a 
conversation I had with you many years ago during a Visit to Cambridge, 
in which I mentiianed to you that Judge Noah, of i'^ew York, was then 
engaged in gathermg the facts and meraorials of .>he part v;hich our 
people, the Israelites, tokk in the Revolutionary struggle. I mentioned 
to yo u a militia Company that was formed in Charleston, So u th Carolina, 
composed almost exclusively of Israeli ue s of which my uncle we a raember 
and which behaved well during the war," 

Mr. Kohler ( Publ, 4, p. 96, Occidentm XVI, p. 142 ) has her^ 
therefore also called attention to an article in the Occident which 
intimates that ia.ßa3axi:;wiSHliBn David N. Cardozo, Jacob I, Cohen and 
Isaiah Isaa-cs were raembers ofthe Company. Jacob I Cohen appears to have 
amved in 177Ö, Ke served as a volunteer under Moultrie and Lincoln 
and thoughout the entire campaign in the Carolinas. 

Benjajnin Nones 
Hühner 51f : 

In ?ulaski's regiment, mention is made of a French Itew, 

Major Benjamin Nones, who distingu ;£]aed hinis^^f in 1779 ( A i teifeimnial 

letter written by Capt. Verdier in French is said to be still preserved 

by the family.It is dated Charueston, Dec. 1779..., 

It is stated the Major Hunes subsequently also served on 
the staff of both La Fayette and Washington ( Markens, The Hebrews in 
America, p. 126 ) . In a letter written .y .imlong afterward., to wh.ch 



^ •«. 



Benjamin Nones 2) 



to 



Dr. Adler has heretkHXBfore calied attention, he writes: 

"I have not been so proud or so prejudiced as to renounce the 
coase for which "^ have fought as an Americi.n throughout the whole 
of the Revoiutionary Y/ar in the militia of Charles ton, and in 
Polafsii's legion, I foBght in almost every action which took place 
in C^^lma and in the disastrous afiair of Savannah shared the 
hardshipe of that sanguinary uay,'» Säbsequently Major Nones hecame 
the President of the Philadelphian Congregation ^ 

( Dr. Cyrus Adlena, A i^olitical Document of the Year 1800, 
Puhl. 1, p. 112.. Sabato Morris, The Congregation Mikveh Israel, 
ibidem, p, 19. ) 



Moses Lindo 
Hühner. 44 f 

The most prominent Jew during the colonial period was 
unquestianably Moses Lindo v/ho becaipe interested in the Indigo 
indus ..ry of the colony and came fro^.: London to Pouth Carolina 
in Ilovember, 1756, fte at once Qnnounced his Intention of purchasing 
indigo for tne foreign market a^nd his advertisements appear 
frequently in the South fearolina Gazette for 1756 

Lmdo soon becarae a prominent merchant, and was suL;Eequeiitly 
appointed Surveyor anu Inspectot Genrai of Indico, Drugs and Dyes 

for the Provmce. 

Jonas Phillips, su sequently the New York Revoiutionary patriot, 
I was brought over by Lindo in 1756 and for a time resided with him in 



Charxeston, 



Lindo eeems to have been a 



of scirentifi^attainmants. . . 



""e stood in corresponaen e with_Emanuelj^endes da Costa, the Libraion 

of the Rogi^l Society of London and one of the foremost n^turalsst of 

h^s day ( •^hilosophicai Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 
Vol LIII. P. 258. ^aper 57, "An account of a Few Die fro^i the Berries 
. of a Weed in ?outh Carolina.*' In a X^etter from Mr. Moses Lmdo, dated 
at Kharleston, Sept. 2. 1765, to Mr. Imanuel Mendez da Costa ^f^rits 
Kayserling, Zur Geschichte der Judis hen Aerzte, Montasschrif t 1859, 
VII» P. 165a 



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PART V 



LETTER S P R OM THE TIMES 



OP THE GREAT TRAHSEO.RMATIOH 

( 1790 - 1930 ) 
1. 

THE CORRBSPOHDSHCE BIT WEIH THE JEWISH 
GOITGREGATIOH OE KE'JPORT AND GEORGE 



W A S H I IT G T IT P E K S THE E LI A IT G I P A T I IT 

E R A 



It was the ?/est from where the Light came this time. The 

small settlement in the just established United States of America, 

numbering about two thousand souls, was to become the first among 

the Jewish centres on earth that enjoyed the liberating oov/er of 

the great rev jluti jnary movement initia.ted Y/ith the -Tar of 

Independence. The incorporation of the fev/ scattered Jewish 

Comiiunities into the repulDlic of " God*s American Isra.el " meant 

the beginning of a new epoch in Jewish history. The event "^vas 

marlced hy an exchan^^e of memoraüle letters hetwetn George 

Washington and the Jewish congrgations of New Port, Sava^nnahi, 

Philadelphia, ITew York, Lichmond and Charleston, when the first 

President vistted those places in the year 1790. I/Toses Seizas of 

( Rhode Island ) 
:Sew Port was the author of the first of thexK historical letters 

adi^ressed to George Washington. 



The Hebrew Gongregation of ITev/ Port to George V'^shin^ton 

ITew Port, August 1790 

Sir:- Permi t thexchildrenof the stock of Aliraham. to approach you 
with the most cordial affection and esteem for your person and merit, 
and to join with our f ellow-citizens in v.elcoming you to ITewport« 

■^i/ith pleasure v/c reflect on those days Qi difficultyand danger whai 
the God of Israel, who delivered David from the peril of the sword, 
shielded your head in the day of battle,and we rejoice to think that 
the same spirit which rested in the hossom of üie. greatly heloved 
Daniel, enablling him to preside over^ the ppovinces of ihe Babylonian 
Empire, res ts and ever -.Till rest upon you,enabling you to discharge 
the arduous duties of Chief Magistrate of the States, 

Deprived,as we have hitherto been,of invaluable rights of free 
Citizens, we now- with a deep sense of gratitude to the Almighty 
Disposer of all events - behold a government erected by the majesty 
of the people,a government which gives no sanction to bigotry and no 
assistance to persecution.but generously affording to all liberty of 



Gonscience ana s-minunities of ci tizenship,dreeming eyexy one, of üibk 
|ii£ia:|i3iBx whateYei" nation,tongue or Language^eque.! parts of the great 
goYernmental machine. This so ample and extensive Pederal Union, v;e 
ca^nnot "but acknov/ledge to be the work of the great G-od,who rules the 
armies of the heavens a,nd among the inhabitants of the earth,doing 
Y/hatever deemeth to Hirn good, 

It'or all the "blessings of ciiijil and religious liberty which we 
enjoy under an e rual and benign adininistration,¥/e desire to send up 
thanlcs to the Ancient of days,the great Preserver of nien,beseeching 
Him that the angel v/ho conducted our forefathers througih the wildeii^ 
ness into the x^romised land may graciously conduct you through allH 
the difficulties and dangers of this mortal life,and when,lilce 
Joshua, füll of days and of }ionors,you are gathered to your fathers, 
may you be adrnitte- into the heavenly paradise to partake of the 7^ 
v/ater of life and the tree of iramortality. 

George Washington »s ansi/ver was by no means a inere 
formality, but a g^^eat mnifestation of toleratipn and justicp. 

George Waeüiington to the Hebrev; ConA'repiatioii of Few Port 



Gentlemen:3t- ^Thile I have received with much satisfaction your 
address, replete v/ith expressions of esteem,! rejoice in the pppor- 
tunity of assuring you that I shaLl al-ways retain a grateful remem- 
brance of the cordial welcoine I expertenced in my visit to Newport 
from a.11 classes of citizenso 

The reflection on the days of difficulty and danger, which are 
passedjis rendered the raore sv/eet fron the consciousness that they 
are succeeded by the days of uncommon prosperity and security. If 
v;e have the wisdom to msJce the best use of the advantage v/ith which 
¥\^e are now favored,we cannot fail under the just administration of a 
good governiaent to become a great and happy people. 

The Citizens of the United States of America have the right to 

applaud themselves for having giyen to manicind axamples of an en- 

larged and liberal policy worthy of imitationo ALLpossesses alike 

liberty of conscience and inimunityes of citizenship.lt is now no more 

that toleration is spoken of as if it were by the indulgence of one 

class of people that another enjoy ed the exercise of their inÄerent 

natural rights^for happily the Government of the United States 

v/hich gives to bigbtry no £anction,to persecution no assistanc 

quires only that they v/ho live under its protection should deijiean 
thernselres as good Citizens in giving it on all oecasions tneir 

effectual support. 

It would be inconsistent with the franlmess of my character 
not to avow that I am pleased with your faYo^rabi-e opinion of my 
adriünistration and fervent wishes of my felicity. iray the children 
of the stock of Abraham, v/ho dwell in this land, continue to merit 
and enjoy the good will of the other inhabitants, while everyone 
shall Sit in safety under his ov/n wine and fig-tree and there shall 
be none to make him afraid. May the Pather of all mercies scatter 
light and not darkness in our paths and make us all in our several 
vocations useful here and, in His own due time and way . everlastinrir 
happy. ^"^ 

G. Washington, 



le re- 



\ 



.uei JoGeph£ori ro Ho^c^: Sei:a.,^: . -puhl. XXVII (1920), po. 185-190. 



^.....,./ ^^^^A^^ ^^ ,.e.../ ::.^ 



Dear Sir 



A 



z' 



Manuel Josephson to 'Tos es Seixas of i^'ewport 

:^^;iil;..de.L,jhii., 4th ::^eüruar- 1700 



On uhv. 2i^d Dece:.:uer T.b.t ^. I v/as favourod wlitli your obI:L-:irir 
iet"v.uXE of od of the s;.." 'e '^'oiiLh; to \;hic.. loi- tL. ^/l^iU of 
Gonve^, uiicu iR.Vv, not rE.ilied "before. Il'l tiuu y-jur -irotiie in La.. 



ö.f ..ord 



iüvy jas^eü tiiroigii, uut di 



s:' 'C- 



S £ i: ] i 1 1' t 



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e t^me to ta,:e Pen ii: liaiiu^j - This mucd for an apo-Lo. 



■"',v your sc.id iL.vr. y :)ü c.rc ylCtiscü to inf")r :, Lliat .^ou hi.d 
perused thai part of my letter to o^r sister snster Mrs. Judah 
relative to somc of your congregational matters & cereinonies 
in the practice v/nereof I did point out some improperties R^ 
rtcoiomended an alteration. In ansvver thereto you give a circum- 
stantiaL detail of the Situation of your congregation with the 
capricious h whimsical disposition of sonie of the individuals that 
compose it; the the same time you insinuate, that to recede from 
h alter your present mode, woula be very impractioable or at best 
attex.üed with mucn diffivulty , having been ado,.ted not from 
choice but necessity: neverthdess if ye v>/ere convmced, that what 
I advanced on that sibject v/as the result of raature deliberation, 
ye would one ana all £ubscril»ex. to my opänion: these sentiraents 
axÄ do me great homot and are highiy flattering, especially in the 
polite manner you have conveydö them to me : I shall therefore 
endeavou*, and I flatter myself its amply in my power to convxnce 
you, th:.Üvd'iat I wrote is literally just b.. couf ontiable to our Oral 
Law as aeduced & digested from scri.ture , and by no means lü-.tter 
of opinion of my own, for had that bden the case, I should have 
KXlÜ.aH wrote with some degree öf difiidence, and com;;ion modesty 
would have p ointed out the necessity of "mature deiiberatioi. and 
serious consideration" before I BtanmxtiBd had committed my thoughts 
to paper; but as all those matters in question areia to be found 
in our law books, I did not hesitate to write as they presented 
themsüves to my mind. 

[ Hlsfe fSiiSwöa" theologicai discussion about the deciion 
in matters not explicitily mentioned in the Law and on the 
question ^ "distinclty faipc to be found in all our Law boolcs of 
the first reputation" - whether the scroll of the law may be 
taicen out and set on one side while the portion which-should 
be read from it is read from a printed boo^c . In the äiecussion, 
Manuel Jospehson v/rites: ) 

You say Mr Rj.vers reads Hebrew perfectly, surely then it cc^nH 
be so mighty a task for him to read from $he Sepher a few cha ters 
occasiDilially ; common repoit says him a man of understandmg and 
docility of disposition; he was bred to strict rules of Judaism, suii 



Manuel Jose^phson - Seixas 2) 



and dou"bt not has imlDibed the sentiment of his much respecced fathei' 
of iionoured memory, to keep up & support our holy religion &k worship 
in every resepct so much as possible. I therefore have no doubt, 
that on his teing madex acquamted with the preceding passages, which 
:Bhew thatjreading txa. the Parasah from the Sepher is essential Sc 
strictly comrnanded uy our -^aws, th-t he will not hesitate to perform 
thatpart of the service, especiälly when it can be one so easily "by 
means of a parompter; or if that should not be agreeable, to read the 
worüs altho wit out the Ta'amim ( chanting ) would still be prefefable 
to y jur present mode. 



Ceremonial customs have been established in different was m 
different congregations according to the fancy & opinion of tne head 
men that were amongst them at the time of framing tehir several 
CDHstitutions; theec customs were accordingly adoptedand in process of 
time were considered nearlj as essential Sc remain m practice to this 
day. That this is the case may reaäily be proved by those who have 
becn no farlbher than England & Holland, providea they made it a point 
to taice notice. Tue ınha,g ( custom ) in the J^ortuguese Synagogne at 
Amsterdamdiffers from that at London in many resppAts, The several 
Ashkenazim synagogues in London differ even from each othei, and 
so do those at Amsterdam, without mentioning the several large Sc 
numeeous congregations in other parte of Europe, Asia and Africu. 
As to our north American congregations, not much can be Äaid in h 
that respect, as in reality they have no regulär System; chicfly 
owing ( in my opinion ) to the smaliness of ^heir numbers, & the 
frequent mutability of the members from one place to another. 
And as from tneir firs establishment the^' had no fixed & permanent 
rules to go by, so they have xamainÄd continually remained in a 
State of fluctuation. And every newcomer introduced something new, 
either fom his own hjsj^b^XX cc-nceit and fancy, or ( what is more 
probale ) from the custom of the congregation were he was brdd, 
or the one he last came from. This I can averr from my own observations 
to have been the case frequently at New York ever sinct. I knew it, 
as well as by transient persons as the several Hazanim they ..ave had 
there from ti.:e to time, the present one not expepteä, who during his 
being in office haä collected some materials from one & another and 
patc ed up a System of ceremonies of his own, whxch will be followed 
during the time he remains in office, but no sooner another one 
succeeds, some new customs and formalities will be introduced, 
especiälly if he happens to be an European, he will alledge ( as most 
of the narrow minded part of them are apt to do ) what did your late 
Hazan know about those mattere or mdeed how should he? seeing he 
never was of i^raerica &c &c. I say such arrogant langi-ge is/common 
among the unpolished Europeans, more especially among dUR PEOPLE, 
who suppose it next to impossible any knowledge can be obtained out 
of Europe: wher^upon the rulers who mostly are men of yeast^rday , . , 
will mos^ probale suhscribe to the opinions of the New Hazan & adopt 
theiji , as dountless he must know better than the late one. 

ITow this circumstance dies not, nor can not find place in he 
lia3?ge& old established Congregations abroad, as they have their customs 
k ceiemonies even the most minute , reduced to a regulär System, from 
which they do not deviate on any account; and if a Hozan either a 



Manuel Josephson - Seixas 5) 

travelling or established one should perform publick service, he must 
conform to the rules & customs of the congregation, not ibhey to the 
new fangled rules & whims of the Hazan 



I duly observe what you are pleased to say, respecting the 
blowing the Shophar, your reasons for not performing that solemn 
and strictly enjoined service, are befand douht of great weight: 
for there is no Dln ( ruling ) to be found that insästs on blov/ing a 
^hopha^ where there is none... By your letter it appears that you 
have instructed Mr. David Lopez Junr to procure you one ÄÄJbgLDLii 
at Hamburg, which fully complies with the aforesaid injunction. 
In the interim, if it should not ar^ve in time against the next zae 
season,! douht not y u might procuee the ioan of one f r aü ITew York 
nay the cracked one you haVe raight ^xnz^xsJith^xkaaLRxs^tu.i^iiJs.xtx.^jno. 
be made to axiswer in cctse of necd, sa.^ flor trie want of a good one..,. 

Your observations on the blower yOu mcntion to have been at your 
jiila:je '2year&?B£y answers the report oi c: entireii/ justifies your 
bemg ashamed for the Goyim , but with this difierence in your favour, 
that you wsre not ashamed of the Performance bui. of the performer: 
c;-nd if no other could be found thau suc a profligat. as you describe 
him, I should not hesitate to suspend that ?arc of the service for 
once, untill a person of good character woulu undertake to practice 
& perform ; rather than have a Stigma cast on us Sc be derided not 
alone by (&oyim , but auso ^y pious & well thinkmg Yehudim. . . . 



■^.faking offerings at the Sephe ror Hechal ( Ark ) altho no couiLiand 
is neverthelesF practiced all over the worlv; and is men.ioned 
in several books of high estimation, as an ancient cutdwim Sc practice: 
the mode however varies in different congregations ; yet notwith- 
staüding if you find it inconvenient Sc can support the service without 
it, as appears by your Subscription list, you are at füll liberty, 
without being gu-.lty of any infringment to dispense with it, more 
especially xn the manner those offerings are conducted in thee parts 
8c in the l^est-Indies; and on this subject I sincerely join in your 
ejacuattion, that "it is to be regretted it could not be generali^ 
adopted.** But a. i remarked several times befor., the old established 
congrega^^tions are very tenacious of tx^eir customs. 

I douot not that you will agree wit > me that it is füll time to 
close for the present the subject of congregational affairg.And if 
what -^ have advanced, should prove satisfactory it will affor me noX 
small pleasure; I have however to apologize for my drawing out this 
letter to such unreasonable length, which is occasioned partly ^ as you 
will please to observe ) by rendeing into English most of the 
Authorities cited; and partl> by such iliustrations as I conceived 
requisite to throv; some light on those customs ^lid ceremoni^s as are 
not genrally kn wn; und abo e all my desire to return Me'/.sire for 
Measure. Amd must re\|uest that you will be pleased to excuse any 
inaccuracies or tautologyxx that may have escaped mc , whereof your 
frinedship Sr politeness leaves me ao room to doubt of being readily 
complied with. • . . 

As no more room is left on the papv.r must of necesLity conclude 
with adding that Mrs Josephson & cur niece return their best thamcs 
for your salutation, and ofier theirs to your goodself, Irs Seixas, 
your good Mother Sc rest of the fanily aud believe me v;ith sentiments 
of great regaard. Dear Sir your estetmed friend and h.mble ©rvant 

Manuel Josephson. 



:Tauei JjsQjhi^on io :Torc^ reu., c 



nanuel JocojhPon to lorec ^ oijiz^v 



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Lee M, i'riedman, Rabbi Haim l«aac Carigal, 
Boston, 1940 



Basrly American Jewry ( Voium Tww ) 

The Jews of Pdaisylvania and the South 
1655-1790 

by 

Jacob Rader Marcus 



r> 



hiladelphia, 1955-5713 



510-13 



Jews here succeeded in making the 
transition from an orthodoxy nourished 
in a European world of lag^'ing raedievalism 
to an American orthodoxy thati flourished in 
the soil of liberlaism and freedom. Ta.:e the 
case of Mickale Gratz, He had been born in 
the town of Langendorf, on the Polieh-Silesi 
Lorder, Surely as a child he wore the ear- 
locks and the traditional garb of an SastKXÄ 
European lad, ^^^e wanaered ar far a India, 
but came, as a young man to these shores. 
Years later, Michael Gratz, the merchant- 
shipper and land-entrepreneur, but alv/ays 
an obstrvant Jew, v/as a v;ell-dreseed 
American in Icnee breeches and buckles as he 
sat for his portrait with Thomas Sully. 
Or consider the case of Moses Myere. By the 
late eighteenth Century many of the younger 
generation who still freqiaented the 
synagogue - on the holydays ar least - 
were American of the third generation. Such 
a man v/as Myers , a liberal donor to the 
Philäelphia synagoguem building fund, a 
major in the Virginia militia, and President 
of the town Council in post-Rev olutionB«y 
Norfolk. 



Marcus II 2 



I'or Jews and Judaism, the traneition from 
the old wotid to the new world v/ae not an easy 
one. The new environment stirred up many prohlcme 
though they are eeldom reflected in the eober and 
cautious statementE of the men v/ho kept the 
congregational records. The traneition haä heen 
made though the hazardouß "but eucecsifil 
transporting of old-world institutions and 
epiritual values to thiß nev/ land. But it w ae to 
"be expected - one mighj almoet say its wae 
inevitable - that the ew would cjange or modify 
the old, that under the influenae of the new 
Änerica he would modify his religious regimen 
in Order the more easily to make his adjustment 
to new Ecenee and to new demande, Intrrdfltlml;)^ 
enough, as congregations , they did not so, 

But as time, the Jew who was loyal to the old 
traditions found himeelf nevertheles changing, 
There was a cultural lag between hie American 
and Spiritual world and his age-old faith. An 
adjustment between the new and the old v.as calleu 
for. The congre/rational leaders v/ere not 
conscioue of this need, or eise they chose to 
ignore it, to their own hurt, Some of the 
younger generation - how many we do not knov/ - jok 
left Judaiem, for they couid not reconcile it wit 
the American culture which was doninant in thtti 
Spiritual econoray, It was to be expected, 
logically and chronologically , that the land 
which war the first to Kxtxuuusxzkxxx emnacipate 
&Jt its «^ews poiitically would also be the first 
to witnese their enlargement spiritually, But 
there wasno attempt, as far as we know, in 
eighteenth Century America to cope with the 
conflicts of traditioBal observance and with 
the liberalistic demands of American thought and 
attitude. Was Carigal in his ITev/pprt senaon ^ 
( 1773 ) referring to American liberals when he 
attacked the critics who declared that Jev/ish 
preceptSKBKÄ need not be observed if they can 
not meet the challenge of reason? The first 



Marcus II 3) 



rumbling proteste againßt the old order were 
not voiced until the second decade of tfee 
nineteenth Century, \Vhen changes in relßlous 
practices did come, they steÄftd from Europe. 

Yetj in eome respecte, isxjyixxxExtttXMXJnaL 
Münrican ewry was to serTe as an cxemplar for 
Europe's Jews, The group op. this side of tJae 
Atlantic demonsuiated that a whole s^pi^ 
Community coule receive enfranclaisement, could 
live in a monolithic political world of strong 
Christian overtonee, could participate intim-^tely 
in it, and yet rcmain Jewish in a traditional 
sense. HißtoricalLy, this vanguard American 
coimunity could offer the encouraging news to 
fearful, apprehensire lay and rabbmic leaders 
of Europe, inc.n;y- of whom denied the poBEihility 
of haiTttony "between modernity and Judaißm, that 
they, too, could surTive as observant Jews in 
a new libera^ world whenthe sun of «naieipation 
roße to shine u-on them. 






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CHRONTCLE 









HOME SECTION 

Writing Letters 

NOW ttiat so many men and women have 
returned home from tbe Forces, there will be 
a Sharp decline in the number of letters 
writtcn by every tamiiy. Will the surcease from 
letter-wriung lead to a mental siackcning among 
those who bitherio bad to collect tbeir thoughts 
land pen a weekJy epistle to tbe abseni father, son, 
daughter, brotbet, or sweeiheart? Or will tbose 
wbo bave regularly written letters now turn tbe 
babit of expressing tbemselves by writing to more 
I general account? 

Curiously enougb, for a people as bierary as tbe 
[Jews, tbere seems not to bave been a great or 
»lebrated Jewisb letter-writer, of tbe stamp, say, 
>f Lord Cbesterfidid or Mme. de Sevigny. Perhaps 
Ithe reason for tbis is tbat Jewisb families bave 
ilways kept more closely togetber tban bave otbers. 
üntil tbe middle of tbe last Century, Jews even in 
bhis country were so constricted socially tbat tbe 
undertaking by a Jew of, for tnstance, the " grand 
four," as a preliminary to service in the Government 
>r in one of the Services, was an extremeiy rare 
levent. Tbe babit, ioo. ot sending tbeir boys or 
[girls away from bome for tbeir education, which 
[to^ay is a commonplace among Jewisb families 
lof the better-off class, is a comparativeiy new one, 
Iso that a gifted parent could not embellisb the 
lliterature of bis day by sending written counsel to 
Ibis cbild. 

Now during the years of the war, the absence of 
sons and daughters, often in distant lands, has 
forced Jewisb parents, alike witb other parents. lo 
write regularly to them and to chronicie the daily 
bappenings of family and perhaps of communiü 
life. Tbere mäy thus be now some Service man 
or woman who possesses a series of letters from a 
parent which could throw new li^ht on communal 
matters, as well as providc interesting and absorbing 
roading! 

A Cood Habit 

The habit of writmg leiters is an exceptionally 

good one, and tbose who write regularly to tbeir 

friends display in this activity most of ihe viitues 

Ibut none of the tailings which unfortunately often 

[occur in the personality of the constant letter-writer 

Ito the press. The latter often develops a sense of 

Ifrustration and grievance which vitiates tbe purpose 

lof bis effusions and sometimes perverts his presenta- 

Ticn of his case. It is different witb the family 

letter-writer. He, if he possesses imagmation and 

[some literarv skill, can impress upon tbe least 

limportant daily happening tbe imprint of his 

lp«'Sonality and the enlightenment of bis judgment. 

lUntroubled bV the thought of any idtimate public 

appearance of his words, he descnbeii without seif- 

Iconaciousness tbe events of bis daily life, canalising 

s words into what becomes a readable story. 

Tbe v«riter to a serving man or woman knows 

nly too >fell tbat he oinst not write anything that 

iii^t worry or distress Ibe absent one. and there- 

[ore be cbooa«s his subjdbumatter and his manner 

' : expression w\\h care and^^ecaiirol. , Uttle, seem- 

dy insignificam, encottnters «^ twvial iteros of 

irormatlon concerving friends "%öd acquaintances 

mde those in dWtant iand«^^^ just tbat 

otional Stimulus ot affectionaie^%uon thai is 

juir^ so badly to rtuiate and n||&>rc6 tbe 

nner life of the person ark^trarily upioÄd by the 

jvents of the past few yearv, and traosM||cd to 

new and sometimes incongruoiftK surroundinayLnd 

if the regulär correspondent naÄtakep ^1 tluä 

account, if, in short, he has fuUiied all the 

tions of ihe ideal letter-wnter, ar« -^ot bis laboufs 

by of some lecognition? 



Pllf^rims in a l^eri Land 'bj Lee M. Friedman, ITew York 1948 
Jüdge T^Qgeg Levy and the Cordmainerg *__Ca£e_ 
84ff. 



llho \ra?:. tliis Hos es Levy, today foTßotien cxceot as the 
voico of tlie oresidine: magis träte laying dov/n the harsh lav; 
to the Jury in thiG fconous case ( one of the oarliest in the 
United Staates to "bringe the courts a,n a-tterapt to forMi a lahor 
Union and to conduct a £tr.J.ce )? 

it lias occu stated that , if not the first, he was one 
of the very earliest Jews to hold judicial ranic in the United 
Scates, At a tir.ie v/hen the exi^rescion "Philadelphia lawyer" 
was origiuited to exi^ress the top leajrning and legal ability 
of the American "bar, Moses Le-vy was regarded as one of its leader^ 
!:e v/as the son of ICartha a.nd Sai.ison Levy, Sainson Levy was l)orn in 
ITew York in K'ev/ York, August 19,1722, the son of I.ioses Lev^^, one 
of the outsäianding Jewish merchants of that city in his day, 
As a pre-Revolutionary merchant of prominunce, Samson Lev^' \/as 
one of the Thilf-dclphia eignere, in 1765, of the Uon-Importation 
Resolut ionr . 

Today, hie Uebre\/ I^.ible is in the possession of Sanison 
Lev^^^'s Christian jreat-,;". eat-£^:randchildren, Tl ey have also 
therein the followinc letter in his hanäv/riting, vith a Post- 
Script in the handv.'riting of h_s son Sanson: 

!'y dear Children - or to which soever of your hands 
this na.y fall iiito. 

This Book is an Extraordinär^; TTehrew Bihie v/ith 
Cvnnotations of Gor.iMent£.riee on the text: 

It was a favourite Eooic helonging to Vy Dear Pather 
a.nd Containcd the handv/ritinr of him and vjy Dear Ilother 
for whon: I retain the Greatest AfTection not withstanding 
the long time they have been Dead - the fonTier I kiiev; 
little of hut the latter I v;ell remcnher - in this Uook 
set do..n or v/rote the nar.ies and Birth of all their 
children, c: the Death of Sone of then hy lly Seif - 
I therefore recomriend this Look to your Host particular 
Care as an old fajnily Bible with which I hope you will 
never part but to your latest posterity - as rcr;ard it for 
Parcnts Saice as well as its heinc an Lxtraordinary Look 
of itself - So I ho e you will Show the Same retard and 
a^fiection to ny request that I do to 1^ Parents Iteim-norary - 
I ein. Uy Dear Child yr 

Affectionate Father 

Scjiison Lev^' 



V 



J.'-J' 



And in the hand..ritin'-: of his son: 



Few Castle June 4, 1779 



7 "Vj 



:^ Pather Lived in the Cit:,. of TTcv; Yärjc in weh place 
both hin and M^' Ilother Died the loiTier in the year 1723 and 
the Latter in the year 1740 - 



S^Jiison Levy 2) 



IIa fondnecs for ray Parents made me fond of v;hat the; 
Ssteened. I hope niy children 1.7111 have no Icse afiection 
foi" me - 

foson Levy 



( rannah R. London, Shaes of Fy Forcfathers , 
Springfield, 1941, pp. 32-3» See also irai^'land Ilistorical 
Ha/razinc, vol. X>CI, pp. 204-5. ) 



Jud{^re Moses Levy war l)orn in Philadelphia in 1757 and narned after 
his grandfather lloses, üe £:raduated as one of three mem'berc of 
thet cls^ss of 1772 at the University of Pennsylvania, of which 
he, in 180-^, becatne a trustee. :"e continued very active in its 
afiairs until his death, servinr.- as one of the trustees for 
tv/ecty-four years. After tlie outhreaJc of the Revolution, he servcd 
in the Continental Arrny and was one of that ar:ny of picjced soldiers 
v/ho, on Chris trnas night of 1776, crosred the Delaware v;ith 
George "v/as^in^rton. , .lle was adjnitted to the har in 1773, the 
t,..irtGenth lawyer to be oralled to the Pennsylvania bar after the 
Declaration of Independence. . . . 

:.!oses Levy served as a m.moer of the Pennsylvania Lerislaturc- 
and, as one of the city s proninent Citizens, v/as one of the signers 
of the Philadelphia Citizens' Address to Congress, in 1985, inviting 
it to establ^sh its T^ernianent ca. ital in thet city, ."e scved as 
rccorder from 1802 to 1806 and was then nade the President Judge of 
the District Court for the City o.nd County od Philadelphia. 
Ho SOS Levy died I.Tay 9, 1826 



Pron the obituary in the l^c;-.l newoaiDer: 

. . . .T'r. Levy as long known to th..s com. :unity, as well as to the 
profesf ion of v/hich he v;as an ornament, as an able e^dvocate rnd a 

learne;..: s.iid upright judge hev/as ei-iinently distinguished, no less 

Kby his .:rofound leggl kno\;ledge and gcneral literary attairiiients , 
than by the urbanity of his manners, and the firmness and stern 
integrity of his character, 

His younger brother, Samson, . . , stud.Led law in Moses' ofiice, 

\'he reo )rds of tho Sv/edes* Church, Gloria Dei..., '^ov, o, 
1753, s: oe the marriage of nis father, Samson Levi, and ' artha 
Thompson. The family Bible of Moses Lev;^ , now owned oy his 
descndants, rwcords: 

Samson Lcv^'^'s Son Mathcan Levy v/as born in Phialda on 
thursdo.y August 15 1754 at 45 ninutcs after teri in tlie 
:^,vening ahich ans\.iBrs v;...tj ;38th or 5514 by our accot and was 
circuriiBised on ye iriday 8 days o.fter by Jacob Moses of 
!Tew York. 












e of the birth of 



This at leapt indicatcs th-t^ 
an ider brother, the Levy f^vüiily still had not broken with Judaism 
, no record is lound of the baDtism of Moses Levy.... he is buricd 



accord. to his will ) in the yard of 



■'^eter's öh.rch in Philada. 



Jev/s in tlic Lc^;al and "^.cdieal Profespionr: jji Ane^DUca Prior to 1800 

By Leon ::i;]iner 
Pu^l.yjCII, 1914 

pj. 147ff 

Jp. 152f: 

Tbe most dist inguched Jev/ish lav/yer fron Pennsylvania prior 
to 1800, v/a.s undoü'btedly I.ioses Levy . . , . .;''or almast a quarter of 
a Century 'o^fore his death ( 1826 ) he liad be'..n a trufi'tee of the 
univerEity of Pen; sylvania. In all lircelihood he ist the I'Ir. Tjevy 
Ol Pen.isylvania refrred to in the Gorrespondence l)etv/ecn Jefecrson s: 
and G-alatin in 1804, in v/hich J'efiercon nentiobs having Levy*s 
naine uüder conEideration for the high office of Attorney General of 
the United Staates. 



Dr. A.S/y, nosenVach'E Sketch of J,Q-rj in the "JE", and 
art c le ''oy t?ie present writer in Publ. I'o 19, pp, 120-1, 
Morais, Jews of Philadelphia, pp, 38-9. 



Tales. Sketches, and other Pap 



ers 



TAles, Slcetsches, and Other Papera 

by 
ITatahaniel Howtliorne 

With a biographical Sketck 

by 
George Parsons Lathrop 

Boston and ifew York 
Houghton, Mifflin and Company 
1888 



A Book of Autographs pp. 88-10_ 

We have "before me a volurae of autogrfiph letters, Chief ly 
of sold-.ers and statesman of the Revolution, and addressed to 
a good and brave man, General Palmer, who himslef drew his swoird 
iA the cause. They are profitable reading in a quiet afterniin, 
and in a mood with drawn from too intimate relatjon with the 
preeent time; so that we can glide backward some three quarters 
of a Century, and Surround ourselves v/ith the ominous ßublimity 
of circumstances that then frowned the writers. To give them their 
füll effect, we should imagine that these letters have this moment 
been brought to town by xidtaKiusDbc the splashed and way-worn post- 
rider, or perhaps by an orderly dragoon, who has ridden in a 
perilous hurry to deliver his despatches, They are magic scrolls, 
if read in the right spitit. The roll of the drum and the fanfare 
of truinpet is latent in some of them: ana in others, an echo of 
the oratory that resounded in the old halls of the Continental 
CongresE. . • .rtrange tiiat the mere idei.tity of paper ana ink should 
be so powerfui. riie same thoughts might look c41d and ineffect£ual 
in a printed book. Human nature craves a certain materialism, and 
clings pertinacäously to what is tangible, as if that were of 
more impor^ancettxjc than the spirit accidentally involved in it. 
And, in truth, the original manuscript has always something which 
print itself must inevitably lose. An erasure, even a blot, a 
casual irregularity of hand, and all such little imperfections of 
mechanical execution, bring us cldse to the writer, and perhÄos 
convey some ßf those subtle intimations forx which labguage has 
no shape. 



PP 



o 



8-9 



There are said to be temperamBtts endowed with sympatlies 
soexquisite, that, by merely handling an autograph, the^t can 
detect the v/riter s character with unerring accuracy, and read 
his irimost heart as easily as a less-gifted eye would peruse 
the» written page. Cur faith in this power, be axspiritual 9 
or only a refineraent of the physioal nature, is not unlimite4 
in spite of evidence. God had imparted to the human soul a 
marvellous strength in guarding its sectffts and mosr inward 

record for its own perusal. But if therea are suche 



symositliies as w e ahve alLuded to , in how many instances wouÄ 
History "be pur to the iDlush "by a volume of autograli letters, 
like this which we now close! 

107^8 



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450 



"The isiue is not onl^ morai; it is politicaL. . , the «^ews have 
a better ciain tiian the ""ritisla," wrote Edgar Ansell Mowrer, 
advocating that "the Lcind of Israel go hack to the peopie of Israe- 
"Jewish Homeland a Must Under Unoted Nations Rule," insited a 
great American s tatet man, Sumner Welles. "The Goveriiment of the 
U.S. is offialij cominitted to the es tabliiunei.t of a ,ewish natio- 
nal home in Palestine." Ralph McGill, hrilliant eator of 
the Atlanta Constitution , after completmg a firsthand survey of 



^ 



^alestine. . .pleads that 



we 



II 



remove the oil frora the fac^ of 



He urges thac " we shut out the power politics wrv^st- 



"Mo one has stated the case raore elo^iently tiian 



Palestine. •• 
Img match. , 

Ralph McGill. ^*e spea^vS witxi tnt voce of America which has "toeen 
consiste- t and clear from the daysoi Ekjra Stiles ana Hanuah Adaitis 
to the days of John Hay and Mar Twain and Nori-.an Hapggod and 
Woodrew 7/ilson, did all the great -^^mericans who placed c^nscience 
above other c )nsiderations . tÄere 

, . . ,Pa^£ tine id hi£torically a ^'ewish nation. The .ews w. re 
origmally and they never lef t, . . Jus tice and moralty, I thinxc are 
weary of waiting on fear and aopeasement, Chicago Times ,Aug, 15. 

1946 
way or another Zionism was indgenous in America. Prom 
of Le nha*L c Travel nü.uied the Judaea, i roin the early 
in Sout . inerica named G nanea, frjm the time when 
Cari^^al av.aiceneu in thv, »^ews of ^^ewport an inoeresi in 
IUI }Toah drea;aea of a new Ararat and "saac -^eeer 



In one 
the day s 
settlemt 
habb 
Heur n, 



and 



promoted the 
each other. . 



weif are of Palestine - Lue tw ^ woriä were aware of 



477-^ In 1915 a *^ewish soldier who caled himself ••litvak" wrotc 
it was written on the sixteenth of "^ay , just before the 
of France in which he met hxs death. He Wrote'- 



a letter. 

battlc 



• • • • 



Know tha v;e sho. L 
f-cing the enem, , an we will 
to die proudly. 

Dea h has no L-er-ors fo 
be unperceivea, and tha. it w 
race. And we shail £:how Franc 
a country which rnakes no c. iff 
myself a Jew anü a soldier. 1 
and we shalL d e for -^'rance^ 
of the «Jews. Yive la liberte, 
nob-. et democri^-tä -,ze -^rance 
ppj 4b0-b2. 



1 fight well, and that v/e shai'. aie 
^how every one that the Jew^ xcnow 

r US when we think that it will not 
iil bcnefit our persecuted Jewish 
e that the '^ev^fs ^now how to die for 
erence bt^tween her sons... I feel 
n aii hour we shall be marching, 
for t ic «^ews, for tiic; emancipation 
VI . t; la ' epub-Li^ue , we iu li.re, 
( Hi^rpert "'eekly, ITov. 15, 1915, 



■'■•^^. 



Wnis °|^gf l^^^i-J-^ettlers in Hew York, Contributed by Lee M.Preidman, 

Jewish Faitli and Efacs in Wills 
of Early Settiers 

I. Isaac Rodrigues Marques^ i«Jew York 
In the Harne of God, Amen, the i2th October 1706. 

I, Isaac Rodrig..s Marques, ofi l^ew York, merchant, being of 
perf.ct remembrance, and bound on a voyage to Jamaica, in the 
v/est Indi es. It is my will that my dear mother, Racüel '^arauise be 
maintamed out of my estate and live wi th my wife and childrem ' 
but if s e cannot agree witn them or liices to live f ^r her'^elf 
sne IS to receive L50, and a good servicabLe negro woman shall'be 
purcnased for her. Amd I hercby give a strict Charge to my wife and 
chiidren to be du ,iful to my said dear mother. I ieave to my daigSter 
ii^st er, L50 to buy htr a jewell when she is of the age of 18, or oai 
marr.es with her mother's consent. T/.e rast of my estate I l4ave to 
my wife Rachel, my son Jacob and my dau-Lter Esther. The part of my 
estate which la left to my chiidren, is to be put into the hands of 
Mr. A^ron La Me^roa, merc-.ant, in Jamaica, who shall be apervisor 
over my chiidren. i desire ^r. Lewis Gomez and Mr. Abraham de Lucena 
to ascist my wife in the raana^geiuent of all her ai£tirs. and l maice 
her executor. 

pp. 148-9 

II. Joseph Bueno. ( October 20, 1708 ) 

In the name of God, Ajien. I, J^.seph B.eno de :ies(4ü.ta. of ^Tew York 
merchant, bemg ar thf präsent sick in Bed. I leave to mywife' Rachel, ' 
dau hter of Kachel Dervail, L600, an all pale and household tuff. aAd 
all her wearing apparei; rings, jeweils necklazes, etc. I leave to my 
beloved brother Bueno de Mesquita, of the Island of Nevis, my 
Pive Books of the Law of Moses m ^archment with the Ornaments of 
plare be onging thereto. I also give him L161,2s 3d, which he now 
oweth to me. I leave to my mother- in- law, Rachel Dervail, L50, and 
to my brother-in-law, Samuel Dervail, L50 whe.. of age, To my godehild, 
Asher Camponell. L20. So the poor of the Jewish nation in ^^ew York, 
L20. All the rest of my tacsJtoßxxAiixaLiiainx estate is to be sold, and 
proceeds to be given to the chiidren of m^ broti.er Abraham, and the 
chiidren of my wife Rachel, ^jewis Gomez and Abrham Öe Lucena, excutors. 

p, 149 
III, Abraham de Lucena ( Pebruary 12, 1716 ) 

Abraham de -L«ucena, of ew York, merchaüt. ^ God s Grace 
pr oceeding on a voyage to «^amaica, and cons idering the dangers of the 
seas, *♦! bequeth my soul into the hands of the Alraighty G-od ö/f -Israel, 
my Creator, reusting in h^s mercy for pardon of all my sins, and 
Idjing for a joyful Resurrection to L-fe Eternal.»» I direct all my 
State to be divided onto 6 parts, one part to my wife and the rest 
to my choidren, Moses, Samuel, -^stner and Judith. And -^ make my wife 
•t'^achei executor. 



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Mit anliegendem Prospekt erlauten wir uns, Sie auf unsere 
Publikation 

AUF GESPALTENEM PPAD 
Eine Festschrift für 
Margarete Susman zum 9o «Geburtstag 

hinzuweisen. Eintragungen in die Subskriptionsliste 
können bis spätestens I5. September I964 vorgenommen wer- 
den. Wir weisen Sie ausdrücklich darauf hin, dass der 
Band, der nur durch private Unterstützung und die selbst- 
lose Mitarbeit aller hier versammelten Autoren als ech- 
te Pestgabe, für die alterslose Patriarchin deutsch- 
jüdischen Geistes erscheinen kann, in Anbetracht seines 
Umfanges (37** Seiten) und der notwendig kleinen Auflage 
in zwei Ausgaben erscheinen wird. Die angezeigte Sonder- 
auflage von 40 Exemplaren stellt einen direkten Beitrag . 
zur Ermöglichung der Ausgabe dar. Eine verbilligte Buch- 
ausgabe kann (entgegen der Prospektangabe) nicht 
erscheinen. Doch wird stattdessen ein neuer Aufsatzband 
von Margarete Susman im Oktober innerhalb der l^chriften- 
reihe als Band I9 unter dem Titel: 

VOM GEHEIMNIS DER FREIHEIT 

erscheinen, der in allen guten Buchhandlungen zu erhal- 
ten sein wird. (DM 19,80 / sfr. 22.85). 

Jedem, dem es möglich ist, unsere Arbeit zu unterstützen 
danken wir auch im Namen unserer Autorin 

mit freundlicher Begrüssung 
Schriftenreihe AGORA 
ERATO PRESSE DARMSTALT 

Agora . Eine humanistisdie Sdiriftenreihe • Herausgegeben von Manfred Sdilösser 
61 Darmstadt • Claudiusweg 20 • Postsdieck: Ffm. 187186, Sonderkonto Ropenz 









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Welch Glflcl^, dagg unsre H^'nde . die 

wieder schon sanken 

Wird«Rf9cndurften hofnunptsvoll erheben 
Umel em pm^'d fren rfimmel still zu dan 
Das'^ Du uns lebend warst zur*'ck^epeb 



Letter from Lewis Mumford to Hans Kohn, August 4, 1964 . 

....I have just had an unusual pleasure, dear Kohn: I have 
spent the last few days in your Company, thanks to the copy of 
^V/orld Revolution' that came last week. You have done something 
that required great art — you have encompassed in your meraories 
the experience of a whole generation and at the same time have 
individualized every moment of it. I admire your skill: but even 
more I am touched by the noble tone of your account: it has the 
kind of stoic dignity one finds but rarely in any contemporary 
autobiography. This dignity — and the magnanimity that goes with 
it — make it a human document in the highest sense. You have 
set a Standard for my own life I shall find it hard to live up to!.. 
Naturally, I found myself comparing not es with you on almost every 
page; and if I still cannot share your hopeful estimate of the 
total change that has been taking place, I envy you the poise of 
spirit you have maintained after all you have been through. Where 
we differ in cur interpretations you drive me to re-examine my 
evidence and re-appraise my own roactions. You have started a 
profitable conversation in my mind that will not soon die down: 
and in expressing my admiration and my pleasure I want also to 



record my gratitude. 



Ever yours 



Lewis 



Amenia, New York 







JEWISH NATIONAL FUND 



President 
ALBERT SCHIFF 

Honorar/ President 

DR. ISRAEL GOLDSTEIN 
DR. HARRIS J. LEVINE 

V iee -Fr esidents 

DR. MIRIAM FREUND 
CLARA LEFF 
NATHAN A. LEVINE 
JUDGE ALBERT D. SCHANZER 

Honorary Cha irm en y 

DR. BERNARD BERGMAN 

MAX BRESSLER 

BENJAMIN G. BROWDY 

MEYER BROWN 

PINCHAS CRUSO 

Di NA DYCKMAN 

JUDGE HENRY ELLENBOGEN 

DR. HENRY RAPHAEL GOLD 

PAUL L. GOLDMAN 

BERT GOLDSTEIN 

MOLLIE GOLUB 

ROSE L. HALPRIN 

RABBI MORDECAI KIRSHBLUM 

LOLA KRAMARSKY 

JUDGE LOUIS E. LEVINTHAL 

LOUIS LIPSKY 




( KEKEX KAYEMETH LEISRAEL) INC. 
4, i SÄST eSTH STRESB 



-S- O R K 
T R A F A 



3 1, N- 



'^/. 



LG-AR »-03OO 



Luuia Lin 

MORTIMER MAY 
RABBI IRVING MIL 
DR. EMANUEL NEU 
ABRAHAM A. 
DR. JOSEPH B 
DR. HERMAN 
AVRAHAM SChtnikc 
REBECCA SHULMAN 
JACOB SINCOFF 
DR. ABBA HILLEL Sl 



LER 



oy„ «4 A _'^' A^ 



,pLUt 





JACOB SINCOFF 
DR. ABBA HILLEL SILVER 
RABBI ISAAC STOLLMAN 
CHAYA SURCHIN 

onorary V /c e - C hair m e n 

CHARLES BICK 
ESTHER BURACK 







/ 



j)Pi^ 



/^ 



/ 



ESTHER BURACK . C^K / , a ^"^^^ -^ 3 * 

SARAH G. CANTOR X T / y/ d ^"^ d^ J JIL 

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LEON RUBINSTEIN I 

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JUDGE SELIG SCHWARTZ 
BEATRICE WEISS 
CHARLES WOLF 



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First Quarter, 1962 



INumber 94 



^17fl[a 




\J\JU\l[i\\ 




MILITARY SERVICE REGULATIONS 



Fai^e Tno 



The War Resistcr 



EDITOR'S PAGE 



TALK. OF THii TOWN " in thc Nc'w Yorker magazine recently 
suggested that you could measure a person's commitment by 
the extent of his willingness to be bored. How irue is it? 
Looking back over my seven years with the W.R.I.. I must admit 
that I have been bored (usually by having to be some place l didn't 
want to be) about once a week. Assuming each occasion lasted two 
hours, 1 have been bored for 828 hours during my General Secretary- 
ship of the W.R.T. That totals only 344 days out of over 2,500, so 
maybe l'm not very committed. 

With perfect honesty I can say it has never been a bore to write the 
Editor's Page, and 1 am bound to grieve a little because this is my 
last. 

On Ist March, 1%2, I shall be joining the Institute for Group and 
Society Development, here in London. Maybe I shall sing once in a 
while, as well. A month earlier I shall stop being full-time W.R.I. 
Secretary. 

I had thought of compiling a list of accomplishments, just to 
impress myself, but the list might be depressing instead. It is best not 
to risk it. l'm quite sure that if all my speeches and articles were laid 
end to end — they wouldn't have the strength to turn over. Yet some- 
how the W.R.I. has grown, and acquired a new dynamic which 
promises good things in the months and years ahead. 

My public thanks to the W.R.I. staff for allowing me to take the 
credit for everything which has worked out well, to our over-worked 
panel of volunteer transiators, and to all of you who have made these 
seven years truly rewarding. My head is balding but unbowed. 

ARLO TATUM 

Cover : CO. Cordier in " Tu ne tueras point ". This film about a 
French conscientious objector has been banncd in France and 
Jtaly after winning an award at the Venice Film Festival. 
Widespread protest followed, including a sit-down in Rome. 
The Mayor of Florence flouied the han by putting on a 
private showing. The W.R.I. Executive congratidated the 
director, Claude Autant-Lara, on his couragcous work and 
Protest ed to the French Minister of Culture, Andre Malraux. 



The War Resistcr 



Page Three 



THE BROKEN RIFLE 

— Jean van Lierde (W.R.I. Council mcmher) 

ON TUE 15th of Octobcr, 1961 at La Louvrierc 7,000 yoiing people 
asscmblcd in response to an appeal by the Jeunes Gardes vSocialistes 
to commemorate the 40th Anniversary of the hrst brokcn rille 
demonstration. 

It was a great day for antimilitarists, and the three ofTicial slogans were: 
" No to the army ", No to NATO ", and " No to war ". For several months 
we pacifists had been preparing this revolutionary action with thc J.G.S. 
which naturally hardly corresponded with the political attitudc of thc 
Belgian Socialist Party or the bourgoise Socialist International. Throughout 
the coimtry we had distributed thoiisands of posters and antimilitarist leaflets 
calling for the recall of troops to Belgium and a withdrawa! from N.A.T.O. 

Our Position was clear and could not be confused with that of the 
pseudo-pacihsts. In fact, the communists could not subscribc to our 
Programme, even if some of thc contents were attractive to thcm, for we 
were denouncing with the same force Russian nuclear explosions and 
American and English and French. Wc condemncd all military alliances, 
the Warsaw Pact and the Atlantic Alliance; our solidarity with colonial 
pcoples reinforced our absolute Opposition to colonial wars and imperialist 
cnterprises. 

Confronted with the nuclear pcril which menaces all humanity, we 
considcred that it was for young people to break with the suicidal policies 
of our governments and having donc so to halt thc armamcnts cyclc and 
oppose thc psychological mobil isation of the masscs. 

Historical Occasion 

The choice of the town La Louvriere had a profound international 
significance, for it was in this way that we were recalling a memorable date 
in the history of thc Belgian working class movement. It was on thc 
16th of Octobcr, 1921 that more than 50,000 workers went in procession 
through this town singing the " International " bchind thc flags of the 
vSocialist vcterans on which could be scen a soldier breaking his riflc. 

We were 7,000 young Socialists and Christians of the Left, convinccd 
that we had the support of the people who subscribed to these ideas, but 
knowing füll well that we were without the support of the political set-up, 
completely committed to the squalid Atlantic Alliance. Now wc must 
develop our struggle and movc towards direct action if we wish to influcnce 
the present Situation. If youth refuses war tomorrow, it must from today 
refuse to prcpare for it; it must progress to non-cooperation with the army 
and develop in the working class movement a collective refusal in order to 
exercise populär pressure on the State. 

Seiitence 1,000 Years 

One placard caught particular attention in the procession through La 
Louvrierc. It said "In Belgium over the last 12 years 600 conscientious 
objectors have served more than 1,000 years in prison! ". This is a way to 
be followed, even if their witness has appeared hopelessly inelTective within 
the context of recent history. Their action has a significance as great as 
that of Bertrand Russell in London when he sits down in the street with 



Page Four 



The War Rcsistct 



The War Resister 



Page Fi VC 



thousands of non-violent supporters. It has as much importance as thc 
actions of our French comrades in A.C.N.V. or the group around Jean-Paul 
Sartre when they demonstrate in silence against criminal, repressive policies 
directed against our Algerian brothers. 

Peace Work 

At the moment certain Governments are trying to find a Solution for 

these objectors. For a long time legislation has cxisted in most Anglo- 

Saxon and Scandinavian countries. At the beginning of 1960 we asked thc 

Belgian Government, bearing in mind the approaching independence of thc 

Congo, to bring in a law exempting from military servicc thosc who would 

de Service for two years in the undcrdeveloped countries. This request 

was well receivcd by M.P.'s and Ministers of all partics. It was then buried 

during the Congo adventure. Hut now three Belgian Ministers havc 

suddenly taken it up again so that the military servicc law can be modified 

to give exemption from the army to those young people who would bc 

ready to work three years in an Afro-Asian country or in Latin America to 

help with technical assistance and cultural work. King Baudouiii himsclf 

has just praised these peace volunteers in a talk he gave at the fifth 

anniversary of the Carnegie Trust. Our patient endeavour, then, has not 

been entirely in vain. But why is it that these " civil volunteers " havc 

suddenly become " the best men of the rising generation ", when yesterday 

it was the soldiers? Let us be precise. It is not a question of camouflaging 

under the cloak of philanthropy, a form of neo-paternalism, which would 

bring us to a repetition of recent incidents, provoked by mcmbcrs of thc 

Kennedy Peace Corps in Nigeria. If we have asked for this form of civil 

Service, we have done it as militant anti-colonialists, desirous of giving 

wholehearted Service to depressed communities, but in no way as political 

ambassadors of the racially arrogant West, so fitting in with militarist 

strategy which would seek to replace its legionaries, its paras or its hired 

killers with " missionary techniques ". For the sake of our African comrades, 

as well as ourselves, it is our task to see these things clearly so that therc 

will be no confusion. 

The Broken Rifle 

It might be thought that I have strayed far from La Louvricre. Not so, 
for the broken rifle, which was the rallying point of this demonstration, is 
the unofficial emblem of the War Resisters' International and of con- 
scientious objectors. That is to say, men who have chosen to break entirely 
with militarism and violence, to concentrate all their energies only on 
peaceful tasks and mutual aid between peoples. 

The broken rifle symbolises very correctly, at one and the same time, 
ihe attempt which must be made immediately, first on individual level, 
afterwards collectively, to put the brakes on the progression towards war 
and universal suicide. We must undertake suitable action regionally and 
internationally to convert the fabulous sums of money which are thrown 
away on armaments into civil aid to the peoples suffering from disease, 
illiteracy and economic underdevelopment. To wear the broken rifle 
signifies simultaneously refusal of war and profound solidarity with thc 
poor and oppressed. 

Shortened version of an article In CO-EXfSTENCE. 



ANALYSIS No. 1 



Counn-y Conscription 

Men and Women 


Provision Remarks 
forC.O.'s 


AFGANISTAN 

ALBANIA 

ARGENTINA 

AUSTRALIA 
AUSTRIA 


None 

M 

None 
M 


None 

Yes 


Inf. not confirmed 1961 

Inf. not secured 

Inf. not confirmed 1961 
Previously : wide exemptions 
Conscription abolished 1959 

See Analysis 2 


BELGIUM 


M 


None 


Maximum imprisonment 1 year 
Government refused to provide inf. 
1961 


BOLIVTA 
BRAZIL 


M 

M 


None 
Yes 


Inf. not confirmed 1961 
See Analysis 2 


BRUNEI 

BULGARIA 

BURMA 


None 

M 
None 


None 


Inf. not confirmed 1961 

Inf. not confirmed 1961. Enquiries 

in progress 


CAMBODIA 
CANADA 


M 

None 


None 


Call-up age 21-35. Service 18 months 
Provision for C.O.'s during World 
War II 


CEYLON 


None 


— 


Military Training may be introduced 
for students 


CHILE 
1 CHINA 

COLUMBIA 
COSTA RICA 
CUBA 


M 
M 

M 

None 
M 


None 
None 

None 


Service 1 year. Many exemptions 
Call-up age 18. Service: army 3 years, 
air force 4 years, navy 5 years. Ex- 
emption for family responsibilities 
Call-up age 18. Service 18 months 
Armed forces abolished 1949 
No detailed inf. 1961 


CYPRUS 
CZECHOSLOVAKIA 


None 
M 


None 


Inf. not confirmed 1961 


DENMARK 


M 


Yes 


See Analysis 2 


DOMINICAN 
REPUBLIC 


None 


— 


Conscription ended 1961 


ECUADOR 


M 


None 


Inf. not confirmed 1961. Call-up age 
20. Service 1 year 


EIRE 


None 






EL SALVADOR 
ETHIOPIA 


M 
None 


None 


Call-up age 18. Service 1 year 



Page Six 



The War Resister 



Coitntry 



Conscription 
Mcn and Wom cn 



Provision 
for C.O.'s 



Remarks 



FEDERAL GERMAN 

REPUBLIC M 

FINLAND M 

FRANCE M 



GERMAN 
DEMOCRATIC 
REPUBLIC 



GHANA 
GIBRALTAR 

GREAT B RITAIN 
GREECE 



GUATEMALA 

HAITI 
HONDURAS 
HONG KONG 
HUNGARY 



ICELAND 
INDIA 



INDONESIA 



IRAN 
IRAQ 



Nonc 

None 
M 

None 
M 



M 



None 
M & W 

None 
M 



None 
None 



M 

M 

M 



Yes See Analysis 2 

Yes See Analysis 2. 

None Penalty: Repeated sentences. Maxi- 
mum of 5 years. Service 2-3 years 



- Men are encouraged to join the 
militia. Moves being made to intro- 
diice conscription 

None Call-up age 18. Service 4 months. 
Biennial reserve training camps of 
14 days up to age 28 

Conscription suspended 1960 
None Call-up age 21. Service 18 months 
extendable to 24 months. Penalties: 
Impnsonment 1-20 years. Sentences 
under 5 years often repeated. De- 
privation of civil rights 

Call-up age 18. Service 2 years 



Nonc 



Inf. not confirmed 1961 
None Inf. not confirmed 1961 
— Conscription abolished 
None Inf. not secured 1961 



None 



None 



Nene 



1961 



Deshmukh Committee recommended 

compulsory social service for 

students which vvould include mili- 
tary training 

m'"co co"^cripts 870 students June 
1959. Compulsory training of civil 
seryants. All conscripts two hours 
drill twice weekly 

Inf. not confirmed 1961. Call-up age 
18. Service 2 years 

Call-up age 18. Service 2 years. Wide 
exemptions. Deferment for Students. 
Graduates conscripted as oflicers. 
Penalty for refusal : Double service 
or term of imprisonment 



-l 



The War Resister 



Page Seven 



Couniry 



Conscription Provision 
Men and Womcn for CO. ^s 



Remarks 



- ISRAEL 



ITALY 



JAPAN 

JORDAN 



LAOS 

LEBANON 

LIBERIA 

LIBYA 

LUXEMBOURG 



MALAYA 
MEXICO 



MOROCCO 



NEPAL 

NETHERLANDS 
NEW ZEALAND 

NICARAGUA 

NIGERIA 
NORWAY 



PAKISTAN 

PANAMA 

PARAGUAY 

PERU 



M & W 



M 



Women For Provinces see Analysis No. 2. 
only Service 24-30 months. Penalty for 
refusal up to 2 years' imprisonment^ — 
and/or a fine. Up to 5 years im- 
prisonment for wilful deception of 
authorities. Assurances obtaincd 
1961 that individual cases vvould in 
future be dealt with on their mcrits. 
None Service 18 months. Penalties : Ist 
sentence 6 months — 2 years military 
prison. 2nd sentence 1 ycar military 
prison. C.Os. are somelimcs accom- 
modated administratively 



M 

None 



None Service 3 years. No clear information 
has yet been obtained 
Inf. not confirmed 1961 



None 
None 
Nonc 
Nonc 
M 



None 



Inf. not confirmed 1961 

Inf. not confirmed 1961 

Regulations under revision. Service 
may be reduced from 12 to 9 months 



Nonc 
M 



None 



None Call-up age 18. Conscripts are trained 
each Sunday for onc year. then 
placed on reserve 



Nonc 
M 

None 

M 

Nonc 
M 



Yes See Analysis 2 
— Conscription abolished 1958. Cadet 
Corps in schools 

Nonc Law not enforced. Inf. not con- 
firmed 1961 

Yes See Analysis 2 



None 

None 
M 
M 



None 
Nonc 



See Analysis 2 

Call-up age 19. Selection by lottery 
for 2 years' service. Volunteers serve 
I year. Wide exemptions for family 
responsibilities. University students 
exempt as military Instruction in- 
cluded in course. Penalty for re- 
fusal : 2 years' additional service, 
precluded from public posts and 
entering into State contracts 



Püf{e Eight 



The War Resister 



The War Resistor 



Fafic Nine 



Colin tr\ 



Conscription 
Men and Warnen 



Provision 
forC.O.'s 



Remarks 



PHILIPPINE 

ISLANDS 
POLAND 



PORTUGAL 



M 
M 



M 



Nonc Inf. not confirmed 1961 

Nonc Service 26 months. Alternative 
Service in coal mines cancelied in 
1959. Inf. not confirmed 1961 
— Not always enforced. Call-up ages 
21-46 for any period up to 25 years. 
Mass mobilisation recently for crises 
in Goa and Angola. No provision 
for C.Os. Refusal treated as de- 
scrtion. Punishment : imprisonment 
or death 



RHODESIA & 
NYASALAND 



RUMANIA 



M 



M 



SINGAPORE 



SOUTH AFRICA 



M 



Nonc 



SOUTH KOREA 



M 



SPAIN 
SUDAN 
SWEDEN 
SWITZERLAND 



M 

None 
M 
M 



THAILAND 



M 



Yos 

None 
None 



Yes 



None 



None 

Yes 

Nonc 

None 



Call-up age for white men between 
ages 18-30. Those between 18-22 
are called. Wide exemptions. C.Os. 
are handled by special courts 

Inf. not confirmed 1961 



Call-up age 21. Service 3 years. 20 
hours' training in one month and 
continuous training not more than 
16 days in one year. Many exemp- 
tions 

Compulsory training for whites, 
liable for cadet service ages 12-17. 
Citizens' Force : 4 periods of train- 
ing aggregate not more than 9 
months over period of 4 years. Re- 
serve ages 1 7-65. Provision for 
religious objectors : non-combatant 
duties in war time 
Period of Service 2 years army, 3 
years of navy or air force. 6 months 
for those with family responsibilities, 
teachers, etc. Students' service 1 year. 
Those over 40 exempt. Penalties : 
1-3 years' imprisonment peacc-time. 
Student corps started 1960 

Service 2 years 

See Analysis 2 

Call-up age 20. Service basic training 
118 days. Reserve up to age 60. 
Some exemptions 



Call-up age 21. Service 2 years. Inf. 
not confirmed 1961 



Coiintry 



Conscription 
Men and Women 



Provision 
forC.O.'s 



Remarks 



r 



r 



TUNISIA 



M 



TURKEY 



M 



UNION OF SOVIET 
SOCIALIST 
REPUBLICS 



UNITED ARAB 
REPUBLIC 

UNITED STATES 
OF AMERICA 

URUGUAY 



M 



M 

M 



VENEZUELA 
VIET-NAM 



YUGOSLAVIA 



None Active service 1 year. Call-up age 
18-22 subject to immediate recall for 
4 years. Ist reserve 15 years. 2nd 
reserve 10 years. Civil conscription 
also 

None Call-up age 20. Service 2 years army 
and air force, 3 years navy. Many 
exemptions. Penalty : scale of fines 
or imprisonment 



None Many C.Os. accommodated by ad- 
ministrative measures or dealt with 
by people's courts. Often directed to 
non-combatant duties. Jehovah's 
Witnesses known to be in prison 

— Inf. being sought 

Yes See Analysis 2 

Yes Inf. not confirmed 1961 



M None Call-up age 18. .Service 2 years. Wide 

exemptions 

M None Call-up age 18. Service 18 months 

M None Previous information 1957. Penalty : 

long terms of imprisonment or work 
in mines. Nazarenes previously 5-10 
years imprisonment; now maximum 
6 months and no subsequent pro- 
secution 



Where it is stated " Information not confirmed "", unsuccessfui 
enquiries have been made. 1957 information has been used. 

Many countries have been left out of this list — notably some of the 
newiy independent African states which are unlikely to have 
introduced conscription as yet. More information has still to be 
gathered. 

Civil Defence is compulsory in Norway, Sweden and the Nether- 
lands and at special times in New York State, U.S.A. Only in the 
Netherlands is any provision made for conscientious objectors. 



Page Ten 



Country 



AU STRIA 



BRAZIL 



DENMARK 



FEDERAL 
GERMAN 
REPUBLIC 



The War Resistor 



ANALYSIS !No. 2 



The War Resister 



Page Eleven 



Possihilities 



Age Type of CO. Fossibili- Procedure afler Lengtli of 
Recogniscd ties^ Call-u p Military Service 



}. Total and unconditional exemption 

2. Approved civilian work required 

^ Non-combatant militar y service required 

Naturc of Civilian 



Lcngth of Alter- 
native Service 



Service 



All 



^ months 



12 months 
(in army) 



None 



18 Religious 



Not known 



2 years 



All 



Register. Appear 
briefly beforc spe- 
cial tribunal 



14-16 months 



50% more than 
military service 



Forcstrs 



All 



2 ^ 



Active Service IS 
months. Reserve 
training 9 mths. 
On reservc tili 
45 years old 



Hospitals or State 
Institutions 



Punisliments for Non- 
observance of Law 
Imprisonment 



Notes 



One CO. has recently 
been sentenced to 4 mths. 
hard labour 



4 months- 1 year im- 
prisonment peacc-time. 
Cannot hold public 
ollice for 5-16 years 



Provisions for C.O."s not 
known 



Imprisonment up to 22 
months 



Eine up to 1000 DM. 
or imprisonment 



Government planning to 
reduce service to 12 mths. 
when there are sullicient 
volunteers. Pay as for 
soldiers. Law is generous- 
jy_applied 



Exemptions for Prisoncrs 
of War released from cap- 
tivity after 1.7.53. Clergy- 
men, etc 



FINLAND 



All 



2. "< 



Application 



240 days. Civil Non-combatant Civil Defence, 



,,..,,., • ,on I • i-ic j ^ '■'P ^" '-^ months im- Pay as for soldiers. New 

lodged with mili- service 180 days service 125 days Government service pnsonment Eines law lanuarv 1961 

tary. Examination longer. Special longer in hospitals. Special 

before non-mili- work 240 days work where con- 

tary State Council longer .script has objection 



ISRAEL 



18-26 Womcn onlv 



Appear before tri- 
bunal of 3 people, 
inchiding army 
cha piain 



24 months 



NETHERLANDS 18 



Religious 
and moral 



2. 3 After sccing psy- 

chiatrist and ad- 
visory Committee, 
decision made by 
War Minister 



22 months 



NORWAY 



20 



All 



2. 3 Apply with tcsli- 

monials 



PARAGUAY 



18 Members of 
certain Sects 
(Mennonites) 



12 months 



SWEDEN 



18 



All 



2. 3 Confidential inter- 

views with ap- 
pointcd invesü- 

gators 



304 davs 



UNITED 
STATES 



18 Religious 



2. 3 Civil tribunal, ap- 

peals allowed 



24 months 



24 months 



Agricultural on 
kibbuzim, hospitals 



No Provision for men. 
See Analysis 1 



^0 months 



Hospitals, State in- Up to 1 year in prison Government aiming to re- 
stitutions, Forestry ducc service to 20 months 



18 months 50% longer than Forestry, Hospital Up to 3 months im- 
for military prisonment or forccd 
lervice ]abour 



None 



525 davs 



Information not confirmed 
1961. Prison conditions 
bad 



Timber cutting, 
Fire watching 



Up to 6 months prison. Pay as for soldiers. Re- 
Daily fine serve to age 48 



24 months 



Hospital and with Up to 5 years prison Rarely drafted before 19 

recognised social and/or S 10.000 finc 

organisatioris 



Fiiuie r\\cl\'e 



ilw War Ri'sistcr 



ISRAEL — ARAB RELATIONS 

Nathan Chofschi, Chairnian, W.RJ., Israel. 

IN ORDKR TO UNDERSTAND the complcxitv of rdations betwcen Jews and 
Arabs in Palestine, it is ncccssary to reflect on this grave problem 
without prejudice and only in thc light of the vital facts of past and 
present. 

The Return 

Palestine is the homeland of thc Jewish peoplc, the people ol the 
Bible. It is here that its religious culture and eternal valiies were crcatcd 
and developcd, which later on were incorporatcd in Christianity and Islam. 
It is here that the prophets of Israel saw their vision of eternal peace : 
"And they shall bcat their swords into ploughshares "", "Nation shail not 
lift up sword against nation." Israel was not wholly scvered from its 
country — even by the onslaughts of Babylon. Rome and other conqucrors, 
which dispersed the greater part of Israel over the countries of its cxile. 
Jewish inhabitants ncver left the land completcly. From the countries of 
their exile. Jews tiirned toward it in their praycrs. their longings and their 
endeavours to resettle it beset by endless dilTiciilties. Diiring the years 
of exile and terrible suflering the Jewish people have becn accompanied 
by a belief in the coming of the Messiah, who woiild deliver the people 
from cxile and bring thcm back to its ancient homeland. to a life that 
would be an example to all thc nations of thc world. The expulsion of 
Jews from Spain during the Inquisition 4b9 years ago brought a large 
number of exiles back to Palestine and reinforccd the cxisting Jewish 
Population therc. During the 19th Century more concentrated and organised 
efforts were made to return large numbers to their country; and at the 
beginning of the present Century those eflorts assumed larger and more 
succcssfui proportions, which rcsultcd in the Jewish peoplc taking root 
anew in the land. creating a natural life by manual labour and working 
the soil again. Thc ancient language. the language of the Bible. was 
revived. and exemplary ways of co-operative life were set iip by the 
pioneers. These enterprises were not performed in the first stages by 
means of violence and war like the colonial enterprises of the European 
peoples. but by peaceful. pioneering means. Only aftcrwards, when modern 
nationalism penetrated into thc JVliddle East, did the grave problem of 
rclations betwcen the returning Jewish exiles and thc Arab people living 
in the country arise. 

In addition to the eternal bond betwcen the people of Israel and the 
land of Israel a sccond vital fact presents itsclf. For about 1,300 years an 
Arab people has becn livinp in this coinitry. tilling the land. living and 
working in primitive ways. rooted in the soil of the homeland and firmly 
attached to it under all forms of political rule. rcvolutions and adventures. 
Zionism 

The dreadful happenings that befeil the Jewish people in Europc at the 
beginning of the present Century, and especially the appalling annihilation 
of a large part of them by the Nazis, caused the remnants of the people 
to feel anger and lose their faith in anyonc. It was because of these 
events that the Zionist movement left the path of the prophets and turned 
towards a selfish and narrow-minded nationalism. which gradually pro- 
claimed Zion to be the exciusive homeland of the Jewish people. Against 
it there arose thc Arab nationalist movement which fought against the 
Zionists with every means. And, when the Iwo nationalist movements 



The War Resistor 



Page Thirteen 



clashed within the boundaries of this country. a State of tension and 
repeated deadly conflict rcsultcd, culminating in the establishment of the 
sovereign State of Israel in a part of Palestine notwithstanding the 
Opposition of the Arab majority. In this way there developed thc war 
betwcen thc two brother-pcoples. Zion, which could have becn an example 
to all. has become a centre of mutual hatred. 

Parine/ship 

More than fifty years ago clear-sighted Jews had warned the returning 
pioneers against the danger of ignoring the cxistcnce of a brother-pcople. 
rooted in thc common homeland. Though at the time this people was still 
in a State of slumber, yet one day it would surely wake up and forccfu'ly 
claim its rights and its place in the country. The well-known Hebrew 
linguist and educator Isaac Epstein, the brilliant Hebrew writer Rabbi 
Benjamin and the humanist Haim C'alvarisky urged then the necessity of 
behaving towards oiir Arab neighbours according to the lofty rule of 
Hillel (one of the great Talmud-sages. who lived about one hundred years 
before the dcstruction of the second Tcmple) : " What is hatefui to thee. 
do not unto thy fellow-man ". especially as there was plenty of room for 
all. We would have becn able to set an example in our conduct at the 
time of the encounter betwcen the two Semitic peoples sharing one and the 
same homeland. 

Aftcrwards thc " Berit Shalom ""-Association was founded by Dr. Ruppin. 
one of thc Icadcrs of Zionist coloni/ation. with thc co-operation of some 
important mcn of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, and especially of 
Prof. M. Buber. After some time the " Ihud '"-Association came in its 
place, founded and led by the Chancellor of the Hebrew University, the 
late Dr. J. L. Magne.s, assisted bv some of the most signiiicant thinkers and 
Icadcrs of thc Jewish people. Its aim was Jewish-Arab co-operation and 
a mutual approach based on the principle of a bi-national statc in 
Palestine, rather like Switzerland. Conscientious objectors have vigorously 
supported thcse actions for peace and they continue to do so at present. 
They have met with a favourable reception with some Arab intellectuals 
and serious proposals for a Jewish-Arab agrccment have becn made more 
than oncc by Arab Icadcrs. But unfortunately for both the peoples thc 
chauvinistic-nationalistic dement amongst Jews and Arabs got the upper 
band and sabotaged all efforts for an agrccment. The Jewish leaders, who 
despaired of obtaining Arab agrccment to a sovereign Jewish State in 
Palestine. directcd their eflorts towards co-operation with the British 
mandatory authoritics (who caused them bitter disappointment), while 
ignoring the cxistence of the Arab people in the country; and the Arab 
nationalists waged a deadly war on the whole Jewish enterprise without 
discernment or compromise, hoping to liquidate the entire Jewish popu- 
lation by means of bloody riots. which took place under the Inspiration of 
the ex-Mufti of Jerusalem. 

Terroiism 

This State of affairs was shamelessly exploited by the British authoritics 
for their own benefit. Jewish as well as Arab peace-lovers were declared. 
by chauvinistic leaders, to be traitors to their people, and among the 
Arabs terror was used against those who remained faithful to Jewish-Arab 
peace or were under suspicion of sympathizing with it. Then it happcned 
that Fauzi AI-Husseini. the Mufti"s cousin and a young intellectual. who 
had placed himself at the head of an Arab movement corresponding with 




Fa^c hoiirtecii 



The War Resister 



the Jewish " Ihud ", was murdered in an ambush. 

It is important to note here that between the Jewish and Arab masses 
good mutual relations prevailed all the time, especially in the fields of 
commerce, handicraft and labour. Thosc ties were temporarily brokcn with 
the outbreak of riots, but restored again afterwards in spite of Propaganda 
on both sides. 

Cold War 

Whcn the sovereign State of Israel was cstablished in accordance with 
the United Nations' decision, seven Arab states declared war with the 
object of destroying it cntirely, and, when Israel's victory thwarted this 
attempt, a State of continuous tension came into being, which endangcrcd 
the peace here in the Middle East and throughout the world. IJnfortunately 
this country has been chosen as a wrestling arena by violent peoplc in the 
East and West, and this fact seriously interferes with the eflorts for peace 
between the peoples of the country. Neverthelcss, even today, prospects do 
exist for putting an end to the state of emergency and for establishing 
pcacefui relations and a friiilful, creative life on the following basis : — 

(1) The State of Israel is the common homeland of both of its peoples, 
Jews and Arabs. 

(2) The two peoples must together solve all disagreements between thcm 
by peaceful means only. 

(3) At present no changcs in the shape of political Organisation should 
be undertaken, but postponed to more distant and quiet timcs. Then 
it will perhaps becomc clear to the two sides that the best way out 
for the happiness of the two peoples and of the whole region hes 
in the bi-national way of life, within a federation of the peoples of 
the region. 

(4) Military rule in all parts of the country should be abolished and 
absolute equality fiilly realised, as promiscd to the Arabs in Israel's 
Declaration of Independence. 

(5) The one hundred thousand Arab refugees should be repatriated to 
their homeland under conditions of resettlement and security as will 
be agreed upon. The other refugees should be resettled in the Arab 
countries or elsewhcre according to their wish. 

(6) A special committee composed of representatives of the U.N., the 
refugees and the State of Israel should attend to all matters relating 
to the repatriation of the refugees; this committee should also deal 
with the resettlement of the remaining refugees outside the State of 
Israel. It will act with füll consideration, a sense of heavy respon- 
sibility and the utmost rapidity. 

(7) The enormous financial means which will be required for the 
rehabilitation of the refugees in Israel and in the Arab countries or 
elsewhere should be raised from international sources, but the 
State of Israel and the Arab countries should take part with a great 
financial efTort. 

(8) The boycott on Israel as well as other emergency measures employed 
by the Arab states must be abolished immediately and completely. 

(9) Israel and her neighbours will earnestly try not to become involved 
in the cold war between East and West and in the hot war which may 
follow, and will decline ofTers of weapons and armament from any 
State or block whatsoever. 

Translation by Shimon Bar-Ephrath, Jerusalem. 



WORLD PEACE BRIGADE 

(For Non- Violent Action) 

THE Rev. Michael Scott of Great Britain and Africa, 
A. J. Mustc of the U.S A., and a leader of the Gandhian 
movement in India were elected to serve as Chairmen of the 
newly-launched WORLD PEACE BRIGADE For Non-Violent 
Aclio:i in Beirut on 3rd January, 1962. 

In addition to the two Chairmen who were present at the 
Conference, the following participated in a Council meeting: 
Abbe F^ierre (France), Albert Bigelow and Bayard Rustin 
(U.S.A.), G. Ramachandran and Siddharaj Dhadda (India), 
Stuart Morris and Michael Rändle (Gt. Britain), and Bill 
Suthcrland of Ghana. An additional eleven persons will 
comprise Ihc governing body of the Brigade, which will be 
Staging peace dcmonstrations in many countries towards the end 
of May. Leaders in southern Africa are to be consulted before 
a " major action project " in Africa is announced. 

Regional olllces of the Brigade are to be .set up shorlly in 
Britain, India and the United States. Working groups will act 
as the Council's Executive Committee until the constitutional 
structure of the Brigade can be brought into effect. Provisionally, 
World Headtjuarters will be at 88 Park Avenue, Enfield, 
England. Arlo Tatum, the Conference organiser, will be Secre- 
tary General until a permanent appointment is made. 

Plans were drafted for the recruiting of the first thousand 
Brigade Voluntcers, and preliminary discussion on training, 
financing and activities took place. 

STATEMENT OF PRINCIPLES AND AIMS 

IN virtually all relationships of life men and societies are 
undergoing a severe crisis and are templed either to hope- 
lessness or to violent Solutions of their problems. 

Ours is a world of hunger — hunger for the simple needs of 
life, hunger for freedom. justice and human dignity, hunger for 
reconciliation and peace. 

Ours is also a world superbly equipped with the means to 
satisfy these hungers. We have the technical skills, the expanding 
awareness of the meaning of freedom, and the intellectual and 
Spiritual heritage which can enable us to be free of bondage. 
want, and war. 

The tragedy is that our vision is distorted by outworn ideas 
which prevent us from seeing the world as it really is in the 
nuclear era. Individuais, governments, peoples are imprisoned 
in the habits, ideologies and institutions of violence which they 
themselves have devised and built. 

Common sense. political wisdom and profoundest morai 



imperatives compel us to break out of this condition ; the 
very survival of civilisation, and perhaps of the race, depend 
upon this emancipation. Men must find, and must be ready to 
experiment with, an alternative way. This alternative is non- 
violence. It is, we firmly believe, the way to help free mankind 
and to release the minds and energies of men for creative 
achievements. 

World Community can replace the institution of war. 

Liberty and Equality can replace colonialism and other 
tyrannies. 

Human dignity can replace human degradation and destruc- 
tion. 

Non-violence is the way to such goals. We are resolved to 
devote ourselves to this way, knowing that this will require 
severe effort of thought. experimentation, toil, perseverance, 
dedication. We call on our fellows in all lands to join in this 
venture. 

The World Peace Brigade is constituted to band together those 
who respond to this call and seek to bring the liberating and 
transforming power of non-violence to bear more effectively 
on our World. 
The Aims are : 

1. To organise, train, and keep available a Brigade for non- 
violent action : 

a. in situations of potential or actual conflict, internal and 

international ; 
/>. against all war, preparations for war, and the continuing 

development of weapons of mass destruction. 

2. To activate people everywhere to become a responsible 
and positive force to meet the menace of modern war by inspir- 
ing and stimulating confidence in non-violent alternatives. 

3. To revolutionise the concept of revolution itself by 
infusing into the methods of resisting injustice the qualities 
which ensure the preservation of human life and dignity and to 
create the conditions necessary for peace. 

4. To join with people in their non-violent struggle for self- 
determination and social reconstruction. 

5. To establish national units in countries where there are 
no organisations co-operating with the Brigade. 

6. To co-operate to the utmost with existing organisations 
for peace, liberation and human service and to act where needed 
as a co-ordinating and Information centre for non-violent 
activities throughout the world. 

7. To encourage and undertake research in fields relevant to 
the work of the Brigade. 



Published by W.R.I.. 88, Park Avenue, Enfield. Middx. 
Printed by Goodwin Press Ltd. (T.U.), 135 Fonthill Road, Finsbury Park, N.4 



^RSH ©aiHagJg ®SF 



^wm 





aipaiM 



By A. J. BERN 



i_ 



This article reprinted by courtesy of The Tribüne' appeared in that 
Journal on March bth, 1942. The Editor zvrote, "tce print this article because 
zve think the subject is one of growing importance. The author is a non- 
Jew tvho is perturbed and disgusted by the spread of anti-Setnitism in 
f.ondon." 



THE SHOPKEEPER was Jewish, rather an old-fashioned type of Jew 
with a little grey beard and tired eyes in a parchment-like, wrinkied face. 
Opening the door of his shop, he shufFIed out in his slippers to take down 
the wooden shutters of his shop front. ... 

He took one down, looked at it, and then looked up at the others. 
Then he sighed and went back into his shop to get a cloth to wipe away 
the ofFending words 

Somebody had been busy In the night, busy with a stick of chalk and 
a foul, illiterate mind. And here was the result across the shop front: 

Jeu! . . . This is a Je^v shop . . . the Jews . . . It's a ]ew's War. , . 

This was not a street in Berlin. It was not a shop in Adolph Hitler's 
Munich or in Julius Streicher's paradise for Jew-baiters, Nuremberg. It 
was not Germany. It was not even Roumania or Buigaria. It was not 
in Vichy. It was in Britain — in a London street. 

Happily that sorl of thing is rare in this country, but it does happen. 
We have all seen it. I don't know how the J^ws feel when they come 
across it, but I know that every tinne I see it a cold fury is aroused within 
me. I feel I would like to be at the back of one of these scribblers 
while he is busy with his stick of chalk and his foul little mind. And 
l'd like to be wearing a pair of new, hard-toed football boots. . . . But 
then, one can never catch these furtive little Jew-haters at work. Oh, 
no. They are far too sly and much too cowardly. They never wield their 
chalk during the hours of daylight. They slink down back alleys and side 
streets after nightfall. 



We need not feel unduly concerned about the activities of these 
chalk-by-night Jew haters. They are far too meagre both in numbers 
and intelligence for that, but we should not dose our eyes to the fact 
that during the past few months there has been a dcfinite expansion of 
anti-Semitic feeiing in this country. 

There is a more dangerous anti-Semite than the one who scribbles 
on shop fronts. He is far more insidious. He is the feliow who, standing 
against a bar, will open his newspaper casually and connment, "Another 
Jev/ got six months for black market racketeering," er "They've rounded 
up another gang of Jews running a gaming house." And so on. Every 
unsavoury report involving Jewish offenders is seized upon with avidity, 
repeated with relish, and tossed out into the con^eisation at every oppor- 
tunity. 

Of course there are Jews in the Black Market. Of course there are 
Jews who scheme to avoid military Service. Of course there are Jews 
who run gaming housos. Of course there are Jev/s who obtain more than 
their food ration. Jewry has its black sheep. And so have we. 



Here is a list of Jewish names which have appeared in the newspapers 
during the past few months. A much longer list could have been com- 
piied, but we will be content with just these 20 names: 

Julius Allen Cohen, Samuel Jacobovitch, Maurice Cohen Starr, Arthur 
Myer Ziman, Mark Alfred Niman, Joseph Slipman, Jack Seidenberg, 
Bernard Kyte, Rosaiie Gassman, Aubrey Weldon, Barnett Burke, John 
Lewis Michaels, Dudley J. Barnaio Joel, M.P., Francis H. Schumer, 
Nathaniel Marantz, Aaron Harry Cohen, Marcus Kramer, Leslie Luck, 
L Zaisberg, Harry Lerner. 

There are the names of 19 Jews and one Jewess. All those names 
appeared in print but, strangely enough no Jew-hater drew attention io 
them. None of Captain Ramsay's anti-Judaic clique sneered "Look, the 
Jews again!" None of them talked about Julius Allen Cohen or Samuel 
Jacobovitch or Rosaiie Gassman, for instance. 

Why? Because Squadron Leader Julius Allen Cohen was the pilot 
of a Sunderland flying boat who won the D.F.C. when he took Lord Gort 
and Mr. DufF Cooper from Southampton to Rabat on an urgent mission 
during the critical days of last June. And Gunner Sam Jacobovitch 
won the Military Medal during the siege of Tobru!;, as well as being 
mentioned three times in dispatches. And Miss Rosaiie Gassman? She 
was the first woman in the country to receive the newiy constituted British 
Empire Medal for conspicuous bravery during a night air raid on London. 

Pilot OfRcer Nathaniel Marantz, was not an English Jew. He was 
a Jew from New York's East Side, and a graduate of Columbia University. 
Before his country was at war, he joined the Eagle Squadron and came 
to Britain to fight for us. He was 22. Last summer, he was reported 
missing, believed killed. 

Sergeant L. Zaisberg, from Fordham Street, in the East End of 
London, won the D.F.C, for gallant conduct in air Operations. Sergeant 



Mark Alfred Niman, d 22-year-old Manchester Jew, won the D.F.M. in 
alr Operations. Sergeant Aubrey Weldon, son of one of the founders 
of the new Southport Synagogue, won the D.F.M. during a bombing 
attack on Mannheim. Harry Lerner was the tlrst member of the Poplar 
Rescue Party to win the British Empire Medal .... But why go on? 
These pages could be filled with stories of Jewish gallantry, devotlon to 
duty, self-sacrifice. 

The ?.0 names I have mentioned represent but an infinitesimal pro- 
portion of the Jews whose gallantry has been awarded, or who have been 
killed in action in this war. 

In the last war five Jews won the Victoria Gross, 49 got the D.S.O., 
263 got Military Grosses, 329 the Military Medal. 85 the Distinguished 
Conduct Medal, and I I Jewish airmen in our tiny Flying Gorps won 
Distinguished Flying Grosses. One of the best Generals we ever had was 
the Australian Jew, General Sir John Monash. He succeeded Field Mar- 
shai Sir William Birdwood as Gommander in Chief of the Anzacs. 

It was a Jew, Dr. Chaim Weizmann, the great Zionist and one-time 
Lecturer in Ghemistry at Manchester University, who saved this country 
from disaster in the 1914-18 War. Acetone, an essential ingredient of 
Trinitrotoluol — T.N.T. — was found to be unprocurable outside Germany. 

"Its absence appalied the British Admiralty," wrote Sir Ronald Storrs. 
"But not the brain of the Jewish chemist." 

It was Lloyd George who said of the Jew-haters: 

"In the eyes of these fanatics, t^e Jews can do no right. If they are 
rieh, they are birds of prey. If they are poor, they are vermin. If 
they give generousiy — and thero are no more liberal benefactors than 
the Jews — they are giving for sorne ulterior motive. If they do not give, 
then what could one expect of a Jew but avarice?" 

i did not set out to defend the Jews. The Jewish people need no 
defence. There is no case against them. I write this articie because 
I am ashamed of those apologies of Englishmen — and women — who carry 
out a whispering campaign against the Jews. 



Maybe the Jew-haters are as meagre in nunnbers as they are meagre 
in mental equipment — but at least one of them, Gaptain Ramsay, is a 
Member of Parliament. From a prison cell he continues to represent his 
disgusted constltuency, but there are others outside prison, free to spread 
the disease, including several M.P.'s who never let slip an opportunity 
to stand up in the House and make viciou: I:^nuendoes in the form of 
questions about notable members of the Jewish Community. One of 
these Parliament mud-slingers was recentiy severely rebuked in the Gom- 
mons both by the Speaker and Gaptain Margesson. 

Happily the British people are not easily affected by the anti-Semite 
virus, but as Lady Reading said recentiy, "Every anti-Semite Is a potential 
quisling." Let us never forget that. 

We could disregard the whole thing if it were merely a matter of 
scribbling on shop fronts. That type of anti-Jew Propagandist merely dis- 



plays his own sense of inferiority and abysmal ignorance. More dangerous 
are certain novelists — quite a few of them — who never fail to depict Jewish 
characters as most odious individuals. And yet these same novelists 
would be horrified If you told them they were playing Goebbels's game. 
One of the worst ofFenders is Mr. Warwick Deeping. He invariably creates 
Jewish characters as most unpleasant individuals. 

In his recent novel "The Darlc House" there is a description of a Jew 
which drew comment from the "Jewish Chronicie". That Journal rightly 
described this description as worthy of a medal fronr) Goebbels. It is a 
description of a Jew calling on a doctor and how the . . . "Hebrew per- 
suaslon arrived inconslderately on that doorstep days before the babe 
was due. They were prepared to cause you Infinite troubie, without 
paying for It. They were both servile and sedulous .... It meant 
squalor and hysterlcs, and hours of procrastlnation, and squeals of old 
women clawlng at you on the stairs." And so on. 

There is a famous letter written by a non-Jewish doctor, a Slav, Dr. 
Lukatchevsky. I would recommend Mr. Warwick Deeping and every Jew- 
hater to commit this letter to memory. 

"A Nazi who has venereal disease should not allow himself to be cured 
by salvarsan because it Is the discovery of the Jew, Ehrlich. He should 
not even take steps to find out if he has that ugly disease, because the 
Wasserman reaction, which Is used for the purpose is the discovery of 
a Jew. A Nazi who has heart disease should not use digitaiis, because 
<i Je-^, '.i'dwig Traube, was responsible for It. If he has toothache, he 
should not use cocalne, or ne v*ill t-c bcnofir^Irg from the woric of a 
Jew, Solomon Stricker. 

"Typhus should not be treated, c the Nazi will have to benefit by 

the discoveries of Vidal and Well, ooth Jews. If he has diabetes he 

should not use Insulin, product of the research work of a Jew, Minkowsky 

. . . Nazis with convulsions should pjt up with them, for it was a Jew, 

Oscar Liebriech, who thought of chloral hydrate. ..." 

Down through the centuries the Jews have contributed more than 
thelr fair share towards the alleviation of sufFering mankind. Thelr contri- 
butlons to the arts, the culture, education and enlightenment of the human 
race are too numerous to mention. Are thelr contrlbutlons to be out- 
weighed because here and there a Jew — along with the non-Jews — rents 
a house for Chemin-de-fer parties, or because a handfui of Jews — along 
with the non-Jews — muscie in on the Black Markets? 

Believe me, the Jewish people are more angry with the Jewish 
racketeers than the non-Jews are. And when some snivelling nincompoop 
chalks The Jews across a shop front, or an Engiish novelists writes Insulting 
paragraphs about a great people, It is not the Jews who feel ary shame, 
it is we non-Jews who must feel ashamed .... 



Published by th< Wobnm Prosa. 
Printed hy the fVohurn Print'mg <Iq., Upper Wtyhurn Place. W .C.l . 



Dr. Franz Kobler : 



Reo ort 



abou t 



J I 6 f L A K 



G S R 



DEVS T - R A IT 



Ghasidü tajemst 



T 1 



Ivropsky literarni Iclub Praha 1937 



The ti tl e of tlie boolc reads in the English translation :- 

THE HINE GATES 
THE SECRET OP THE HASIDIM 

The boolc was published by the 'European Literary Club Prague 
in July 1957, 259 pages, 

Survey :- 

The boo-.: consists of an Introduction ■' A youth of 
Prague among the Hasidiin •• ( p.). 9 - oo ) , 9 Chapters (pp. 57 -215 ) 
and an Appendix ( pp. 216 - .Jb9 ). ._:ach of the 9 chapters called 
" The Gates " is devoted to the lives and teachings of famous 
Hasidic r8.büi5,The Appendix contains : " Gold and silver, pearls 
c^nd all tliose ^^recicus stones f r >in Kotsk, the City of ■Visdon.. " 
General Gharacterization ;- 

The book differs charactexistically from the various 
works devoted ix: recent uimes to the sect of the Jewish iz];^/stics, 
called the Kasidiai ( the Devouts ) , which v;aE founded by the saint 
and mystic Israel Baal Shem ( " Master of the Hoiy Name." ) in the 
first half of the sftva»fai.#jath century. '• The iTine Gates '• are neither 
an historical study nor a phii-osophical treatise. " It is not oleasant 
to God, though easy, to annoy ■ the reader " says the.author witli regara 
to his different purpose.i'or hia boolc is an original description of 
the Hasidic world in the irameworic of a personal confession. 

The origin of the l)ook told in the Introduction is in 
itself a uni-iue event, The author, a Gzech ,,:ew, iinbuea with 'estern 









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prci;.'^,.. u'.u .Lii uie u^cv )i' ;'- ^.ooso narre. tive. It'>f^'l4t^''tHod,,4ai4^ 






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i-. ii«vc*i:ui:i^ii#9(^s*4 read iu cid liebreu 'Doo-^r ::ovivf:, üex't^rc rio '.n 



v/holo ,;ie-UieB8 and power, '• ^'/le ^ainl-s 



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cix-e alu-iaL.-er re:.)res3iit::. ':.'Tv;c ox" c, Ir-,:er r: ta.ie of .::.aeiai.c 






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- .'. 4 -,■ r« -v ^l-«^ i tili C l-a;.v *-01--i'i. J- ■--•—— *- 



jiasidic \.3rl(l 



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- 3 - 



Tho k99Toach and reprcsentation j - 

The imrticuiar characteristic and clic.m of the "book 

consictß in its original approach to the subjecb» The material is 

preeented with an astonishing £3iiiiplicity and accomodation to the 

genuine Ilr.eidic spirit, The author spealcs ao one of the HasidiUi 

using their manrier of conversation, tlieir favourite ezpressionßj 

and, as far as posoibie, even their language» Thus he ßuccecds in 

reviving üie specific Yiddich colour of the Ilasidic v/orld* At the 

ßaiae time he doee not ^ouceal his Western rnenüality, and fatticuiariy 

the vi^sOrous reaction of a Caecli intellectual to that ctrange 

enyironment. This douhle reflection perraeates the uhoie hoolc and 

causes an atmosphere of serene ^jaiety wliich provides cn attractive 

contrast to the profound wisdom and secretshiddcn in the ctories and 

ca:/'ings. The philosophical touch of the "booi: is etreseed uy cpecial 

dedications of come appropriate paenaGes to " ^r Generation '*, 

to :ierkega.rd, to Freud, to j:instein» Ou the other hand Lanccr's 

anusing hiniour changes of ten into ironj^pdd ascunes even the 
character of a sutire. -nuc Ti\;rc.T7X^i ox -ooa, irain rx.-xpi.t: nai^cuc 

..^^»iN^sppt^ÄÜfdirony, poyirtijpö" aülitoppy parallel t§ läPs'f^^^li^*!^^^ 
YGmmii^tj of the cmtentst 
Conclusion ;^ 

The higli literary star.dard of tlie vjorü, the fascinating 
id the original approach malce Längeres booli a very valuabie 
and attractive re -ding, 3Öi^ 1«^ ^^ i*^ translation, he made 

acquainted with a gxeat theae, jaö4 ei^^raordinary people. nd an 
oütctanding author. The translator ^iU certainly have to overcor^e 
sone difiicultiee in order to ei^^prese the original mizture of colourß. 
But even if this should he achioved only approximately , the hooic nay 
appeal to raany people. n could, hy its particular cham, hecone 
#erlii#;^iiiri?n a favourite populär reading. 



The A.XJroach. 

The partioular oharacteristic and Ohara of tha boolc 

conaiBtB in Itr original approacl: to the Bu^ect and the mann^f 







:';;'^''.iA. 



SOCIETY FOR THE HISTORY QF CZECHOSLOVAK JEWS, INC., NEW YORK 

BULLETIN 
February 1964 



THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SOCIETY 

ON WEDNESDAY, MARCH 25th, 1964, THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SOCIETY 
FOR THE HISTORY OF CZECHOSLOVAK JEWS WILL BE HELD AT THE AUDITORIUM OF 
THE CONGREGATION HABONIM, 44 WEST 66th STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 

The Meeting will Start at 8 p.m. sharp. Invitations with details of the program will 
foUow. 

After the business session, a lecture will be given by either Professor Cecil Roth er 
Dr. Oskar K. Rabinowicz, Please reserve the evening of the 25th of March for your attend- 
ance at that highly interesting meeting and the ensuing social gathering. 

Any suggestions for the agenda will be appreciated. Please, mail them to the Secretary 
of the Society, Walter Kauders, 109-20, 71st Road, Forest HiHs 75, New York, N.Y. 

In view of the fact that the Annual Meeting is also open to Non-Members, please invite 
your friends and acquaintances who have not yet joined the Society. 

DUES AND CONTRIBUTIONS 

We are glad to advise our members that tax deductibility of contributions has been 
granted to our Society. The formal notification reads as follows: 

"Contributions to the Society are deductible by donors as provided in Section 170 of the 
Code. Bequests, Legacies, Devises, Transfers or Gifts to or for the use of the Society 
are deductible for Federal E State and Gift Tax purposes under the provision of Section 
2055, 2106 and 2522 of the Code. " 

Those members who have not yet remitted their dues for 1963 are asked to kindly make 
payment prior to our Annual Meeting. 

Dues and Contributions for 1964 are payable after receipt of the Report of our forth- 
coming Annual Meeting. A return envelope addressed to the Treasurer of the Society will be 
attached to our Report. 

HISTORY OF CZECHOSLOVAK JEWS, 1918-1948 

Preparation of the "History of Czechoslovak Jews, 1918-1948" has progressed satis- 
factorily and the work— or at least the first part— is scheduled for publication in 1964. A de- 
tailed report on the book will be given at our Annual Meeting 

HISTORICAL REVIEW 



The plan for the publication of our Periodical, the Historical Review on the History of 
Czechoslovak Jews, did not yet materialize for lack of funds. We have to find an early Solu- 
tion, all the more as very interesting articles for that periodical have been received and are 
awaiting publication. We wish to draw the attention to this important project, and our mem- 
bers are asked to assist us in interesting Sponsors and in making suggestions for financing 
our Periodical. 

MATERIAL FOR OUR HISTORICAL PUBLICATIONS AND FOR SAFEKEEPING 

We would like to again draw the attention of our members to the danger that valuable 
historical material will be lost forever if it is not being collected now. 



- 2 - 

Diaries, letters, illustrations of all kinds, books, documents, clippings and all other 
material concerning the history of Jewry in the geographica! area of Czechoslovakia should 
be sent to us for safekeeping and research purposes. 

In cases where a family does not want to part with the original material, photographs 
or photostats should be made and given to us. 



n 



GEDENKBUCH DER UNTERGEGANGENEN JUDENGEMEINDEN DER TSCHECHOSLOWAKEI 



»! 



We wish to advise you that the Olamenu Verlag, Hugo Gold, in Tel-Aviv is preparing 
the publication of the above-mentioned "Gedenkbuch", in two Volumes. 

In view of the fact that very easily that book could be confused with our own "History of 
Czechoslovak Jews, 1918-1948" we would like to quote a notice which we published together 
with Olamenu Verlag In a recent issue of the German language paper "Aufbau-Reconstruction" 
and which reads, in English translation, as follows: 

"As is well known by all people concerned, the Society for the History of Czechoslovak 
Jews is preparing the publication of a book entitled "History of Czechoslovak Jews, 
1918-1948." 

Completion of the book has progressed so far that publication can be expected in 1964, 

Another book devoted to Czechoslovak Jewry, "Gedenkbuch der Untergegangenen Juden - 
gemeinden der Tschechoslowakei", (Memorial Book on the Perished Jewish Communities of 
Czechoslovakia) is under preparation at the Olamenu Verlag, Hugo Gold, Tel-Aviv, Israel. 

Purpose of this Statement which is being published, in mutual agreement, by the Society 
for the History of Czechoslovak Jews and by the Olamenu Verlag is to clarify the fact that the 
above-mentioned books are completely different publications, 

The historical book published by the Society for the History of Czechoslovak Jews is the 
first attempt towards a systematical presentation of the history of Czechoslovak Jews during 
the three decades from 1918 to 1948, in continuation of the well -known Yearbooks of the 
Historical Society of Prague, edited by Professor Dr. Samuel Steinherz. The present Edi- 
torial Board consists of Professor Dr. Guido Kisch, Professor Dr. Hans Kohn and Dr. Oskar 
K. Rabinowicz. 

The "Gedenkbuch der Untergegangenen Judengemeinden der Tschechoslowakei", how- 
ever, is a presentation similar to Hugo Gold's populär illustrated Volumes on Jewish Com- 
munities of Bohemia and Moravia-Silesia, from their inception on. 

In this way these books, each one wlthin its specific realm, will contribute to the 
description of the achievements of Czechoslovak Jewry. 



SOCIETY FOR THE HISTORY 

OF CZECHOSLOVAK JEWS, INC. 

New York 

Kurt Wehle 

President 



OLAMENU VERLAG 

HUGO GOLD 

Tel-Aviv, Israel 

Dr. Fritz Ullmann 

Manager of Organization" 



COOPERATION OF OUR MEMBERS 

We are thanking our members for their numerous and valuable suggestions and, es- 
pecially for drawing our attention to interesting news. Special thanks go to those members 
who helped our Society in enroUing new members. 

May we ask our members to intensify their endeavors in both respects. Wherever and 
whenever news items become known which are interesting and have a distinct reference to 



-3- 

the History of Czechoslovak Jewry, please, advise us accordingly in quoting publications, 
sending clippings etc. 

Try to enroU new members for the Society and also let us know the addresses of 
Czechoslovak Jews whose names come to your attention, wherever they live. 

WHO KNOWS THE PRESENT ADDRESSES OF THE FOLLQWING PERSQNS WHO MQVED 
WITHQUT INDICATING THEIR WHEREABOUTS? : 



ADLER, BRUNO, 10 Oak Hill Park, London N.W. 3, England; ARD AY, DR. EUGENE, 1021 
Moreno Morewood Parkway, Rocky River, Ohio; BAUER, WILLIAM G. , 85 Lastend Avenue, 
New York 28, N. Y. ; BIRNBAUM, MRS. ESTHER, 5042 Jeanne Mance Street, Montreal, 
Can. ; BLOCK, FRANK, 3710 McGilvra Street, Seattle 2, Wash. ; BUNZELL, OTA, 599 
West End Avenue, New York 24, N.Y.; BUCHINGER, MRS. M. , 202 Hooper Street, 
Brooklyn, N.Y. ;BENDA, DR. HARRY, 515 University Park, Rochester 20, N.Y. ; 
CHVOJKA, LESLIE, 1023 NeweU W. , Seattle, Wash. ; FISCHL, RUDOLPH, 16 Rue 
Genissien, Grenoble, France; FREY, DR. OTTO, 23 Schenck Avenue, Great Neck, N.Y.; 
GOLDSCHMIDT, LEOPOLD, 23 Thorwaldsenstr. , Frankfurt -Main, W. Germany; 
GREENBERG, MRS. JENNY, 5360 MacDonald Avenue, Apt. 108, Montreal, Can.; 
GRUNTHAL, PAUL, 878 Third Avenue, New York City; GOLLAN, DR. FRANK, University 
of Minnesota, Med. School, Minneapolis, Minn. ; HIRSCH, LEO, 885 Lafayette Avenue, 
Buffalo 20, N.Y. ; KADLEC -GLASER, MRS. HANKA, 34-15 74th Street, Jackson Heights, 
N.Y.;KATONA, ALEX, 209-25 18th Street, Bayside, N.Y. ; KENT, JOSEPHE., Associated 
Diamond Dealers Club, 2 W. 46th Street, New York City; KLEIN, RABBI ISAAC, 159 Ster- 
ling Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. ; KOCH, MRS. VALY; 344 A Third Avenue, San Francisco 18, 
Cal. ; KRAUS, F., 445 Godwin Avenue, Midland Park, N.Y. ; KUMMERMAN, PAUL, 2039 
University Street, Apt. 17, Montreal, Can.; LANG, DR. LOUIS, 947 E. Jersey Street, 
Elizabeth, N.J.; LEBOVIC, ALEXANDER, 1477 Longfellow Avenue, Bronx 60, N.Y.; 
LEDERER, KARL, Box 688, Englewooc', N. J. ; LEVENSTEIN, FANNY, 85-6 Westminster 
Ave., HiUside, N.Y.; LJUNGGREN-LIPPSCHUETZ, MRS. LILLY, Redbergsvregen 16, 
Goeteborg, Sweden; LUFTIG, LEOPOLD, 230 W. 97th Street, New York 25, N. Y. ; 
LUSTFIELD, ERWIN, 235 West 71st Street, New York 24, N. Y. ; MOSZKOWIT5:, DR. 
DAVID, 5542 Wilkins Ave. , Pittsburgh, Pa. ; MUELLER, MRS. EDITH, 3913 W. Galena, 
Milwaukee 8, Wisc. ; NEWMAN, IRVING, 1510 Crotona Park Fast, Bronx, N.Y.; PICK, 
DR. PETER ERNEST, 19 E. 98th Street, New York City, N.Y. ; POLLIT, WALTER, 555 
So. Burlingame Avenue, Los Angeles 49, Cal. ; POPPER, RUDOLF, 78 Thayer Street, 
New York City, N.Y.; REICH, TIBOR, 472 Gramatan Avenue, Mt. Vernon, N.Y. ; RING, 
DR. FRANCIS, Schenectady, N. Y. ; ROBITSCHEK, FRED, 135 W. 72 Street, New York 23, 
N.Y. ; ROSTAL, MAX, 45 Brondesbury Park, London N.W. 6, England; ROTH, MILAN, 
2070 Pacific Avenue, San Francisco, Calif . ; SAXL, PAUL, 112 Central Park South, New 
York City, N.Y. ; SCHULHOF, MAX, 203 W. 67 Street, New York City, N.Y. ; SCHWARTZ, 
Z. , 648 N. La JoHa Avenue, Cole, Calif. ; SEIDNER, JOHN H. , 204 W. 71st Street, 
New York City 23, N.Y.; SEIFTER, DR. ADOLF, 290 22nd Avenue, San Francisco, Cal. ; 
SILBERMAN, HUGO, 51 W. 81 st Street, New York 24, N.Y. ; SPIEGEL, BERNARD, 390 
S. Hauser Blvd. , Los Angeles 36, Cal. ; SPORAT, DAVID, 250 W. 57th Street, New York 
19, N.Y. ; STANGEL, LUDEVIT, 67-10 108th Street, Forest HiUs 75, N.Y. ; STEINER, 
PETER, 927 C 7th Avenue, Santa Monica, Cal. ; STERN, BART, 241 S. Mansfield Avenue, 
Los Angeles, Cal. ; STERNBERG, WILLIAM, 144-39 Sanford Avenue, Flushing, N.Y.; 
STURCS, E.', 188 Avenue F, Bayonne, N.J.; SUPUT, MARC, 42-37 Hampton Street, 



-4- 

Elmhurst, N.Y.; TOTH, MKS. REGINA, 5045 MacDonald, Apt. 27, Montreal, Can. ; 
ULLMAN, WALTER, 1533 McGregor, Apt. 92, Montreal, Can. ; VAVRUSKA, MRS. EVA, 
3454 Stanley Street, Apt. G. , Montreal, Can.; WEISS, SAMUEL, 380 Edward Charles, 
Montreal, Can. ; WACHS, JOE, 1065 Eglinton Avenue, West Toronto, Can. ; WEBER, 
JAKUB, 5920 Sonart Avenue, Montreal, Can. ; WIDDER, ZOLTAN, 4896 Clark Street, 
Montreal, Can. ; WILCZEK, JOSEPH, 12 W. 7 2nd Street, New York City, N.Y.;WOHL, 
ZOLTAN, 6185 Hudson Road, Montreal, Can. ; ZIPSER, ALBERT, 736 W. 186th Street, 
New York 33, N.Y. ZELIKOVIC, MRS. HERMINE, 4740 Plamondon, Apt, 12, Montreal, 
Can. ; ZWACK, KARL, 3735 Port Road, Bronx, N.Y. 

Please write your information on this sheet and mail it to us. Many thanks. 



Kurt Wehle 
President 



Walter Kauders 
Secretary 



Please address all of your Communications to the Secretary, Walter Kauders, 109-20, 
TlstRoad, Forest Hills, N.Y. 



CALENDAR 




OF EVENTS 



in the 
Library of Congress 



January 1964 



Literary Programs 

Two lectures on "The Writer's Experience." 

January 6 Ralph Ellison: "Hidden Name and Complex Fate" 

8:30 p.m. 



January 27 Karl Shapiro: "American Poet?" 



8:30 p.m. 



Sponsored by the Gertrude Clarke Whlttall Poetry and Liter ature 
Fund in the Library of Congress. No tickets are required. 



Concerts 

^^anuary 3 New York Pro Musica Renaissance Band 8:30 p.m. 



(Please note.'The concert for January 3 was orlginally scheduled for 
November 22 and was cancelled in respect to the lata President. 
Tickets distributed for November 22 will be honored on January 3.) 



-^January 10 Hungarian Quartet 

January 17 New York Woodwind Quinte t 

~>- January 24 Quartetto Italiano 

January 31 New York Chamber Soloists 



8:30 p.m. 
8:30 p.m. 
8:30 p.m. 
8:30 p.m. 



Sponsored by the Gertrude Clarke Whittall Foundation in the 
Library of Congress. Tickets are required for all concerts. 



Note: Concert tickets are distributed on the Monday prior to the 
concert at the Hayes Concert Bureau, 1108 G Street, N. W., which 
is centrally located in downtown Washington. Only two tickets 
(bearing a Service Charge of 25 cents each) are given to each 
person. All programs begin promptly at the hour listed. 



Literary Recordings 

Among the coUections of sound recordings in the Library of 
Congress is the large and growing Archive of Recorded Poetry and 
Literature, in which are preserved the voices of poets and other 
literary figures reading and discussing their own works and 
developments in the world of literature. From these tape-record- 
ings, the Library issues, through various grants, a series of 78 
and 33-1/3 r.p.m. discs for sale to the public; among these records 
are readings by such poets as Robert Frost, Stephen Vincent Benet, 
and T. S. Eliot; lectures by Mark Van Doren and David Daiches; 
and an interview with H. L. Mencken. An Album of Modern Ppetry — 
an anthology of 3 LP discs — contains the works of 46 American 
and British poets. Complete lists of the series' contents and prices 
are free upon request to the Recording Laboratory, Library of 
Congress, Washington, D. C. 20540. 



Folk'Music Recordings 

The Library has also issued for public sale a series of 78 and 
33-1/3 r.p.m. discs drawn from the large collection of f ield 
recordings in the Archive of Folk Song. These records include 
ancient ballads brought with the earliest settlers from England and 
France, early American hymns and spirituals, shanties and work 
songs of American sailors and lumberjacks, Indian chants and 
ceremonial dance songs, indigenous fiddle and banjo tunes, and 
rural blues. A printed catalog, describing the contents of the folk- 
music recordings in detail, is in preparation; a listing is available 
free from the Recording Laboratory meanwhile. 



Recording Laboratory 

The Recording Laboratory, established through a grant from the 
Carnegie Corporation of New York in 1940, sells both the literary 
and folk-music recordings in its Office, where the records may 
be heard, and by mail. The literary recordings may also be pur- 
chased in person at the Library' s Information Desk. 



New Exhihits 

In Memoriam— John Fitzgerald Kennedy. Photographs by members 
of Magnum Photos relating to the life of the late President and 
assembled for presentation to the Library of Congress. Opens 
January 20 in the South Gallery, Second Floor, Main Building; 
on View through April 30. 

Library Showcase Exhibit: Centennial of the Birth of George 
Washington Carver (1864-1943). Manuscripts and pictorial mate- 
rials relating to the life and work of this famous scientist. 
Opens January 20 in the West Foyer, Ground Floor, Main Build- 
ing; on View through April 30. 

Children's Books, 1961-62. Ninety-five books selected by the 
American Institute of Graphic Ans for excellence in typography, 
design, and illustration. Opens January 7 in the Great Hall area 
of the Second Floor, Main Building; on view through March 31. 

The Bequest of Leonard Kebler. Selections of especially fine 
examples of rare books of the 17th-19th centuries bequeathed to 
the Library of Congress bycollector Leonard Kebler (1883-1961). 
On View January 2-March 31 in the Rare Book Room, Second 
Floor (rear), Main Building. 

Julius A. Krug. Papers of the former Secretary of the Interior 
(1946-49) and Chairman of the War Production Board (1944-45), 
including his recollections of the C abinet meeting at which the 
possible use of the atomic bomb was discussed. On view January 
2-31 intheManuscriptReadingRoom, Third Floor, Annex Building, 

Representative Books of the Year from South Asia. Outstanding 
examples of the increasing book production in this area, both in 
English and several of the vernaculars. On view January 2- 
March 1 in the Fifth Floor Foyer of the Annex Building. 

Continuing Exhihits 

Centennial of West Virginia' s Statehood. Nearly 2O0 manuscripts, 
rare books, newspapers, and graphic materials illustrating the 
history and development of West Virginia. On view indefinitely 
in the Ground Floor Corridors, Main Building. 



Treasures of Early Printing. The Gutenberg Bible and other notable 
books printed from 1450 to 1550, many from the Lessing J. 
Rosenwald CoUection. On vlew indefinitely in the Great Hall 
area, First Floor, Main Building. 

The American Civil War: A Centennial Exhibition. Fine prints, 
photographs, drawings, manuscripts, broadsides, sheet music, 
and books. On view indefinitely in the North and South Galle ries, 
First Floor, Main Building. 

Instruments from the Dayton C. Miller Flute CoUection. On view 
indefinitely near the Music Division, Ground Floor, Main Building. 

Seif- Portrait s in Prints. Sixty-five self-portraits in a variety of 
media by printmakers from the early 16th Century to the present. 
On View through January 14 in the South Gallery, Second Floor, 
Main Building. 

The Photographer and the City. Examples of how various photog- 
raphers have treated the subject of thecityover the last Century. 
On view through March 1 in the South Corridor, Ground Floor, 
Main Building. 

Library Showcase Exhibit: 300 Years of ABC Books. Children's 
books — from the 17th-century hornbook to contemporary books. 
On view through January 15 in the West Foyer, Ground Floor, 
Main Building. 

The International Rights of Man. Declarations of the 14th-20th 
centuries, shown to mark the 15th anniversary of the Universal 
Declaration of Human Rights. On view indefinitely in the Law 
Library, Second Floor (rear), Main Building. 

Chilean Books from 4 Centuries. Selected rare books and limited 
editions from 1569 to the present, shown in honor of the Em- 
bassy's "Image of Chile" program. On view through January 31 
in the Hispanic Society Room, Second Floor (rear), Main Building. 

Maps of the Holy Land. Cartography commemorating the birth of 
Christ; maps, atlases, and raised modeis from the 16th Century 
to the present. On view through January 31 in the Map Reading 
Room, Ground Floor, Annex Building. 

Copyright. Facsimiles of the f irst Copyright law and the first Copy- 
right entry. On view indefinitely in the Copyright Office, First 
Floor, Annex Building. 



Permanent Exhibits in the Main Building 

The Gutenberg Bible — the St. Blasius-St. Paul copy printed on 
vellum — and the Giant Bible of Mainz — a 500-year-old illumi- 
nated manuscript. First Floor. 

The Gettysburg Address — the first and second drafts written by 
President Abraham Lincoln. First Floor, South Side in the Civil 
War Centennial Exhibit. 

The Bill of Rights— one of the original engrossed and certified 
copies. Second Floor. 

The Magna Carta — facsimile of the Lacock Abbey version. Second 
Floor. 

The Draft of the Declaration of Independence— theso-called"Rough 
Draft" written by Thomas Jefferson in June 1776, with a few 
changes by Benjamin Franklin and John Adams. Second Floor. 

Selections of manuscripts and other items of interest associated 
with George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, 
Theodore Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson. Second Floor. 

Military Banner of General Eisenhower. Visitors' Gallery. 

Library of Congress Publications and Recordings— a selection. 
Ground Floor, West Basement Lobby, Information Desk. 

Exhibit Hours 

Exhlbition Halls, Main Building: Weekdays, 9 a.m. to 10 p.m.; 
Sundays and holidays, 11:30 a.m. to 10 p.m. Annex: Weekdays, 
9 a.m. to 10 p.m.; Sundays and holidays, 2 to 6 p.m. 

Divisional Exhibits: Weekdays, 9 a.m. to 5:45 p.m.; closed Sundays 
and holidays. 

Tours 

Beginning at the Office of the Captain of the Guard, Main Building: 
Monday through Friday, 9:15, 10, and 11 a.m. and 1, 2, 3, and 
4 p.m. 



New Poetry Recording Fov Säle at LC 

PL-29: Nine Pulitzer Prize Poets Read Their Own Poems. A 12- 
inch, LP disc containing 29 poems read by Archibald MacLeish, 
Peter Viereck, Theodore Roethke, Richard Wilbur, Robert Penn 
Warren, Stanley Kunitz, W. D. Snodgrass, Phyllis McGinley, and 
Alan Dugan. Selected from the Library' s Archive of Recorded 
Poetry and Literature by Louis Untermeyer, poet, anthologist, 
and Consultant in Poetry at LC from the fall of 1961 until last 
Summer. For sale by the Recording Laboratory, Music Division, 
Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 20540, at $4.50 plus 45 
Cents tax (total, $4.95); if orderin^ by mar/, add 45 Cents addltional 
for postage and handling charges (total by mail, $5.40). Tax- 
exempt institutions may subtract 45 Cents for each record if an 
exemption certificate is submitted. 

Some Cartographic Puhlications in Print 



i 



Aviation Cartography: A Historico- Bibliographie Study of Aero- 
nautical Charts. 2d edition, revised and enlarged. 1960, reprinted 
1962. 245 p. For sale by the Card Division, Library of Congress, 
Washington, D. C. 20540, at $1.75. 

Facsimiles of Rare Historical Maps Available for Sale. (A list.) 
1960. 6 p. Free upon request to the Map Division, Library of 
Congress, Washington, D. C. 20540. 

A Guide to Historical Cartography: A Selected, Annotated List of 
References on the History of Maps and Map Making. 2d edition, 
revised. 1960, reprinted 1962. 22 p. For sale by the Card 
Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 20540, at 35 
Cents. 

Maps Showing Explorers' Routes, Trails, and Early Roads in the 
United States: An Annotated List. 1962. 137 p. For sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Off ice, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 20402, at $1.25. 

Marketing Maps of the United States: An Annotated Bibliography. 
3d (revised) edition. 1958. 147 p. For sale by the Card Divi- 
sion, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 20540, at $1.15. 

Selected Maps and Charts of Antarctica: An Annotated List of Maps 
of the South Polar Regions Published Since 1945, 1959. 193 p. 
For sale by the Card Division, Library of Congress, Washington, 
D. C. 20540, at$1.5a 



Gifts and Bequests to the Library of Congress 



Gifts and bequests benefiting or relating to the collections and 
Services of the Library of Congress have enabled the national 
library to enrich its resources for scholarship and to make sig- 
nificant contributions in several cultural fields over the years. 
Gifts of materials for the collections or funds for immediate use 
may be accepted by the Librarian of Congress. In addition, under 
the terms of the Library of Congress Trust Fund Act (1925), as 
amended, endowment funds up to a total limit of ten million dollars 
may be deposited in the U. S. Treasury as a permanent loan, 
drawing interest at 4 percent a year, and the Library of Congress 
Trust Fund Board is authorized to accept and administer gifts and 
bequests of this nature. 

Many notable acquisitions have been gifts from public-spirited 
donors — for example, the Lessing J. Rosenwald CoUection of rare 
illustrated books and the Alfred Whital Stern CoUection of 
Lincolniana. Manuscripts of national importance, rare books, 
musical manuscripts, fine prints, motion pictures, and other mate- 
rials appropriate to the collections may be offered to the Chief, 
Exchange and Gift Division. The Library will accept for safekeeping 
a deposit of national importance when the owner wishes to retain 
temporary control over the materials but intends ultimatelyto give 
them to the Library of Congress. 

Cultural activities sponsored by endowment funds are many and 
varied, Through the Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge Foundation in the 
Library of Congress, concerts of Chamber music have been pre- 
sented in the Coolidge Auditorium since 1925 and in other cities, 
12 festivals of Chamber music have been held, and new works of 
music have been commissioned. The Gertrude Clarke Whittall 
Foundation has provided concerts in the Library since 1936— among 
them the annual series in which the Stradivari Instruments given 
by Mrs. Whittall are used— and maintains afinecoUection of music 
manuscripts. The Serge Koussevitzky Foundation in the Library of 
Congress commissions new works of music and presents some 
concerts. (Manuscripts of works commissioned by the Coolidge 
and Koussevitzky Foundations are added to the Library' s collec- 
tions.) The Whittall Poetry and Literature Fund has sponsored 
poetry readings, lectures, and dramatic programs since 1951. 
Other funds provide for additional activities related to the Library' s 
functions. 

GPO 868- 879 



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955 i-.enuoclno /venue, , 

Berkelev ?, California. 

Denr Professor Fay* 

I Haf^ ver:v gl ad to henr about t'ae 
frp.tif^'inr ol nn to honor th. raein'-'rv' nf 
I) n . Ka r i 3 Ro n a L i d a de K a 1 ki e 1 dv t l'i e 
i2?ue of ') ^-^oeclal pu'.jlic '.tion nf 
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I '^ihould l:ke to c.^ontribute to the 
real ■ Z'tion ^'.-^ ih\^ pro.ject , sn^l i :-ncl^' 
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MEMORANDUM PN NEW YORK CITY 

New York City is one of the largest eitles in the world; together with its 
environs, it contains more than 10,000,000 people, Its 3,000,000 Jews 
constitute the largest and most influential Jewish Community. Millions 
upon millions of visitors, particularly from various parts of America and 
Europe, pour constantly into this metropolis. Quarters with exhibition 
rooms, located in a Strategie spot, will attract and influenee millions of 
tourists, as well as loeal inhabitants. 

The library faeilities of New York cannot be equalled anywhere in the 
World. Among the larger general libraries are those of the New York 
Public Library, Columbia University, CCNY, New York University, also 
such specialized libraries as those of the Hispanic Society, the Numismatic 
Society, Union and the General Theological Seminary with rieh Jewish col- 
lections. Among the outstanding Jewish libraries are those of the Jewish 
Theological Seminary -- the world's largest -- the Hebrew Union College - 
Jewish Institute of Religion whieh now contains the finest modern Hebrew 
coUection in America, the Rabbi Isaac Elehanan Theological Seminary 
Yeshiva University Library, and the unusual collection of the Jewish sec- 
tion of the New York Public Library. This last library is the third or 
fourth largest Jewish library in the United States. In addition there are 
YIVO with its outstanding collection of Yiddish letters and modern Judaica, 
the Annerican Jewish Committee with its excellent Library of Information, 
the Zionist Archives, the Leo Baeck Institute and a score of other institu- 
tional libraries each with larger or smaller specialized collections. 

As a Center for American historieal studies, the New York City area has 
no peer. It obviously is the most central and Strategie location in the 
United States for the American Jewish Historieal Society and for the study 
of American Jewish history. 

New York City is America's and the world's greatest center for eulture 
because of its schools, universities, fine art museums, special museums, 
and the like. 

The vast majority of American Jewish national organizations are located 
in New York City. 

It should also be noted that there has been an upsurge of interest in 
American Jewish history and sociology among the thousands of Jewish 
graduate students in the metropolitan area. During the last deeade more 
significant dissertations in these fields have been written in the New York 
schools of higher learning than in all other institutions in the country 
combined. 

Ultimately a building is desirable but there is no urgency in immediately 
acquiring one for the Society. While awaiting the availability of a proper 
location at a modest Investment -- one need not preclude the possibility 
of securing a building through gift or bequest -- the Society would r etain 
control over its capital resources and could put to good use the ineome 
therefrom. for researeh and publication which, after all, are its main 
objectives. Should the Society build in New York, it would retain füll 
control of its building and property with no restrietions upon its sale at 
any future date. 



MEMORANDUM QN BRANDEIS UNIVERSITY CAMPUS 

The financial advantages to the Society, at Brandeis, are not obtainable anywhere eise. 
Under the terms of the arrangements with Brandeis University, the Society will obtain 
its land free, as well as free parking facilities, free landscaping and free paving. Light, 
heat, power and water will be provided at the cost of such Services to the University. 
In addition the University will give the Society $7000 each year "toward the cost of main- 
tenance and servicing of the library". The dining and lodging facilities of the University 
will be available to the Society. Staff members of the Society w^ill have certain of the 
Privileges and perquisites which are available to members of the University' s faculty. 
And after seven years, if the Society wishes to move away, the University will buy back 
our building at its then depreciated value. The Society at all times will remain autono- 
mous and independent. 

The physical advantages which will enure to the Society, if it builds its permanent home 
on the Brandeis University Campus, are impelling. Brandeis is situated on a large 
Campus of exceptional beauty, on the Charles River. Its buildings are of significant 
architectural distinction. This is the terrain which Lee M. Friedman knew best and 
loved dearly. The Society' s building will stand out notably on the grounds. 

The cultural advantages, if we locate on the Brandeis Campus, cannot be surpassed. 
Brandeis is in the heart of one of the great cultural hubs of America. In a radius of 
seven miles are thirteen great universities, including Harvard, Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, Boston University, Tufts, Radcliffe, Wellesley and many others. The 
scholarly assets of this Community rank with the two or three most important in the 
World. Here are world renowned libraries, museums, laboratories and learned societies 
of the first rank. 

The historical atmosphere of this locale is of great significance. This is the land of 
"The Cradle of Liberty", the fountain of our nation's historic beginnings. 

Here, in this area, are an aggregate of world renowned scholars and students from all 
over the country and the world. On the Campus of Brandeis University, students and 
scholars will be inspired by the Society, and out of this may come distinguished contribu- 
tions to American Jewish historical works. People will come here for the resources 
which will be available. The Society will blossom into vibrancy. 

The arrangements contemplated are such that there is complete autonomy for the 
Society. Any contract the American Jewish Historical Society may sign will be subject 
to the approval by the Massachusetts courts as guaranteeing our independence in accord 
with the Friedman w^ill. The Society will have its own personnel, manage its own affairs, 
carry its own imprimatur, have its own street address, and have complete control of its 
program and membership. Dedicated leadership and a dynamic program will Supplement 
all of the legal guarantees, meticulously spelled out to protect the independence of the 
Society. 

The three Executors of Lee M. Friedman' s will are in favor of locating the Society' s 
permanent home on the campus of Brandeis University; and are satisfied that this will 
not affect or innpair the Society' s continuing independence. 

While the general Services of the University' s süperb architectural firm, Harrison and 
Abramovitz, will be readily available, the Society will have complete control over the 
planning and construction. Hospitality will be cheerfuUy offered for the use of all 
facilities, for visiting dignitaries, for those who wish to use the volumes in our library 
and for public gatherings. The free land and some freedom from maintenance will 
release a part of the Society' s income for its general program. 

In this contemplated relationship the Society and Brandeis University will work together 
in perfect harmony, each helping and inspiring the other. The Society will prosper and 
flourish, a consummation devoutly to be wished. It can be achieved if we build our 
permanent home on the Campus of Brandeis University. 




^fd 



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AMERICAN JEWISH HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



Saturday Evening, April 20, 1963 

Siinday, April 21, 1963 

Monday, April 22, 1963 



THE JEWISH MUSEUM 

o/ the 
JEWISH THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY OF AMERICA 

Fi\th Avenue at 92nd Street 
New York, N. Y. 



Saturday 
April 20 
8: 30 p.m. 



RECEPTION OF THE PRESIDENT 

GREETINGS 

Dr. Abram KaMof, President 

CYRUS ADLER AND HIS ROLE IN 
AMERICAN JEWISH HISTORY 

{commemorating the lOOth anniversary 
of Dr. Adler' s birth) 

Dr. Abraham A. Neuman 



Sunday 
April 21 
9:00 a.m. 



10:30 a.m. 



ll:00a.m. 



REGISTRATION 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL MEETING 

BUSINESS MEETING 
Reports 
Election 

OPENING SESSION 

Dr. Abram Kanof, Chairman 
GREETINGS 

Nathaniel E. Stein 
Chairman, Prograrn Cornmittee 
GREETINGS 

Dr. Alan R. Solomon, Director 

The Jewish Museum of the Jewish Theological 

Seminary of America 

PRESENTATION OF PAPERS 

SECTION A: Dr. Abram Kanof, Chairman 

JEWISH ARCHIVES IN ISRAEL AND 

ALL OVER THE WORLD 

Dr. Alex Bein, Director 

Central Zionist Archives, Jerusalem 

JEWISH AMERICANA IN THE ARCHIVES OF 

ISRAEL: A REPORT OF A MISSION AND 

SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 

Dr. Isaag M. Fein, Curator 

The Maryland Jewish Historical Society 

Baltimore, Maryland 

discussant 
Dr. Isidore S. Meyer 

New York City 



Monday 
April 22 
10:00 a.m. 



MUSICAL INTERLUDE 

Vision Fugitive Jules Massenet 

Adarim j^Hus chajes 

Richard Botton, Baritone 
Sally Leff, At the piano 

PRESENTATION OF 

THE LEE MAX FRIEDMAN AWARD 



RESPONSE 



Dr. Salo W. Baron 



AMERICAN JEWISH SCHOLARSHIP 
AND WORLD JEWRY 

Dr. Salo W. Baron 

BENEDICTION 

Rabbi Joseph Miller 
Shaare Torah Congregation, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



PRESENTATION OF PAPERS [continued) 
SECTION D: Dr. Abraham G. Düker, Chairman 

WHY SOLOMON SCHECHTER GAME 
TO AMERICA 

Abraham J. Karp, Rochester, N. Y, 

YIDDISH AUTOBIOGRAPHIES AS A SOURCE OF 
AMERICAN JEWISH HISTORY 

EzEKiEL LiFSCHUTz, Archivist 

YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, 

New York City 

JACOB DE HAAS: 
PIONEER EDITOR AND ZIONIST 

Leo Shubow, Somerville, Mass. 

DISCUSSANT 

Dr. Lloyd P. Gärtner, New York City 



P R O G R A M 



Sunday 
April 2 1 
2:30 p.m. 



PRESENTATION OF PAPERS (continued) 
SECTION B: Dr. Leon J. Obermayer, Chairman 

THE JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF 

AMERICA: SEVENTY-FIVE YEARS 

IN RETROSPECT 

Dr. Solomon Grayzel, Philadelphia, Pa. 

BALTIMORE'S LLOYD STREET SYNAGOGUE 

OF 1845: A STUDY ON EARLY SYNAGOGUE 

ARCHITECTURE 

(Illustrated with color slides) 

WiLBUR Harvey Hunter, Jr., Director 
The Peale Museum, Baltimore, Maryland 

DISCUSSANT 

Rachel Wisch nitzer, Professor of Art 
Stern College for Warnen, Yeshiva Uniuersity 



O^ö 



SECTION C: Edwin Wolf, II, Chairman 

THE HEBREW SUNDAY SCHOOL SOCIETY OF 

PHILADELPHIA: FIVE GENERATIONS OF 

PIONEERING IN COMMUNAL SERVICES 

(cornmemorating its 125th anniversary) 

Dr. Sidney M. Fish, Philadelphia, Pa. 

JEWISH LEADERSHIP IN MODERN SHIPPING 
Franz Josef Katz, New York City 

THE WASHINGTON JEWISH COMMUNITY 

DURING THE CIVIL WAR 

Robert Shosteck, Curator 

B'nai B'rith Museum, Washington, D.G. 

DISCUSSANT 

Dr. Bertram W. Korn, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Sunday 
April 21 
6:00 p.m. 



ANNUAL DINNER 

Grand Ballroom, Hotel Roosevelt 

Madison Avenue and 45th Street 

New York City 

Nathaniel E. SteiNj Toastmaster 

INVOGATION 

Rabbi Philip Goodman 



GREETINGS 



Dr. Cecil Roth 



ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT: WHAT'S JEWISH 
ABOUT AMERICAN JEWISH HISTORY 

Dr. Abram Kanof 



PRESENTATION OF CITATIONS: 

To members of the American Jewish Historical 
Society aßiliated with it since 1920 and earlier: 

Mrs, Henry S. Hendricks 

(Mrs. Hendricks' father, Edgar J. Nathan, joined 
the Society in 1900. Her husband, Mr. Hend- 
ricks, affiliated in 1916, and Mrs. Hendricks 
continued membership after his death.) 

Dr. David de Sola Pool (1909) 
Harry Schneiderman (1919) 

(1920) 
Rabbi Solomon Foster 
Dr. Harold Korn 
Hon. Herbert H. Lehman 
Lionel F. Levy 
Oscar Loeb 
James Marshall 
Morris Wolf 

Harvard University Library 
Dr. Abraham A. Neuman 
Dr. Leon J. Obermayer 
Carl H. Pforzheimer, Jr. 

(Carl H. Pforzheimer, Sr., affiliated in 1920, and 
his son continued membership after his death.) 

Lessing J. Rosenwald 

Hon. Horace Stern 

Admiral Lewis L. Strauss 

Shearith Israel Congregation 



eist ANNUAL MEETING C O M MITTEE 

Nathaniel E. Stein, Chairman 
Dr. Abraham G. Düker Dr. Jacob Leff 



Philip Goodman 
Dr. Hyman B. Grinstein 
Robert E. Kalikow 
Dr. Leo J. Koven 



Dr. Isidore S. Meyer 
Sidney Musher 
Dr. Madeline R. Robinton 
Hon. Sidney Squire 



Harry Starr 

DINNER COMMITTEE 
Mrs. Benjamin K. Eisenberg, Chairman 



Mrs. 

Co- 

Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs, 



Max Feinman, 
■Chairman 

Salo W. Baron 
Baruch Bernard 
Judith Ochs Bleich 
Louis Broido 
Abraham G. Düker 
Irving Epps 
Gershon S. Gelbart 
Melvin C. Hartman 



Mrs. Robert Kalikow, 
Co-Chairman 

Mrs. Henry S. Hendricks 
Mrs. Bernard Manischewitz 
Mrs. Leonard Matrick 
Mrs. Isidore S. Meyer 
Mrs. Edgar J, Nathan, Jr. 
Mrs. Abraham J. Orfuss 
Mrs. Hyman S. Schulson 
Mrs. Charles Sghwartz 



EXHIBITION IN COLLABORATION WITH 
THE AMERICAN JEWISH HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

at the 

JEWISH MUSEUM OF THE JEWISH THEOLOGICAL 

SEMINARY OF AMERICA 



AMERICAN JEWISH HISTORICAL SOCIETY 
150 FIFTH AVENUE NEW YORK 11, N. Y. 



MEMORANDUM ON PHILADELPHIA 



During the summer, Mr. Albert M. Greenfield, a prominent Philadelphian, offered 
to give the American Jewish Historical Society a piece of ground for its building 
in the Independence Hall area. Those who have not visited Philadelphia in the last 
five years can have no idea of the vast development which has taken place in this 
part of the city. Around the Cluster of Historie building s on and in the vicinity of 
Independence Square are now green parks connecting one shrine with another. Part 
of this development includes the State Mall on which will be built a Federal Court 
House and a new Mint. Another part includes Society Hill, a residential section, 
containing the largest number of old houses which survive in any American city. 
Here is being restored and recreated the feeling and the atmosphere of the best 
of American history. As a recent book on Philadelphia stated, this is "one of the 
most daring and most tasteful pieces of town planning ever conceived, an attempt 
to salvage what is good of the old, add what is needed of the new, and in general 
transform that part of the city into a sort of urban residential paradise without mak- 
ing a museum-fossil out of it." 

The Site of the Society would be in the heart of Historie Philadelphia, a concentrated 
area which will be visited by three or four million visitors a year. There the Society, 
will be Seen, visited and known, Its paintings, documents, books and memorabilia 
can be shown in surroundings redolent with history, unequalled anywhere eise in the 
country. The function of the Society to make known the Jewish contributions to 
American life can be fulfilled with incomparable distinction. 

As a scholarly institution, the Society, with adequate space for its present holdings 
and room for future expansion, will be close to other scholarly libraries. In the 
immediate area are the American Philosophical Society with its great collections 
of American history and its justly famous runs of learned society Journals, and 
Christ Church, the Arch Street Meeting and St. Joseph' s with their important sec- 
tarian archives. Between ten and fifteen minutes away on foot -- and less by pub- 
lic transportation -- is the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, the largest non- 
governmental manuscript archive in the country containing a major portion of the 
Gratz and Etting Papers. Next door to it will be built within three years the new 
building of the Library Company of Philadelphia, one of the great historic libraries 
of American history. Not far away at all are the Free Library of Philadelphia, the 
University of Pennsylvania, and, most innportant, Dropsie College which contains the 
papers of Isaac Leeser, Mayer Sulzberger and Cyrus Adler, certainly the most im- 
portant archive of 19th- Century American Jewry in existence. Available for users 
of the Society' s library will be the Philadelphia Union Catalogue, the largest and 
best area catalogue in America, listing ten million titles, most of them available 
on inter-library loan by a telephone call. 

The opportunity offered to the Society to emerge from the limbo of invisibility cannot 
be matched by any other site, With a window looking out on Historic Philadelphia 
it should attract support in a measure never attained before. It is significant that 
both the American Catholic Historical Society and the American Presbyterian His- 
torical Society are in Philadelphia. It is not too much to say that American Jews 
will be proud to contribute to an institution which will display the records of their 
history where the early history of the country was made. The scholarly resources 
of the area, furthermore, provide an enormous wealth of material dealing specifically 
with American and American Jew^ish history. And, the site is close to quick trans- 
portation to all parts of the city, including the railway stations. 

In Philadelphia the Society can achieve the Status of a distinguished, national and 
independent institution such as Lee M. Friedman envisioned for it, with complete 
control over its assets in buildings and land unencumbered by any contractual 
agreement. 



RENAISSANCE 



ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR GEGENWARTSFRAGEN ISRAELS UND DES ZIONISMUS 



Redaktion und Administration: Billeterstraße 1, Zürich 7 Telephon (051) 47 3203 

Briefadresee ü Renaissance, Postfach 3o3, Zürich 27 



Rundschreiben an unsere Abonnenten 



Zürich, im Mai 1963 



Sehr geehrte Damel 
Sehr geehrter HerrI 

Seit Oktober 1962 haben Sie unsere Zeitschrift nicht mehr erhalten. Sie 
worden sich wohl gefragt haben, was der Grund sei und v/arum wir Ihnen 
kein Lebenszeichen geben. 

Im Zuge von Reorganisationsmassnahmen im Sommer 1962 mussten neue Erwäg- 
ungen über das Schicksal der Zeitschrift angestellt werden. Nachdem die 
Entscheidung letztlich beim "Ichud Olami" in Tel-Aviv liegt und dieser 
sich infolge verschiedener Umstände bis heute nicht in der Lage sah, eine 
befriedigende Lösung zu finden, ist das Woitererscheinen der "Renaissance" 
immer noch ungewiss. Auf Grund dieser Situation ist nicht zu erwarten, 
dass die "Renaissance" noch vor Ende dieses Halbjahres erscheinen wird» 
Wir hoffen jedoch, dass innert kurzer Zeit wird abgeklärt werden können, 
ob und von wann ab die "Renaissance" weiter herauskommen wird. 

Es vorsteht sich, dass Ihre Ansprüche, die sich aus dem einbozahlten 
Abonnomentsbetrag ergeben, weiterlaufen. Sollte die "Renaissance" ihr 
Erscheinen jedoch wider Erwarten einstellen müssen, so sind wir natürlich 
bereit, Ihnen den infolge Nichtbozugs der Zeitschrift noch zugutekommonden 
Betrag zurückzuerstatten. Zu diesem Zwecke bitten wir Sie, den beiliegenden 
Talon ausgefüllt und unterschrieben bis zum 3o. Juni 1963 an uns einsenden 
zu wollen. 

Falls Sie diesen Rückerstattungsanspruch nicht geltend machen, wird Ihnen 
im Falle eines Wiedererscheinens der "Renaissance" der entsprechende 
Betrag auf die neuen Nummern angerechnet werden. 

Wir hoffen, dass Sie unseren Bestrebungen, trotz des bedauerlichen Unter- 
bruchs im Erscheinen der "Renaissance", die Treue bewahren werden, 
und verbleiben 



mit freundlichen Grüssen 



Für die Herausgebers 
(Dr. B. Sagalowitz) 



Für die Rodakt ions 




R. Glückmann) 



Beilage s erwähnt 





KundenzeHung Schweizerischer Soriimenfer 

Wallisellen-Zürich • EiMangstrasse 8 

Telephon 932.242 • PosWieckkonto VIII / 25558 



2 2. /^. 5 (5. 



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JE WISH ^ NATIONAL FUND>FAIN OFFICE IN THE V.S.k. 

■ NEW YORK, N>Y> • 
COMMITTSE MFHBFRSt FOREST OF THE JEV/S FORMERLI FilOM CEKTRAL -EUROPE- 
YAAR HA2IK0RAUN (SPECIAL PROJECT) 
JNF CHAIEMAN, WILLI.^I'. WÜIRTHEIMFR,, 15 Argyle Road, Brcoklyn .18,. N.X, 
HON. CHAIRMAN, RABH DR. M^X GRUEI^JEWALD (Pres, of the Am. FeHern.tion.of Jews. f rom 

Central Europe) 
Dr. Otto Simon, Sec'y and William Wei^theimer, Sec'y 
GREATFR NEW YORK - N.Y.STATE 



Adler ,Ernsib Dr. & Mrs. (Gouverner,NY.) 

Adler, Mr. & Mrs. Martin 
Adler, Llrs, Thereöe 
Adler, Max 
Adler, Ludwig 

"Baer, Ernst' - ■■ 

Saer, Dr. Jiilius 

Bauer .J'^cob 

Bauer, Mr. & Mrs. Kurt 

Berkowitz, Albert 

Bloch & Falk, Inc. 

Blum, Dr. Ludwig (Utopia-, N.Y.) 

Poehm, Henry 

Brueckheimer, Ludwig 

Brodtman, Arthur 

Cannstatt, Mrs. Martha 

Celler, Emanuel, \)Sk Congressman 

Diamant, Erna 

Dorn, Francis, form. USA Congressman 

Dutch, Flora 

Falkner , Dr . Egon 
Frank, Karl 
Friedman, Hugo • 
Friesner, Hedwig 
Forst, Lucie 

Gans, Manfred, Rabbi 

Gans ,Max 

Geisenberg, Dr. Karl, MD 

Goldbach, Siegfried 

Gottlieb, Dr. Leo, MD 

Goldschmidt, Mr. <& Mrs. Fred 

Greenberg, Samuel L. ,NY State Scn. 

Gruenwald, Hans, Rev. 

Gueterman, Erika 

Guggenheimer, Julius & Willy 

Hallheimer , Evelyn 
Halpern, Seymour, US Congressman 
Hamburger, Adolf , Dr. Vice. Consul . 
Hecht, Herman 
■ Heimanv William, Mr. & Mrs, 
Hoffman, Dr. Hugo (Buffalo,NY) 

Israel, Oscar (Irvin) 
Javitz, Jacob ,K. -US Sen. 

Kaelberman, Mr. & Mrs. Leo 
Kallman,Mr.& Mrs. /.rthur 
. Kanter, Dr.Ä Mrs. Martin 
Kanthai, Sei 
Kantromtz, Dr. Ronald 
Katzenstein, Mr. & Mrs. Adolf 
Katzenstein Dr. &. Mrs. Adolph, ^© 
Kauf man, Mr. & Mrs. Alfred 
Kocherthaler, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph 
Kober, Mrs. Hanna (Rabbi) 
Kohlharen, Dr. Gustav MD 
Krebs, Kr. & Mrs.- Julius, Spencerport, NY. 
Langer Simon, Rabbi 
Lehman, Dr. 3ally 
Levy, Mr. & Mrs. William 
Lindt, Peter (Rundfunk WEVD) 
Loebel, Mr. & Mrs. Adolf 



Loewenthal, Mr. & Mrs. Max 

Maier, Julius 

Markus, Armin, Rochester, N.Y. 

Metzger, Frieda 

MeysY», Ferdinand 

Meyerheira, Leo 

Mueller, L. Fred 

Nathorff, Hertha. Dr. MD 
Neuberger, Siegmund 
Na^uman,. Manfred Rev. • 
Ney, Carola 

Offenbacher, Dr.Ä Mrs. Richard,hD 

Offenbacher, Frank 

Opatoi^ski, Chaim 

Oppenheimer, Alice (Jewish V/ay) 

Oppenheimer, Julius, Bernhard, Ernst 

Opponheimer, Mrs. Minna 

Ottenheimer, John & Ruth 

Rautenberg, Max (Fleischmanns,NY) 
Reinheimer, Jack 
Rosenbaum, Kurt 
Rothschild, Herbert 
Rubel, Ferdinand 

Seligman, Mr. &Mr S.Max ,Tannersville ,NY 

Schild,Mr. & M^s. Siegfried 

Schild, Mi". <Sb Mrs. Berthold 

Schiff, Isidor 

Schwarz, Mr. & 'Mrs. Arthur 

Simon, Josef ret. teacher 

Simon, Josef . & Paula 

Simon, Sam, Yonkers 

Simon, Dr. Paul, MD 

Sondheim, Mr. & Mrs. Levi 

Sondheim, Sam 

S amspn , ^Wernejr . 

Sommer, Benno ■ 

Spies, Mrs. Elsfe 

Schartenberg, Jack, Rev. 

Stell, Jakob, Oberstud.Rat & Sem. Dir. 

StrariSky, Dr. Hugo, Rabbi 

Strauss, Julius 

Strauss, Dewald 

Strauss, Walter (Wuerttemberger Ver.) 

Stein, Harold, Rabbi 

Stern, Mj.&Mrs. Leo 

Stern, Mr. & Mrs. Siegfried 

Trautman, Arthur S. 
Trautman, Richard, Dr. 

Wärschauer, Ernst 
Wertheimer, Steven, S. Dr. 
Wertheimer, Willi & Frieda, Badener 

Zelenko, Herbert USA JCongressman 
Zinimer,. Julius (Buffalo,NY.) 



Vollmer, Martha ^Atlantic City 
Heyman,Mr,& Mrs, Ralph > Me tuchen , N.J . 
Neuberger,Bert, Baker, Orc> 
Kobler, Dr. Frans, Berkeley, Cal. 
"Peter Fabrizius"'',-'^^^^^^^-^is Westkueste- 

Balt imore, Md. 

Baer, Fred 

Boriä, Günther . 

Goldschmidt, Frederick 

Ideston, Frank 

Junker, Fred 

Kahn, Justin 

Kauf man, Dr. Eugene 

Loewenberg, Alfred 

Rosenbus ch, Manny 

Theis, Mrs. Erna,R. 

Poritzky, Mrs. Jonas 

Soff man, Frank, Eoston, Mass. 

Klugman, Dr. Herman, Brookline, Mass . 

Chicago, 111 . 

Baer, David, Dr. & Mrs. 

Hirschhorn, Harry, J. 

Horowitz, Isadore 

Jakobowitz, Walter 

Katz, Horace 

Klein, Julius, General 

Neuman, xJLfred 

Rabinowitz, Rabbi Philip 

Rosen, David, MD 

Schwab, Minr.a' 

Wind, Hy 

Wiesenfelder, Sally 

Sondheim, Sol 

Zeilberger, Alfred 

C incinn ati, Oh io 

Fleischer, Max & Günther 

Schwerin, Alfred 

C leveland, Ohio 

Cohn, Dr. & Mrs. Peter 

Glahs, Mr. & Mrs. Rudolf, Rev. 

Siegel, Mr. & Mrs. Sol 

Denvet, Colo. 

Baumg;;rt, Mrs. Philippine, G. 

Schlesinger, Max 

Ochs, Kurt 



?n 



-2- 

Rechocz, Rudolf, Oakland, Cal, 
Philadelphia, Pa . 
Frank, Hellmuth, Rabbi, Dr. 
Hahn, Ernst 
Meyer, Leonore, J. 
Mayer, Morris 
Schneider, Mrs. Karl 
Strauss, Ben 
Strauss, Else 

Schwartz, Steven, Mr. & Mrs. 
Vogel, Harry 

Albert, Karl, Pittsburgh, Pa . 
Marcus, Ernest " " 
d'ammon, Edward & Lotte, Palo Alto, Cal , 
Friedhoff, Mr. & Mrs. Paul, Santurce,P.R ._ 
Lehman, Mrs. Adolf, Portland, Ore . 
San Francisco, Cal . 
Ehrlich, Emmy 
Kuh, Mrs. Rosel 
Meyer, Leo,K. (Aufbau) 
„Oppenheimer^ Mr. ^ i'^rs» Leo 
•&imon«^ Fred*rick/ D. 
Schaefer, ;j.fred 
Schnittkin, Dr. Theodor 
Sandar, Louis, S t. Louis, Mo . 
Pomnier, Arthur, Richmond, Va . 
Wolff , Ferd. South Send, Ind . 
Rothman, Max, Sanx? Clara, Cal . 
Neuberger, Olga, Santa Monica, Cal . 
Weissm.an, Leonard, Washington, D.C . 
Aron, Oscar, G. " 
Baer, Dr. Alfred & Mrs, 



•.» 



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FOREIGN COUNTRIES 

Spatz, Hanna, Buenos Aires, Arg. 
Lord Mayor Robert Briscoe, Dublin ,Ireland 
Wohl^emutlj Fritz, Bogota, Columbia 
Karger, Alfred, Dr., Quito Ecuad der 
Wissman, Julio, Sao Paulo, Brazil 
Eillstein, Er. Siegfried, Liir.fl. Peru 
Goldman, Rose, Montreal, Canada 
OpDenheimer, Meier, Rev. London, England 
Söffe, Siegfried, Rev. " " 
Carlobach, Alexander, Dr. Rabbi. BeIfast,N.I . 
Levi, Herbert & Susi . Bulawayo . So Rh . _C r A ? 
Heuss. Prof .Dr. Theo. AI tbundespres. Stuttg art 
Grußber Heipr. D.Probst .Dr. . Berlin, Germany 



tt 



Kapustin, Dr. Max, Rabbi , Detroit, Mich . 
Jungheim, Herman, El Reno, Okla. 

Picard, Julius, Dr.^ Fall River, Mass . -Luckner, Ge*'trude>,Dr.Freiburg,Badel1 
Adler, Eric, Dr. & lirs. MD , Greenf ield ,Mass . Lueth . Erich, Pressechef , Hamburg a/E " 
Epstein, H. Rev. Haverhill, Mass. " Maas, Herman, Praelat, Dr. »Heidelberg " 
Nussbaum, Max ,Dr .Rabbi » Hollywood , Calif . Niemoeller , Dr. D.Martin, Kirchenpr es. Wie sbaeicr 
Lewin, Leo , (Schanghaier ) I ndi anapolis , Ind .Roedel . Franz, Pfarrer, Dr. Jetzendorf, Bayer i 
Fischel, Karl " " Schuble, Karl, Muehlenbau Ing^ Hardhfilro.g^de. . 

Rosegg, Mr.& Mrs. Kurt, Kansas City, Mo. Gut, Simon, Dr. Rabbi, Lengnau, Schweiz 

Rothschild, Lothar, Dr. Rabbi, St. Gallen 



It 



)t 



Wuerzburger, Mr.& Mrs. Max 

Kempner, Dr. Robert, MW , Land s downe , Pa . 

Cohn, Sally, Dr. Little Rock, Ark. 

Rhein, Louis *' " 

Höiman", Gustav, Los Angeles, Cal . 

Sondheim, Karl 



Frank, Otto, Basel, Schweiz 

Stern, Siegmund, /msterdam, Holland 



H 



It 



Schalom Ben Chor in, Jerusalem, Israel 
Ettlinger, Karl, Tel Aviv 
Hannover, Sigmund, Dr. Rabbi, Haifa 
Loewenthal,Mr.& Mrs. Otto, Milwauke e , Wis . Gruenbaum , Ephraim, Gustav, Jerusalem 
Liebreich, Paul, Louisville, Ky . Anschel, Bernard, Raanana 
Stern, Mr.& Mrs. Sei Memphis, Tenn . Kirby, Mrs. Ilse, Naharija . 
Berthish, John, Minneapolis, Minn. Levy, Baruch, Dr. Peta Tikva 
Margolius, Hans, Dr. & ¥xs, Miami, Fla. 



II 



Strauss, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur 
Ehrlich, Gertrude, Miami Beach, Fla . 
May Annie-V/olf William " "' 
Schloss, Morris & Friedl, Newark,NJ. 
Hirsch, Johanna, Mrs. " " 
Hirsch, Leopold, R.Dr. New Orleans, La . 
Elsas, Walter " '» " 

Reiter, Mr. & Mrs. " " " 



Sommer, Max, Affridar, Aschkelon 



If you are interested to join our Committee 
please let us know. 

l\/m. Wertheimer, • 
JNF Chairman 
15 Argyle Road 
Brooklyn 18, N.Y. 



•«!• 



'« 




JEWISH NATIONAL FUND 

( KEREX KAYEMETH LEISRAEL ) INC. 

1962-5722 



President 

ALBERT SCHIFF 

Honorary Pr eside nts 

DR. ISRAEL GOLDSTEIN 
DR. HARRIS J. LEVINE 

Viee-Presid ents 

DR. MIRIAM FREUND 
CLARA LEFF 
NATHAN A. LEVINE 
JUDGE ALBERT D. SCHANZER 

Honorary Chairmen 

DR. BERNARD BERGMAN 

MAX BRESSLER 

BENJAMIN G. BROWDY 

MEYER BROWN 

PINCHAS CRUSO 

DI NA DYCKMAN 

JUDGE HENRY ELLENBOGEN 

DR. HENRY RAPHAEL GOLD 

PAUL L. GOLDMAN 

BERT GOLDSTEIN 

MOLLIE GOLUB 

ROSE L. HALPRIN 

RABBI MORDECAI KIRSHBLUM 

LOLA KRAMARSKY 

JUDGE LOUIS E. LEVINTHAl 

LOUIS LIPSKY 

MORTIMER MAY 

RABBI IRVING MILLER 

DR. EMANUEL NEUMANN 

ABRAHAM A. REDELHEIM 

DR. JOSEPH B. SCHECHTMAN 

DR. HERMAN SEIDEL 

AVRAHAM SCHENKER 

REBECCA SHULMAN 

JACOB SINCOFF 

DR. ABBA HIlLEl SILVER 

RABBI ISAAC STOILMAN 

CHAYA SURCHIN 

Honorary Vice-Chairmen 

CHARLES BICK 

ESTHER BURACK 

SARAH G. CANTOR 

JUDITH EPSTEIN 

DR. SARA FEDER 

HYMAN J. FLIEGEL 

LEAH GARBER 

MYRO GLASS 

DR. JAMES G. HELLER 

LAWRENCE HOROWITZ 

ROSE KAUFMAN 

RABBI ISSACHAR lEVIN 

ELLA L. LEWIS 

DOROTHY S. LEVINE 

FRED MONOSSON 

JUDGE HARRY PINE 

MAURICE PLESSER 

NATALIE RESNIKOFF 

MILTON J. SILBERMAN 

JUSTICE SAMUEL H. SILBERT 

IDA SILVERMAN 

THEODORE STRIMLING 

Honorary Seeretary 

JULLIET N. BENJAMIN 
T re asu r er 

MAURICE LEVIN 

Associate Treasurer s 

PEARL PLESSER 

LOUIS SEGAL 
Seeretary- 
CxecuHv e Dir ector 

MENDEL N. FISHER 
Assistant Seeretary 

ISIDORE EPSTEIN 
Administrative Com mitt e 

SAMUEL BONCHEK 

ESTHER BURACK 

BENJAMIN BURSZTYN 

HAROID W. CARMELY 

JESSE EISEN 

MORRIS GILONI 

PAUL L. GOLDMAN 

ALICE HARTLEY 

DORA INSELBUCH 

SOLOMON KERSTEIN 

HERMAN Z. QUITTMAN 

JUDGE BERNARD A. ROSENBLATT 

NATHANIEL S. ROTHENBERG 

LEON RUBINSTEIN 

AVRAHAM SCHENKER 

JUDGE SELIG SCHWARTZ 

BEATRICE WEISS 

CHARLES WOLF 



42 BAsrr eeTH stresut 

NEW YORK ai, N. Y. 
TRAFALOAR 9-9300 



Dear FViends: Brothers and Sisters: 



IRVING SLOAN 

Direclof, Grcofer New York 



VfflY ARE V/E PLANTINO- TREES IN ISRAEL; 

Israel is a bare land. Under a succession of allen rulers, it 
was plundered of its rieh treasury of trees« Its topsoil, unpro- 
tected by the restraining roots, has been washed down into the 
Valleys year after year by torrential rains and carried out to 
sea - millions of tons of fertile soll each winter. The bare 
roots protrude through Israelis limestone hüls like bare bones, 

Now Israel is being reclairaed and restpred once more with loving 
care to the fertile hüls and Valleys of biblical days, 

Afforestation is one of the foremost means of -'healing" the soll* 
Rocky and sterile mountain slopes, where no crops will grow, are 
planted with thousancfecf young trees. In the course of a decade 
or so, woods and forests heal the denuded landscape and gra- 
dually build up new seil with their fallen leaves» 

Tree plant ing in Israel has become part of Jewish life everywhere« 
It is customary in Jewish cornmunities throughout the world to 
observe all Jewish festivities; public as well as private holidays 
with the planting of trees. Each tree planted in Israel is a 
stake grounded in the Land of Israel, It is a veritable link 
with iinmortality. Please help us to build up Israel! 
We need ßQO million trees in the next ten years. 

Plant trees for yourself, your relatives, friends, - for joyous 
occasion as well as in sorrow, - Bar Mitzvahs, Birthdays, 
Holegrasch, Wimpeltragen, Weddings, Mothers- and Fathers Day, 
Graduation, Yahrzeit, Memorial Trees, "Get-Well Wishes", 
"Speedy recovery", etc. 

JEWS FROM CENTRAL EUROPE (Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia , 
Hungary, Poland, etc.) are participating now in a big project 
of planting a Forest in Israel. P LEASE HELP US IN THIS WONDERFUL 
PROJECT! Give generously! A tree is only $2.00, 5 trees are 
$10.00, 10 trees $20.00 - 100 trees - a Garden- $200.00, etc. 
Please send your donation only to the address below, so that it 
eWill be counted for THIS project. When you buy a tree, you 
receive a certificate and a receipt. 
Thanking you in adrance for your Cooperation, I remain 



Sincerely yours, 

Win. Wertheimer, JNF Ghairraan 
15 Argyle Road, Brooklyn 18, NY. 



(Volunteer Chairman 
since 1929) 



'85 



ACHTUNG 



BEACHTENSWERTE NOTIZI 



UNSER WALD , den Sie auch den Ihrigen nennen wollen, wird gepflanat 
laut Mitteilung des ForsTtamtes Jerusalem (26. Juni I96I) in den.Huegeln 
Jerusalems als sepal'ater Teil des Märtyrers Waldes (Martyrs* Forest, 
six millions), des schoensten und groessten Waldes in Israel, 
Eine Marmor Tafel vnirde bereits an der Pflanisungsstaette aufgestellt. 

Diesen Erfolg haben wir in erster Linie den gebefreudigen Einzelpersonen, 
Familiengruppen, den deutsch-juedi sehen Congfegationeh hieiraolaa^ö Macnner- 
und Frauen Vereinen, Clubs, Landsmannschaften, Organisationen usw. zu ver- 
danken, die ganze Gruppen von Baeumen (Gaerten von mindestens 100 Baeumen 
und aufwaerts) zum ewigen Gedenken ihrer verfetorbenen Lieben und Ermordeten, 
als auch zu Ehren ihrer Familien , Freunde und Bekannten , auch zu freudigen 
Anlaessen pflanzten and auch weiter pflanze^i. 

Unsere Aktionen haben wir nui) ausgedehnt, indem wir nun auch solchen Gaerten 
pflanzen wollen und werden zum Gedenken und zu Ehr^^jj an die Juden, ein- 
schliesslich uns selbst, die in den verschiedenen Staaten, Provineen und 
Staedten von Zentral Europa frueher eiimäil wohnten. 

Wir werden also z.B. Gaertjen fuer die ehemaligen .Juder. aus Baden, Wuerttemberg, 
Bayern, Pfalz, Hessen, Rheinland, Westfalen, Sachseja, Brandenburg, Schlesien, 
Ost-Westpreussen, Pommern Thueringen, Schleswig Holstein, etc. als auch fuer 
Staedte wie Berlin, Frankfurt» Koeln, Muenchen, Leipzig Hamburg, Duesseld«rf, 
Mannheim, Nuernberg, Koenigsberg, Giessen, Mainz, Posen Breslau, Stuttgart, 
Dresden Hannover, Essen, Dortmund, Muenster, Darmstaat, Worms, Karlsruhe, 
Heilbrunn, Wien, Prag etc.. ...... . pflanzen, wenn wir die genuegende 

Unters tuet zung von l^ennern und Frauen aus diesen Provinzen \md Staedten 
erhalten. | 

Wir appellieren ganz besonders aii die Herren Vorstaende dieser Landsmann- 
schaften und an andere einflussrififae Persoenlichkeiten. 






Wir sin4 sicher, dass Ihnen allen, dieser Vorschlag sehr zusagt und Sie 
wollen ftind werden daher in, unser Komamittee eintreten und mit uns dieses 
grossefWerk zur baldigen Vollendung bringen. 

Es ist{ unsere Generation die es tun wird und muss, und es ist unser Wunsch, 
dass wir diesen Wald noch in unserer Zeit erstehen sehen. 

Mit den bebten Jahreswuenschen 

■; William' Wertheimer, Vorsitzendem 

; fuer das Korami ttee 

' " leg. blind War Veteran I *II 



P.S. Wir sind auch bereit solche Gaerten von 
mindestens 100 Baeumen fuer Mittel*- und 
Klein Gemeinden zu pflanzen. 



yfi 



RESOLU TION 

ESTABLISHMENT OF FiE MGR IAL FOREST (YAAR HAZIKORAUN) IN ISRAEL FOR THE 
JEW5 FOmERLY FROI^i CENTRAL EUROPE> 

A large portion of the six million Jews slaughtered by the Nazis 
hailed from Central Europe, To perpetuate their memory is the 
sacred duty of us fortunate survivors from the Nazi holocaust. 
For their death on the murderous hands of the Hitler hordes 
meant much more than the individual loss of our relatives and 
friends, It speit the doom of a vital and large segment of our 
people and their illustrious historical achievements in the 
heart of the cid continent, Much more than our dear ones vxere 
snuffed out; thousands of flourishing Jewish communities with 
their lofty spiritual leadership and their model communal and 
social Services, renowned houses of Jewish learning, revered 
houses of worship, not to forget the venerable last resting places 
of the dead - all are gone - links to a distinguished past and 
seemingly form foundation to a bountless future; the landmarks 
of what was, and the visible fruit s of creative living in the 
present, the spiritual and cultural contributions of these an- 
cestors of ours to the welfare and progress of our cwn people and 

to humanity all went up in the fire of hatred and destruction 

kindled and fanned by the Amalek of our days. All become obliterated. 
This we must not and will not forget. 

As an outer expression of our will and determination to perpetuate 
the memory of our dear ones and to the fathomless losses that 
accompanied their supreme sacrifice, we have resolved to erect a 
living monuwent, a memorial forest in Israel, By planting our 
trees in the Holy Land - 10,000 to 20,000 - at least - we are 
manifesting our bolief and prayers, that their sacrifice will not 
have been in vain, and that the Jewish Homeland, a new hope has 
become resurrectöd for a permanent place of abode, for our haunted 
and hunted and for the eventual, divinely, promised in-gathering 
of our people from the four corners of the earth. 

J oin US and helt) us in reaching; our noble goal and forward your 
contribution to the undersioried committee. 



C0M4ITTEE FOR THE PL/.NTING OF A MEMORIAL FOREST 

IN ISRAEL THROUGH AND FOR THE JEWS OF CENTRAL EUROPE 



Send your contribution only to: 
(in check or money order) 



WILLIAM ^y^RTHFB'IER, JNF CHAIRMAN 
15 ArgylG Road 
Brooklyn 18, N.Y, 



Many prominent men and women in all walks of life (see list) 
are serving on the committee. This is a special committee 
from communities all over the U.S.A, and foreign countries. 

PLEASE GIVE GENEROUSLY! 









UNSER WALD»» -"OUR FOREST" Forest of the Jews form. Central Europe 




^ 



Berlin f 



Jfen^lg 





östlpVCVA^S^^ 






\ Bremen 

' ft ' ^ ji Berlin ^ 

i ^,^^ ^ Hamove( ^v^ J^^^^ '^ 

\ S (wBraunschg. \\t:^ 

Magdebg. \ _ 15rel5lau 



POLEN 
Warschau 

9 



I^S\ 








* 



'7. 






» 



/ 



^Koeln 




c^Prag 




Krakau 
o 



Mani2}ieim 
CO ^ /r/ . St^t^rt p 



OESTERREICH 



^ ,'fVf 




Mueno^en 



3^ej 



o3& Wien 



UNGARN 



O 



Budapest 



Wm. Wertheimer fuer das Cominittao 



presented bys 
SAK SIMON, Com. Member, Yonkers,NY, 



' AUFRUF 

AN ALLE JUDEN UND IKMIGRANTEN, frueher wohnhaft in Zentral Europa fuer die 
Pflanzung eines Waldes in Israel zu Ehren und in Erinnerung (in honor and 
memory) • 

YAAR HAZIKORON! 



Die ruhmreiche Geschichte der Juden aus Mitteleuropa fand mit dem Beginn 
des unheilvollen Jahres 1933 ihr Ende; es war der Untergang einer Epoche, 
die alle Phasen geschichtlicher und oekonomischer Entwicklung umschlossen 
hatte. 

Es waren schon in dem Gebiete vom Rhein und der Rhone bis zur Donau und Weichsel, 
vom Baltischen - bis zum Mittelmeer juedische Siedlungen und Gemeinden mit 
eigener Kultur entstanden» Als sich langsam aus der Nacht des Mittelalters 
dort die Dome erhoben, als die Tuerme T\nd Mauern der Ghettos einstuerzten, um- 
fassten wir mit der Leidenschaft des Hungernden oft wahllos alle Schaetze der 
Umwelt, zuweilen mehr gebend als empfangend. 

Was die Zeiten uns aufzubauen erlaubten:,. - Gottes- und Lehrhaeuser, Gemeinde- 
schoepfungen, Schulen und Seminare, Organizationen geistiger, religioeser, 
wissenschaftlicher und oekonomischer Art, alles dies fiel dem Terror zum Opfer, 
nicht zu vergessen viele Ruhestaetten unserer Lieben und ein Drittel unserer 
Brueder unii Schwestern in der ganzen Welt, 

Was uns Amalek und seine Henker sknecht»e angetan haben, wird nie vergessen 
werden, aber in weihevollem Gedenken soll das, was wir Juden in diesem Lebens- 
raum in Jahrhunderten der Welt schenkten und geleistet haben, festgehalten 
werden • 

Diese Pflicht liegt uns den ueberlebenden Zeugen und Opfern jener Tage obt 
Gibt es ein wuerdigeres und eindruckvolleres Zeichen des Gedenkens als in 
Israel einen Gedenkwald zu pflanzen, der den Namen der Juden aus Mittel- 
europa zum ewigen Andenken tragen soll? - Yaar Hazikoron - Wald der Erinnerung! 

Israel braucht 2O0 Millionen Baeume - wir Juden aus Mitteleuropa muessen an 

diesem Ziel mitarbeiten - 10*000 Baeume willen wir zur Ehrung unserer Brueder 

und Schwestern pflanzen. Von groesster Bedeutung fuer Israel, volkswirtschaftliclri 

klimatisch, hygienisch und vor allem strategisch ist die Baumpflanzung. 

Der juedische National Fund (Keren Kayemeth) fuehrt die Pflanzung der Baeume 

seit Jahrzehnten in allen Gebieten des Landes systematisch durch, er gibt 

durch die Wiederaufforstung den Neuankoemmlingen sofort Arbeit und Brot« 

Helfen Sie uns unser Projekt durchzufuehren, unseren Wald aufzubauen , 
pflanzen Sie Baeume und nochmals Baeume - das ganze Jahr haben Sie dazu 
Gelegenheit! Fuer freudige Anlaesse und die dahingegangenefi Lieben. 

Werden auch Sie unser Mitarbeiter, werben Sie in Ihren Freundeskreisen, 
Congregationen und Landsmannschaften, in Clubs u.s.w, fuer unseren 
Wald, den wir vollenden wollen in unseren Tagen mit Gottes Hilfe! 

BIKHERO BEYOMENU 



Wir gruessen Sie freundlichst, 



FUBBfvDAS KOMMITTEE 
Wm« Wertheimer 



Spenden sind zu senden nur an 

win« Wertheimer, JW Chairman 

15 Argyle Road 

Brookljm 18, N.Y. 

(spenden an anderen Organisation werden uns nicht gutgeschrieben) 

P,^. Wenn Sie einen Garten (100 Baeume) pflanzen wollen, schreiben Sie uns 
wir geben Ihnen gerne alle Informationen. 



SOCIETY FOR THE HISTORY OF CZECHOSLOVAK JEWS, INC. 

NEW YORK, N. Y. 



OARD OF DIRECTORS: 

PROF. DR. GUIDO KISCH 
Honorary President 

DR KURT WEHLE 

President 
82-34 265th Street 
Floral Park, N. Y. 
Fl 7-4032 

DR. WILLIAM W. REINER 

Vice President and Treasurer 

RABBI DR. HUGO STRANSKY 
Vice President 

WALTER KAUDERS 

Secretary 
109-20 71 st Read 
Forest Hills 75, N. Y. 
BO 3-0076 

BERTA JELLINEK 
Assistant Secretary 

DR. STEPHEN BARBER 

DR. FREDERICK B. BERGER 

DR. FREDERICK FRIED 

DR. PAUL HARTMAN 

DR. OTTO KAFKA 

PROF. DR. HANS KOHN 

JOSEPH S. PICK 

DR. OSKAR K. RABINOWICZ 

DR. OTTO SCHUTZ 

DR. BRUNO SINGERMAN 

LUDOVIT STURC 

"HISTORY OF JEWS 
IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA" 

EDITORIAl BOARD: 
PROF. DR. GUIDO KISCH 
PROF. DR. HANS KOHN 
DR. OSKAR K. RABINOWICZ 



April 1962 



Dear Sir/Madam: 



It is with great pride that we are able to inform you of the founding of the 
"Society for the History of Czechoslovak Jews" as a successor to the Histori- 
cal Society established in Prague in 1928. 

The aim of the Society for the History of Czechoslovak Jews is to continue the 
splendid work begun in Prague under the guidance of eminent scholars and 
writers, to study the history of Czechoslovak Jewry in its economic, religious, 
political, social, cultural and creative aspects, to collect material for such 
study and to advance the knowledge of Czechoslovak Jewlsh history through the 
publication of books and otherwise. 

Our first goal is the publication of the History of Czechoslovak Jewry in the 
period 1918-1948. If that chapter of Czechoslovak Jewry is not being written 
now, while competent witnesses are still among the living, it will never be 
done. It is the responsibility of our generation to preserve the memory of the 
Czechoslovak Jewish Community and thus to honor the memory of thousands of 
Czechoslovak Jews, your parents, your brothers and slsters and children, who 
feil victim to the Nazi holocaust. The history of our Community is, however, 
also signif icant for Jewish history in general and particularly for the Jewish 
communities of those countries where Czechoslovak Jews have settled. 

The work is being prepared under an Editorial Board consistlng of three out- 
standing scholars, Prof. Dr. Guido Kisch, Prof. Dr. Hans Kohn and Dr. Oskar 
K. Rabinowicz. 

The revival of the Society for the History of Czechoslovak Jews has been ac- 
claimed by scholars, authors and men of affairs all over the world, who have 
pledged their support and Cooperation. We are convinced that you, too, will 
welcome our Society and that our endeavors will find your interest and will be 
near to your heart. 

We appeal to you to join the Society for the History of Czechoslovak Jews and 
to Support our goals through active Cooperation. 

Attached please find our Membership Application Form which we ask you to 
kindly fill in and return with your contribution to Mr. William W. Reiner, 
Treasurer, 157-19 Laburnum Ave. , Flushing 55, N.Y. 

We are confident that we shall hear from you soon. 

Very sincerely yours. 



William W. Reiner 

Vice -President and Treasurer 



WXtUMCA/^ 

Kurt Wehle 
President 



/ 




Napsal Frantisek EüTDlor. 

Dnc 7, bfezna tohoto roku bude torra dcvadeoat let co se v nale 
noravsk^' vesniöce narodil nevolniku Joseiu Masarykovi syn-Tonäs Masaryk, 
Vesker^ lidütvo zapadniho Bveta,pokiid zije üvobodng neb se" citT'Tvbbbd- 
nym, bude radostne oölavovaWtento den.Nobot hoch Tonäs neütal se pouzo 
S3rnein sveho näroda>nybrz tez tin co R.V/, Emorson tak vystizne nazval: 
a repreöuntative nan, predstvitelec lidskeho pokoleni.V teto dobe vüdcü 
a svudcu zjevuje se pred träpenyn ] idntvea pravy lidsky vudcc -Tomas 
G-J/Iasaryk,acitel , Byxi ucitelenjrädceni a vychovatelea kazdenu jednot- 
livci,celenu närodu a veßkerenu clovecönstvu to bylo vlastnim poGlänim 
T.G-.Masaryka.Byl ucitelemjkdyz se kolem nshj seskupilo na univcrsitö 

nadsene Xactvo,byl ucitelGn;kdyz rxedba;;e svc^ho osobniho klidu a blaha 
bojoval s vlastniri nilovajn.yin naroden ü ixznäni pravdy,ucitelen kdyz v bcz- 

prdikladnen boji vychoväval närod k svobode .ucitelen a vychvatelem,kdyz 
dosdhnuv nejvyssiho ßtupne v stäte jiii vytvofenenijstal se svenu ndroda 
a svgtu Symbolen lidskosti a noudrosti. 7 nen byl ztelesnSn genius ce - 
skdho näroda,z nehoz jiz jednovijtake v dobe tragickych historickych u- 

tez z moravskeho ]cra;ie o vysv^l ve].ky viertel lidutva-Jan Arnes 
k y. 

Kazdy kdo byl tak s-uastnym poznati T.O. 
Masaryka ^aküzto universitniho ucitele, 
byl obdaren vzpominkou,kterä pfetrvala 
VGskere boiire pozdejsich dob. Do ne pa- 
rle tl jest nezaponenutelne vryta vzpo- 
n;aaka,iak y^^^n v roce 1900 po prve vkro- 
c 11 d.o one pos' -i-charny Kiementina, kdc 
Masaryk prednä^el o "praktick^ filozofiiV 
Mladistvyni kroky vstoupil do sin5 a 

t bouri nadseni vsemi pfi- 
,e vsak zaöal svym jasnym 

H 'l''"-'3^^ ^v A!r';-^'^''f>'f>i ^ klr.dnym blasen prednäseti nastalo na- 
/^ \ ■■^■-'•py ^^k^^'^-^fm proste ticho^Nuze^nebyla to prGdna3ka v 

obv3?-klen slova snyslu.Byi fco spise rozhovor s audltorion, a chviloir.i zda- 

la se to byti zpoved. Ano , toto tjtalo se skutecnorti: prof esor filosofio ,du- 

äüvni vudce naroda,byl s to pfed neJcolj.ka sty mladych nuzu,ktefi pfisli, 

aby od nSho prijali poucc-ni ,ficis "lo-'jnevin, ,„,.," 

Cely säl se zachvSl actou y^'^^. -'-ak mchutnyn projevem pravdivofjti 
a nevyzpitatelnosti vecnych zrhad Ter.tj okamzik stal se nezapoinenutel- 
n'^n v§eo,ktefi jej zazill.Byl to tyz pocitjktery sc- znocnil bäsnika 
Karla Capka,kdyz o tricet let pozder'i^y jednom z onech "hovoru" s 03nde-' 
sätiletym Presidenten, tento prohod;'! vetn'' Nechtel jsen Ihat"... Tato Vo- 
ta stala se piivodcm onech slavnycli ''Hovorv. s T,G-.M., "ktere lide budou öi.^ti. 
a milovatiykdyz vzponinka na nilionove nä.'.:lady ucebnic nasili,lzi a nena-- 
visti dävno bude vymazäna z pameti ].iip/.. -. . 

Neoblomn^ zastäväni se pra"/-dy bylo tez voditken^Masarykova poraera 
k Zidüm.Pfisna sebekritiita^ jiz si iv'Jat^a^yk u.lozil vuci Zidüm jest nejostfej 




Vil mM;. '^^^^ '^yl pri;iat 
^ifji §ml'' tomnvn::. . Jakmile 
W%)mß ^ klidnyn blasen 




c ■ 



V motlitbu, zatim co ostatni spoluz&c 
znamenävas "Po cely zivofc j;3en p.e anazil 
nespravedlivy^pro o se fikalo,ze s nirnl 



hräli.A v teto souvislosti po- 
däva"u pozor,abyGh nebyl k Zidüm 
drzim, " 

-2' 



<'i 



Tragika^ktera ovladä pomer sveta k Zidü]:i,neinüze byti vyjadre- 
na jasngji a zpÜGOben vice vzrusujicin.Krute vynikla v sivote Masaryko- 
ve,kdyz je 3 snaha po pravde a spravedlnosti priinela k niuznenm jednänjl 
V polenske afefe.Vse co tehdy vykonal bylo ve ükutku splnenin proroctvi 
obsazeneho v dopisu,ktüry velky ucenec Sa.'iuGl David Luzzatto napsal /:'-..'..//.- 
AlGssandru Manzonimu v roka 1843'. Luzzatto zapflsahal Manzoniho v tonto 
dopisu po afefe,ktera se odehrala v roku 1840 v Dana3ku,aby sc ujal ob- 
hajoby nekolika nilionü lidf a tiiii nezkryte dokäzal,ze je" nozno zusta- 
ti vernym krcifjtanem a pri tom nchanobiti nevinnyin a nepodporovati b':;z~ 
prävl." DopiG koncl ülovy?" Mämc-li Boha,nuöi pravda prece jodnou vyjiti 
na üvetlo dne.Slava budiz ononu^jenz bude prozratelnosti vyvolen k tak 
övatemu ukolu." Piil Gtoleti pozdeji ziskal öi T.a.Masaryk tuto alävu. 

V dobe,kdy Maaaryk jeste trpel naüledky boje proti rituaini 
povefe,VGdl jej tyz pud po poznäni pravdy k spravedlivenu oceneni :3io- 
niGnu,ackoliv tote nlade hnuti tehdy bylo jeäte vsc. obecne pfohlizeno 
anob scsrnesnovano.Cn, jenz byl dalek vseinu pokrytectvl a protvarce ^vj^stihl 
lepe ne2 kdokoliv jiny v nczidovüken BvetS nravni hodnotu otevroneho 
pfizndni 3e k Sidovstvu.Hnuti ,ktere snerovalo k zachovänl kulturni aloz- 
ky,kterou sam tak vyüocc hodnotil,i'm3elo nalezti jeho näklonnost. Vzdyt 
nejüilnojsin inpulsen jeho narodniho citu byla hluboka zboznost navazu-- 
jici na hunit^koa rüformaci.A t:Vk nalezänc v car-jopiju "Nase Dob,--" jonz 
byl 3 in vydävan,jiz zähy vecne zprävy üionisinu. Zde teS vysla inojc; zpra- 
va 6. sioni.s ticken kongrev.-Ju v Basileji kanä jaen byl Masarykem vjülän. 
jakozto dopisovatel .Tato naklonnost Kasaryka-nyjlitölG jest v prlmein 
spojenl b pozadavkem Masaryka-politika,oböazbnüii v ijrograinaticken spi-- 
se,ktery vySel koncon üvetove välky pod näzven;" Nova Em^opa " • Zni jas- 
ne,pro£5t^ a presvedcive: " Zide budou pozivat otcjn^ho präva 3 ostatnimi 
obcany^närcdnostnl a sionisticke snahy po pfikladu Anglie budou vsonoz- 
ne podporovdny" . 

Opßt zurf välka.Krvavd ruka rouhavelio nepritelc tozce doleha 
na närod cesky a zidovsky.V obou närodoch vsak zije duch j'^jich velikj^ch 
ucitelu. Dilo T.G, Masaryka jebt pouze zdänlive zficeno.Bude opet vybu- 
dovano,tak jako novä Europa a novy lirez Israel. 



Kfar Masaryk skutocnos^ou. 



Kibbuc 3eth csl. Haßoiner 



N::.chädza sa bllzko 
pitälu a präce. 



Hacairu vybudoval novu dedinu,ktorä bola 
lest devä. .irlGüiatin prczidenta-OGloboditcl, 



pomenovand Kfar Masaryk^na poce._- _._ ^- . 

T\Tor^h^r9(7.n .q o hl ^' -7. Irr» Haify a je stelesnenin snah po dobrcj jpolupraci ka- 



■pekär 



Efar Masaryk nie je Icn^polnohospodärskou dödinou,ale na aj 'ovo;i 
en a tehelnu.Obe pracuju pre velky odbyt a maju dobre v^blady. 



U- 



ü±UUUUJ /:jj.u.\jy iDJ\KJiLKj iiCLX UU.CI c.i J.JX t; ou J<::, li - J px J.X wvi i^t, liU J ö J.o , Z-t; y± U ± Ulli ö b J.C K ( 

hnutie vybudovalo velk6 hnutia irilädeze , ktore tuto prevychovu prevädzcgu. 

Nds csl. cionistov te?!i,ze präye v dobe ceükcj ne^lobod;/ a ujarae- 
nia zidovskä mlädez pochadzajuca z Ceskoülovenska uskutocnila vybudova- 
nie tejto dediny,co veony pomnik ^jjcty a vdaky , prirodzcne j sily a irzdoru, 
Smc pysnf na toto dielo prcaya^-Hif^üÄ, ako na kräsny lej Yaar Masaryk a na 
Gtovky dobrovolnikov z^Pale';:Jtiny,yinglie a Francie ,ktori budu bbjova^t; 

larykovej Ceskoslcvenöke j Republiky. 



za 



las 




-3- 






/l 



ViktO^•Pischl 




//n<^r/j 171 ^uuf 



/ 



Sodmeho brezna snad nc-apujde zadny Zid u näs doma polozit 
kyticku snezenek na hrob na lanskem hrbitüvku.Snad züstanou vSichni do- 
ma z uzkosti pfed zatceniiin, tyränim,umuccnim v koncentracnim täbore.Av^ak 
nebude me zi nimi jednoho, ktery "by v tento den nfcvzpomnel Tomäse Garrirua 
Itasaryka, jenz by se toho dne byl do^il dovadesäti let.Pro nase doma bui- 
de X% den rozpominani na dobu rovnoreti a svobodneho dechu i den nadeje 
a viry v prechodnoGt panstvi näsili a zloby,jez musi nakonec byt smete- 
na vocnosti hodnot , je jich2 byl Masaryk zt'^^lesnenim/Pro näs vsak budiz 
tento den jeste necim vlcsdnom konfrontace 
s odkazem velkeho mrtveho,\" neriz np.lezneme , ,//^ 




fe M 



obsabu noveho. 

Uplynulo vice nez pul stoleti 
od doby,kdy Masaryk napsal ve spise o sebe- 
vrazdes"Jest obdivuhodne, jak maly tento na- 
rgd ye svych velikych pohromach-sotva ne - 
stastne jslho naroda nad Zidy-v":dy nalezal !i ^'li'l'l-fi 
nove nadeje a novou utechu ve svem Bohu.Ve- J)'ljll///Ii 
like utisky,kter.ym bj'-li iistavicne v^rstave- 'l/iL'''^'' 
ni,Zide snesli pomoci sveho näbozenstvi. • . // > 
Ac pronäsledovän a v opovrüeni,drzi se zi- 
dovsky narod pevne näbozenstyi svycli otcu 
a ^nrznacuje se laooctl zc zivota a prak - 
tickym optimizme.a,kterezto vlf^ßtnorjti ne- 
pfir^ousteji rozvoj chorobne sebovrazedno- 
sti." 






% 




nas 



jako by präskala biccm 
kouiriejnie kazdy sam •=='•• "^^-^ 



ö c; 08 , J :j 



Uzijme v dobe,jez za tolika z 
a dohänela k zoufalstvi ,u^.i jme toho dne a ' 

V näs skutecne chasidska radost zivotni a nabozeiisky zduvodneny opti' 
inismus,bez nghoz neni zidovstvi zidovstvim? Necht pravn v radach Haka-- 
bi,3e2 je mi novodobym ztelesnonim vecne zidovske radosti zivotni, je: z 
prystl z viry, necht prave zde nejvice se zkoumä v tento dGn,zda cK-j nc- 
rozr Ostia od dnü,kdy Masaryk psal svou knihu,mezi nämi Ihostejnost a 
skepse .Hlede jme ji a kdekoli prijderae na jeji stopy, vypovide jme jl boj. 

Na pocätku stoleti napsal Tia^aryk do lipskeho vSbornika 
-ämila Ironbergera "Zionisten und Christen"? 

"Ja pojimäm sioni^mus zvlaste mravne°, myslici ,pokrokovy Zid 
si uvedoml nedostatky sveho charakteru a sveho svütoveho nazoru^ v sio- 
nissLU vidim,abych uzil _znäineho _sl o va ^ kriipej__pr or oc iai^^^ „^1 ^i£» " 

Dostalo Sd kdy nrSkteremu hnati uznäni votsiho? Ale dost'.ilo 
se kd5^ komu tezsfho zavazku? Sionismus vskutku vzd^^ predevsim svou hod- 
notou mravnl si zarucoval opravneni a ji si take ziskäval pfätelstvi ve- 
likych lidl,"Kus prace obrodni vidim v sionisinu," cteme v kteresi kapi- 
tole" Sociälni otazky".Neni tento den dnem prihodnym k tomu,aby kazdy 
z nels zpytoval,zda vzal na s(f.be svdj dil zavazku, onoho vecne kräsneho 
bfemene odpovednosti, jez lezi na bedrc-ch celku? Obrodnä präce sioaismu 



spocivala kdysi v tom,ze j üme prolarnovali ledovou kuru napodobive be z- 

.icotiie saniolibosti v zidovskych radach. Dnos jeji ukol je 



pätcfnosti an; 

jiny.Z doby neprostupneho zmatku ukazovat cestu ke svetlu nemennych ci- 
IÜ5Z doby te.mna znacit zidovskemu cloveku stopy k jasn;ym vyhlediim^ z do- 
by malätne unavy ce^jtu k radostnemu rozmachu zivota zdraveho^z doby po-- 
nizeni k jitrum vzprimenych hlav; z doby zoufale bcznädeje k vecnym pra- 
menuia 'vity. 



Jgou jine oülavy nc.z tirad^r a ody^My/kteri dncs nemüzenc polozit 
venoc na länsk;^ hrob, v nemz spi j^n telo ducha vecne •bdiciho^chcüne 
oslavit pamätku Mar3arykovu jinak.Konfrontacl,uvahou o chybach i uko- 
lech,na nez näs upozornil.O toin,co jsrae jiz adelali a o^toin,co ^^»7^^^ 
udelat.O tom,zda by byl Gpokojen s nasin zivoton a praci,kdyt)y byl ii. 

zi nani« 

Ncbot je nezi 



näni a dfvä so na näs.A pronlouvd k nän. 



..to 
A R J B 



(5^ 



:ifÄ^ 




r/^/r/^/^j'/7^o 



V onech dobäch,^kdy näs vsedni zivot kräcel vyalapanymi cestami 
stfedoevropskoho inestana, kdy jsme neli "vla^tnf byt, dobrou nosioi 
a " 

avi 
d' 
d, 




lenky .. , _ ._.„,,_ 

formach na^-leho zivota. Zili jsme klidnym a usedlym ?:i- 
vo-ten, tu a tan zastrasani udalostmi, kter^ se odehrä- 
vali za hranicomi naöeho statu, avsak stj-.le napln.'ni 
rüzovj/m optiraisniom pokud slo o nase vlastni byti. 

A kdyz pak pfisel nähly p^'elom naöeho osudu 
a pfes noc stall jsnie sg vyhnanci a bezzemky, kdy.^. klid 
ny näG zivot byl nahle zmen^ln v bludne a bolestne pu~ 
tovdni emigraci, kdyz my kteri jsme byli zvykli pona- 
hati a rozdavati, naucili jsmG se klopati na cizi dvo- 
re a prositi o porioc , tu se od korene zinonila forna 
na,' 'ehe ziti, A hie! I zde v emigraci, x^yhnani z do.no v^ 
nasich otcü a stojice pred bränaini domova nasich pra- 
otcü, i zde osv^dcil se onen zidovsky obsah naseho ^:i-- 
- - r.^y Vota» To CO näs drive jiz gpojovalo vnitfne, co bylo 
pojitkem nasl spolecne präce, zde, pfätele, zde nain to dävä i vn^;,ir,a 
formu naSeho zivota. Jsine pohrornade v jedne svetnici. Jeden druherio 
hfeje. Pomdhäme si navzajem, cekäne spolecne na spolecnou budoucnost 
a podäväme si jiz zde ruce ke spolecne nraci. Nalezli jsne nove forrp- 
sveho souziti, nove klady v zivot e tak naplnenem zäpory - a nov^ sil- 
ne nadeje pro lepsi budoucnost. 



^rfV».» 







• v*j'flwin»r7"'— 



BERTI 
Z I E IT 



'i 






0^ T^feoooR 
HEIRZL 



?/e gave in our*" HjU1I.IACCABI " reminisoenoes of Möooa- 
"bi festivals ia Bratislava , in Zilinaj and in Banska Bystrica.Novv 
I shall try to give some aooount of festivals wMch many people ha- 
ve forgotten and others have not heard aboat at all. 

19E1 - CarlB"bad - the 9th Congress V7ith all its anima- 
tion was the first of thö neivly risen 02-johoslovakia«,ils vjell as tho- 
se who took part in the Congress, t hei* e vjei^o visitors' froöi all parts 

of tho iwrld, and, above all, v;g, thu youth 
were thoro« For the first time vvo savj and 
hoard the loaders of oar movement. It '.las a 
groat thrill'i^hon "Teizmann answored in tho 
groat debato,Gad it y/as nearly morning when 
176 left tho pCGköd Gongross Hall in the 
Sohuetzeohause Yg were groatly impressöd "by 
this historio and important spoeoh« — This 
was wonderf ul;but it *7aß still morö wonder- 
fal when oa tho Sunday of tho Congress we 
assombled in a procession which was the ist 
of the pablic liaocabi displays in the pos.t- 
war years./it tho hoad ;vas tho llaocabi flag 
of Brno whioh had been consocratöd on Juno 
2 8th 1914 at the last great liaocabi fosti- 
val bofore tho ^jar.Scar oely 3oo had oomo , 
T^if/»/ from Czechoslovakia and tho surro Unding sta- 
tes. /.mid the oho er s of thousaads oi visitors 7>/e marohod throagh v - 
the streets of Garlsbad in oar simple blao atid v^hite Maccabi drass 
to tho Jaegerhaas whero the gymnastics took place «First oamö the 
free ■ exeroiseSjthGn tho display of the gymnasts from Yienna, Buda- 
pest, Ostrava and Brno, and then tho special performanoes of indivi- 
daal distriots, /:t tho ond the maroh past of all, tho ardont spooch 
of Jabotinski who \vas thon still mth us.the Hatikvah;and the festi- 
val was over. It was to be the first of a seriös of ever grovving 
events in the T.laGcabi movoment« l\ night Viio assombled onoo agr.in to 
a G02y gathering and listoncd to tho storios told by tho oldor mora- 
bersjbecamo enthusiastio aboat plans for the futuro ;and all of us 
went home detorminod to oarry out what we had plannod, 

That v,yas in /.iigast 1921 in CarlsbadolJordaa's"Muskel- 
judentum" had risen again aftor tho war. The Jcvdsh yoath was li- 
ving and fighting onc*. raore for their idoals,for tho Sretz Israel 
of our Herzl, 

'i/hen wo got home wo had to toll rll that wo had soou 
and e::perienced,wha t we had prcwnisod, and wo all ngreecl that we 
most keep our proraises« 

It was tho same in niy nativo town of l.Ior .-Ostrava. Höre 
the Mrooabi had been founded bcforo 1921, and immodiately aftor the 
war it was in füll progross. Mor.- Ostrava, whoro tho I.iaocabi had 
done a groat deal boforo tho ■.^ar, did not lag bohind aov>/, and tho 
old Ilaooabim of pro - war days gatherod tho Jowish youth of Ostra- 
va around thom to build up tho Iviaooabi to its füll strcngth .- 
Garlsbad^ s oxamplo was a great inoontivo and in 1924 wo v/ore 



-6- 












olcotcd for tho :irtioacl j^rin.jstic fostiV£l,our dotoirrdaatioa ciid 
'::illins"nGSs to cooporcto 'Ts uabouadcd» Tho Joivish Ostrava viorkcd 
in ciid v;itii thü IToocbi to r.ies-tor "thc groat kcsl:« Ilot oiil;/ r^orc 
thorc noro tluui 3oo, tl:.oro noi'o norc thc ii loooo r/ho viorc comiac 



to t^ico part in tho fastiVfl, hon thc iaaday cenCj, vihicli I au 



%'•'" 
i.1- 



ooTr-j to st;.7 'jrs dull in tho :ioi-;iia^ cad "by thc uftcracoii vics 
ain{T hGavily.clI tho '/.cGoCoh^ cad ; rccc'biOü cösenblcd oaoc noro 
Oll thc rc.cocüi. c;i"Oi>iiid to ni^i'ch throu^h thc strcots to thc 
dcoorrtod studiui.i. c::iis tiiic tho i'lcf: of ".^mo 



JL- 



[^±lj 



ono; othjrs vicrc crrricd c;t 



thc 



Vjrs 



not thc Olli:; 



hocd of tho 'irocoGaloii. tho le^ - 



dors o'£ '/i'cci-bi «?nd ix^tioa« 1 Jad;:i3:i. In tho strcots ia spito o: 
thc diill vorthoi" 



thoir fj'.ieöts« . an;' 
vcl; the aathoi-itios 



ore teils of thousends of Jcrs fron Ostrave riith 
iiOii-jG'vö -.orG in thc strcots ciid at tho 



fGSti- 






d seat thoir rcwo^ciitativ 



V^O 9 



'j?o tho so and 



of 



the 



.]C',.J 



Sic of t 






scioas that vvc Ja 
:iirope still * 
Gacohoslov 



bc nds 

■'.icrü '. 



rnurohod throuGh tho tona proudly con- 






frcG 



ötatc, ;>'cs in £ 






frcG pooplc in 
xi taut tinc free« : nd so it xs; for did not mg 
a cor bin narch '.ith oar free brothcrs fron \iistria, 



(-cr'ieny, Pol^iid^ ~an£;£-ry, .iurirnic, You^^osluvic foSoO«? 



so 



It is truc thct thc rein spoilt c?. fcstivcl v.hich hc.d bo^un 
vicll, biit it rcnrins not ncrel^^ for us. for it '^e.s g Stimulus 



the 



;0r]: VallCil 



in 



nad occuno 
Centrö! 



nd naoh had bcon donc 



to continuG 

so thct b7 1924 GVcr'A'^hcre in Central jurope rcccabi had Dccn seo 
Goinc Icd b? the :...eccobi orld Union V;ith its scet in .'3orlin« ^ho 
indlvidual districts did ovcr;ythinG to anif^ thc v^orl: and to bizild 



up and conplctc 



tho 



■rot't v/orld Organisation r.cccabift 



'very ;7car thcro 'voi'e ;iccGCbi fostivels on a la'ri^o or aru?ll 
Scale c?id soon thc Ilrrccabi idca oovorcd thc rjhole 'jorld« 'Jhoy did 
not onl^^ do ^^mncstict' c^aid Sport ^ thc culturol orl: rÄ?3 dcvclopcd, 
tho national thou^:ht vaCL ttio 
Ol coüjTse» 

■ond so I cone to 1929, tho 
of Central .uroi)e 'les 



oal of Jretz Israel bGCCnc a nattor 



iGDOrcblc 7oar 'riiiGn thc raccabi 
in its' füllest splondoiiro ?hc orld Union 
c: rain vdth thc s^Ainastic fcötival, partly 
ohc sitiit^ijion of that tov.n vjcs vory oood« partim booaasc 



ontrusted us in Ostrava 
becacLso 



Ostrava at tliat tir-'.o had vcry ablc i'accao^. 
(Xt thcir head, The festival ^:;as fiiccd 
for Jane a8th - 3oth, i onths of hard 
viorl: had proj^ared ovorything for the 
Oreat laarch past.'nd it -^^jas v ^reat 
narch past« bout ^.ooo pcople assem- 
blcd that tine« I nean thoso \;ho did 
G'^mastics or sport and not tho nany 
tho US." nds of Jev-s ^vho qv.ug b.o specta- 
tory. Thei'o '-as sonGthin{i^ os'jociall;/ 






festivo 



r 1 • 



)oat 



Gonci^osu of the 



this festiVGl, for the 



Union 



'^'U'ie 



ti- 




J^tf/?05<f^'y^ 



accaox orld 
took place in Ostz^-va at tho r^o.. 

•ne, and got yian;^ no'. idoas and 3a.r;;::Gstiona for thc futurc frou our 



^■;as 



SLiccess« It 

ticö !^s v^oll as 






olix. 



it-'v^-k. 



or thc i^accabi in ovor^ respeotjß^nnas- 



sports.and aftcrvards tho orld Organisation started 



-7- 



to work for the wlefaro of all the MaccalDinio 

The festival oponed vüith an ovoning of vyelcome in tho 
theatre of Mor«-Ostrav©i which V5as filled to overflowing long "be- 
fore it startodc Arrangements had to bo made to the peoplo to 
össemble in the gardoh and in adjoining roonSj and it was not 
öQsy for the Speakers*. Ing^ITri scher for instanoe had to spcali 
at no loss than four different placosr 

Oti Handay morning the gymnastio oompetition "began at 
6 o8clook, and at 11 o'olock tho festivcl procession was formod 
on the MGcoöbi groundr This time thoro vüas a real forest of flags 
at tho höad, and a group of Lücooabim on horsö hccko Ihe leadors 
follovijod for the whole World Union Viias thoro, the Jev^ish loaders 
and nearly Seooo gymnösts and athlctoSrt The woather vjas glor:.oaa. 
in oontrast with 1924, tho procession vjlth flags, the orov>/ds of 
poople in the stroots and at tho ''jvindorus J and \^o'vjoro laarchins 
through the stroets^ mc ^ the Ilaocabin fron half tho vjorld.happy 
and pro ad to bo alloi^ücd to vjear tho Haöoabi cÜroös,amid the ohecrrj 
of the JevJish poople, and recognised by non-Jovjs.It v^as a grest 
ovent in itself this prooessionr 

The great gymnastio display and tho find of tho oompo- 
titioQB r^as fixed for the aftornoono Soon aftcr lanoh oroviidod 
spooial trums and oar öfter oar \'>'ent to VitkoVioc to tho largo 




Stadium« Panctually at 3 o'clook Lao Bloyer gavc tho Signal for 
tho mciroh past.Iiüd by the flügs gyranasts ond sportsmon mar oho d 
into the Stadium, ooahtry by coanxry,and took thoir placo oppositc 
the honorary tribanoc This time all tho oountrios of Central Sa- 
rope and small dologations from fiirthcr Europc woro roprosentodr. 
Ä Short impressive *spooGh of Dr^Iiohrfrouad oponed the gynncstics, 
andüthoro followod, picturo aftor pioturo: tho free oxeroisos of' 
the nassos,oondaoted by Bleyer^gymnastios^athletio contosts« spo- 
oial porfornonoos and o hookoy natoh botueen tho Austrisn and 
Czoohoslovak Maocnbi. Tho aftornoon soon passod ^iith tho oplondid 
performanoö of all, tho distriots as weil es tho countriosc Onoc 
moro all i^ho had takon part •Cook tholi:* plaoos for tho conclagion: 



c 



gain therc was tho glorioas soone^the öhoating of tho spectators. 
the distribution of prioos fo3: tho bost,inspiring vjords for all; 
cur Hatikvnh soandod oloar over tho vjido groand, sang onthusiastic- 
call^jby .öhousaadfi, Tho Czooh National inthem folloi^cd.no los;?! 
enthusiastioally , and thcn \iq narohed past tho flc.g::^ of tho Ilr.oco- 
bi,with tears in our oyosfrom joy and ornotion.omids the ohoors of 
tho Joviiish poople presont v,iho Viiorc proad of tho porforrnanoo of tho 
newly risen Jovjish yoath,"Dho prido of tho nation*Ifo "ono of iiSjinar . 
ohing in oostasy out of tho Stadium along tho flc*>gS5benoath tho 
shoating of thousands of peoplo . tho ught of tho fact.that Ostrava 
\iiiill not see "a third nooting of'tho" Maoo^bi yoath-Hono of ue ooald 
havo an idea,that a fow yeai*s latoi", Europo ^^hioh had startod to 
broatho again aftor tho t;iar, Viiould bo ovorrun by a fury x^sho ^'vill 
trample upon tho oulturc,tho habits, and the liviag v*ill not only 
of tho Grorman nation,bat als of all othor free peoplo and. abovo 
all,of tho Jo^-s« _^^ 



</7cl( 



urces 




re-iraimr^^ 



One of our members had the opportunity of an interview with 
NIr. Dobson, the Head of the Professional Division of the Czech 
Refugees Trust Fund who was kind enough to give us the following 
Information as regards retraining possibilities for refugees. 



The Position as regards agrioultural retraining is that the Trust 
has now a 300 aore farm at Candover in Hampshire at whiöh men oan 
reoeive a thorough practiLal and theoretioal training in general 
farming after v;hioh previous experienoe shows that there is no 
difficulty whatsoever in their ge'-ting well paid v;ork, There v/ill 
shortly be room for 36 people at Candover and probably more in the 
near future. In addition the Trust is raaking arrangements for taking 
further properties at which training for farm v/ork oan be given,and 
there is no doubt that agrioulture to-day does offer very good 
opportunities of reasonable employment and fair wages for raen under 
35 who are prepared to work hard. In addition experd moe in agrioul- 
ture in this country will always be useful to those v/ho ultimately 
wish to emigrate overseaso 

For those who do not wish to take up farming the question of 
retraining for an industrial oareer has to be considered, There seems 
little doubt that to-day the employment prospects in industry are 
good particularly in the metal and light engineering trades. The Trust 
is exploring the possibilities of niaking use of the Ministry of 
Labour Training Centres for giving Short terra intensive courses of 
training, The Government has not reaohed any decision yet as to 
whether it will be possible to use these Centres for refugees but 
should this not be possible the Trust v/ill arrange for the provision 
of intensive courses of i:idustry at teohnical sohools and elsewhere 
for those men and women v/hose presant oocupations have not fitted 
them for early employment in this country. Obvious examples of trades 
in whioh there are at present good prospects of employment are 
welding, toolmaking, turning and fitting, and in all these cases it 
should be possible to train a man sufficiently to enable him to earh 
a wage of at any rate 40/- and generally considerably more after a 
oomparatively short period of training, say 3 months. This, however, 
is a matter on whioh the Industrial Division of the Trust is at 
present working and there seems little reason to doubt that it should 
be possible to absorbe a 1 arge number of people in industry in this 

way. 

The point that cannot be too streng emphasised is that in war 
time people must regard it as inevitable that they inust take up 



the 

struggle against Nazism suoh as agrioulture, are good while prospects 
for people of the professional classes in thcir previous oocupations 
are in many cases extremoly hard^ The important thing, therefore, 
is that everyone should make himself suffioiently adaptable to tako 
up work whioh is going to mako him self-supporting hero during the 
war and make his future oareer after the war, whether ho intends to 
emigrate or to return to Czeohoslovakia. nuch more hopeful than it 
has been in the past« 



.^'!'!5:'!^^^ 




^Q- 



t' 



Li::?!^irrr.'-'rri''i .' : 



Sk 



/ / 



/K zalozeni^Bcir Kocliba" ,Londyn/ 
Lev-Zel. 

Nc^. jinem nistg jest podanc. zpräva o ustavujlcl schüzi"Bar KocMa" , 
üdruzerll stfedoGvropskych B/Iakabin v Londyne.Okolnost tato zasluhuje za- 
jist^ zvld§tniho,tfebas i kratkeho hodnoceni,ponevadg tato organisace 
jest povoldna aby zddrng ovlivnovala v rüznych soerech zivot zidovske 
enigraxe v Londyne a v cel6 Anglii* 

Ülohy Maccabi Aid Cormittee ,ktere bylo sveho casu zalozeno pomo- • ^ 
cl övetov^ho svazu Maccabi byly jasne vytceny.Slo 9 zächranu z pckla z^a- 
zy a o pomoc zachränenym a peöi ne. I kdyz tjjto ukoly trvajl dale js )u 
noznosti zächrany nynl zcela nepatrne.Tlo votsi jest vsak snaha splnit' 
druhou öäst tgchto ükolu,to jest pece zachranene . 

Jiz koncen minuleho roku konala se prvni völka schiize stfedoevrDp- 




ta. 

Nove z 
klddati,ze pfe 
splnf. Maccabi 

pro sebe.Pfes veskere snahy dociöiti v jednotiivych sportovnich oborech 
anebo na poli telocvicnen nejlepsi vy3ledky,pres docilene rekordy,pros 
radost nad docilenymi uspSchy nezaponneli jsrne nikdy,ze vse jeüt pouze 
proötredküm ke konecnemu cili t,j. k vychove zdraveho,svobodneho a uve- 
domel^ho Zida,k vychove novd generace ,kterä by byla schopnajak telesne 
tak i dusevng uSastniti se vybudoväni Pale3tiny,k vychovg nlädeze,kterä 
musi byti doöti silnä g.by odolala,vs^m otfesun dncsni doby.-Pres jake- 
koliv udalosti kolem nas,preö zmenene ponery,v nichz zije kazdy jednotli-- 
vec z nds a my vsichni jako celek,chceme na dosazenf tol.oto eile neoblon- 
ng ddle pracovati a prekäzky neodstrasl näs od pokracovanl v teto ceate. 

Prograa,kteryn Londynsky "Bar Kochte" zahajuje üvou cinnost jak 
poli telovychovnem a sportovnim, tak zejmena na poli kulturnin a spole- 
cen3ken,jest nejlepsim dükazem toho,ze vedeni bere svuj ukol väzne,ze 
osvedceni praktikovd jsou na svych i.iistech,aby poskytli olenstvu vse \o 
CO V dan^m rämci ieat nozne'. Mimo telocviku a öportovni öinnosti/plovän-' , 
kopana,tenis,atd/ konaji se jiz seninäry rüzneho obsahu, vyucoväni hebre '-^ 
stiny,srev a oneg sabaty,nusical party a 3. Nelzc pochybovati o ton.zo 
tato öinnost jest povoläna k tonu, jednotvärny a caato tak snutnv zivot 
uprchllku spestfiti a däti nu opet snysl a obsah. 

Ceskoslovensky üektor,ktery byl iniciatoren a nvrn. ieot hlnvni-i 
faktorem t^to cinnosti,nezaponina vsak,veren ave tradici svych povi^Oot-^' 
yuöi öeskosloyensk^ vlasti.Kladny postoj v tonto snieru,3est vyildfeni^n ^ 
K^f.'.W^vT^'' snyslenl.Pres spojeni v öednotnc"stfedoev?äpske sära- 

?L ^tM ^"^^ organisacnfch,nebude toto püsobiste csl. Makabi niiak sa- 
nedbänolMy znäne svuj dluh a tento splnlme! 




MUSIGIAUS of all kind of Instruments urgently 

required« First appearance on the 31p>t 
of MarohcT/^rite immediately to AoMuelle: 
38,Harrington Street, London E[oW«lo 



-fo 



WALTER 
HERZ 



I 




Prossuro produoos roootion; and tho opptosöion of Ci Jooplo, 
ospooially in tho form of a politiool dGfoat.iSj^as a rulo, tho 
oausG of tho arising of nationalism« Tho foolings of tho opprossod 
are looking for aa'outlot; this is usually found in tho point of 
TÄoakost roöistoaoö, and that mcans that norc or loss dofonooloss 
niinoritios,living amongst tho pooplo, form tho pro-dostinod soapo- 
goats^ on vihom tho pooplo oon givo vont,to thoir foolings and 
ossort thonsolvos in tho loast dangorous and tho oasiost vjaye 
Timos following tho politioal dofoat of a nation havo alvvays boon 
timos of porsooation of ninoritioso Tho nost droodfui oxamplo of 
this kind rocontly is, no douTDt,Gornony; "bat wo havo smollor oxan- 
plos in tho roaotion of tho Munioh-Poot in Czochoslovakiao and in 
tho roinforood anti-Sonitisin nanifostod quito latoly in tfio Polish 
legion in Pranoo« 

It sooins that the Jowish nation is an oxooption to tho rolo 
that opprossioa produoos nationalisn« Although thero is hardly 
another nation vöhioh oan loolc back at an oqually long poriojL öf 
persooutions and opprossions, this foot oannot be wondorod at^ ac 
thero are nany'roasons oxplaining this oiroumstsinooo 

Abovo Qllj stnoo E.ooo yoars thoro is no oountry vi/horo Jovi/s 
have the najority, no languago oommon for all JotjuSj, and the dis- 
tribation of Jovvs ovor tho wholo world contributod* vory mach to 
the foot that the feeling of solidarity - ono of the nain notivo 
powers of national oonsoiousness « did not oporate in tho form of 




^fe*^>r» 



national oonsoiousftoss bat in roligion, oonmon to all Jows« in 
spite of that fact, however, it oannot bo said that Zionisn os 
8 purely national novonont is oonplotoly a novr oroation-5 A proof 
of the National foeling of one Je\^ for another j, whioh has alvjeys 
existedjis, apart froiii nany othor ofton ropeatod signs^, the faot ' 
that a Jew has alwaysj evon aftor his loaving tho Jowish religion, 
been considerod a Jew, evon in tho oyos of othor Jo\^iSy and that 
- oonvorsely-i a non-Jew purely oonverted to tho Je^/üish oreed oould 
not be a Jew« Hov/ever, the faot oannot be disputed that the natio- 
nal oonsoiousness does not appear as strongly with tho jevi as with 
many other nätions« 

I think, one of the most important roasons for this is the 
oiroumstanoe that the opprossed and despised Jew sought and found 
an aoknowlelgment for his vaiue in his individual doings, Uatio- 
nalism is a mass»-appearanoe, and the disporsing of the Jewish 
people in smöll groups prodesigned to individual aotions rathor 
than to mass-movements» Tho opprossion of tho Jowish nation had the 
effeot of oppression on the individual JoVii, and thoreforo tho xe^ 
aotion vsas equÄlly individualo Hot the opprossod national values. 



'//- 



but tho opprossod porsonal self-oönsoiousaoss sought and. foand an 
outlet in the satisfaction of poD^sonel ambitiono Tho Jew sought tho 
aolmowledgraont "by tho wörld not as Jow.but as mano 



Uoth; 



be 



against 



in 



IT 



ambition as long as it is pro- 
ve, whioh it uöaally is in normal timcso Bat vio aro not living 
normal time " , wo aro so to say in an oxoeptional Gondition. 
in a strugglo for lifo or doath, in a stragglo orgc.ürlGo;!. lu.SioLiUOo 
. lorsonal ambition must do harra to this stragglo as it distraots 
from the aim and therefore lengthens tho strugglo« Bat the porsonal 
ambition beoomes dangeroas when it oporatos politioally, 

Tho individoalistio point of viow of Jows is a disadvantaf:o 
for their ability'for Organisation; bat if the activity of personal 
ambition is added^ whioh operates poHtiöally in striving after 
funotions which have first to be created, then there is a danger 
of disOrganisation of the stroggle© A Short time ago Prof »Brodetaky 
reminded as in a leotüre of the poor showing of the Jevss at the 
last Peaee Oonferenoe, w'here all other nations were represented 
by © aniforra delegationy v\/hile the several Jev«ish delegations viore 
not able to forraalate tho Claims of Jevjry on a ooramon baso« Is this 
pioture to be repeated ? 

The gerras of saoh repetition exist in an inoreased measure in 
the emigr^^.tion whioh forms a fertile aoil for so-oalled politioal 
aotivity of refugees withoat employmont änd aimo We must take tho 
very greatest oare that already oxisting, and approvod,organisations 

are coordinated,and follov^j their 
common interosts on a common basis« 
Ihe Maooabi forms a solid body 
of ^ionists who aro anited not önly 
by their common 2ionistic ideal, bat 
in many cases also by personal friend-^ 
shipo Golls of this Organisation 
exist in all parts of tho world 
and havo been strengthoned ospeoi&lly 
by the Oentral-European Liacoabim 
vjho havo alviiays beon well organised 
and firmly anited a This faot sap- 
plies the necessary sapport for a 
common co-ordination with the aim to 
realise tho ideal of tho nation^s 
anity« it mast not irritate as that 
the nomber of aotive Maooabim is 
not very largo in proportion to tho 
total number of the Jewish poople« 
J^ot the number, bat the will is 
decisivoolt is this solid body^s 
task to teaoh the noed for the oro-< 
ation of a common Jewish fro it in all 
parts of the worldo The best Propa- 
ganda is by ovm examploo The timos 
of Jewish individoalism are ovor, 
Personal ambition mast not find a 
place in Jewish politios« 
Tho straggle against 
personal ambition 
is a stragglo for 
a n i t y o 




-/!,- 



The Maccabi Aid Conni-btoe io organlzL'.iig an Erev Shabat evory 
second Priday at 7. PcDo :ln the houae of thc Solf Aid Asgo- 
ciation . Every other week on Saturday at 8 p.n. an On.eg 
Shabat is heldo Up to now these evanlngs haye iri-luded on:.Ly 
the Gzechoslovak Section, but by ;joining togcvlrier al"^ Maoca- 
bin of Central Europe in the newly esi;aba.ished B-r Koohba Londor. 
a v/ider scope is possibleo 

In tliis place it rnust be s'crited that tlio iDro^ronne of 
the Erev Shabat was a very g'i^at succesa criring iv.iG j.a3 b ^A'OGks. 



Usually the Programme conta:i.n3 rjolitical.; 
literary or scientific leci-uroö foiiowed by 
nusical perf ornances, Sonc oorxcrlm^ity m the 
C "^^^C *5-r*) progranme was obtained by a reg-.ilnr Icoture- 







eourse about Hebrev/ li-oGratu^^o v/h-^.ch is given 

^iÜ^Ai^^^^ '^-j-'J '^^ ^y Shlomo Auerbach extrenoly vr/iclly and wit- 
tily, and at the sane tine eninently 2cientif ica'..!.;/r The firsc 
Erev Shabat was introduced hj Dr^ Lehrfreu.ncl , Chairnan of the 
M*V/oUo A political speeoh of Drr Zelmaiiovits v/as fc-l'iov;ed by 
violin reoites of Ing, Popper, acconpar."'.ad by W-Jjoev'rj r;i; the 
piaJ^o* The progranme of the SGGond^.Erev S]ial)a/* \va.:; lorncd by 
a very interesting press survGy. given oy i:he Oli' irziaii of the 

Cz.~Sl. Secfcion, Dr. I.J :Ro3enberg, 
and by Shloino Aiierorch' 3 locture 
about the ''E-tcrnal Eook''.It was 
concluded by H^brov/ rjongn excollcnt- 
ly simg bj> MT.Off^n'aDlicr, At tho 
tliird Erev Shaba" Dr r^.". V, Rogenfeld. 
Secretary of tlie lUJif/U.. ^ r;poke 
about the synboln of bhc Erev Sha- 
bat. Sho Auerbach continued the lecture- cyclus v/ith a repre- 
sentation of the work of the Jewish v/orkinGn-poet Ra-hel; songs 
sung by Offenbacher foiiowed.- It oan be hoDed th?rt; in the fu- 



MARCH . 8thyl940 
7<»3o prin« 

EREV SHABAT 

together 

with 
MASARYK-IffiMORIAL 

Seif Aid Home 




ture the Erev Shabat will fulfil the 
promise of its start. - The Bear Kooh^- 
ba London carried out an Oneg Shabat 
on March 2nd with very good successo 
The political Speech of the Evening 
was held by Mr^ Joseph Bar atz,- The 
Musical Party announced in our last 
issue was carried out with great cuc- 
cess on Pebruar^r 3rdyl940o 













'/ 






/ 



,^^ir fr^^^-/. 



\J 



/J- //'/4^JÄ-Vy/t^: 






.>**Ä 



-A9- 



^, ^^ 




P.E.N. NEWS 

No. 121. Jan.-Feb., 1942 Price 4d. 



The English and Czechoslovak Centres have pleasure in 

announcing a 

READING by T. S. ELIOT of his poem 

EAST COKER 

To be followed by LIBUSE PÄNKOVÄ'S translation of the 
poem, read by JURAJ SLÄVIK. 

Music to accompany the reading of the Czech Version has been 
written by VILEM TAUSKY, and will be played by the 
composer. 

BONAMY DOBREE will preside. 



The meeting will he held at the 

CZECHOSLOVAK INSTITUTE, 
i8, Grosvenor Place, S.W.i 



on 



TUESDAY, February lyth, at 3.45 for 40'ciock 

TEA will be served after the readings. 

N.B. — The doors will be closed punctually at 4 o'clock and 
members cannot be admitted during the readings. 



ADMISSION will be by ticket, obtainable from the Secretary 
of the English P.E.N. Each member may bring one guest. The 
price of the tickets is 1/6 and applications should be sent as soon 
as possible; in no case later than Friday, 13th February. 



The Porch, 
TRING, Herts. 
Phone ; Tring 94. 

January, 1942. 



HERMON OULD, 

General Secretary. 



P.E.N. NEWS 

THE INTERNATIONAL 

LONDON CENTRE 

Founder : C. A. Davvson Scott 



Jan.-Feb., 1942 

P.E.N. 



Honorary Memher for England : W. Somerset Maugham 

President : STORM JAMESON 

Former Presidents : 1921-33 John Galsworthy, O.M., 1933-36 H. G. 
Wells, 1936-37 J. B. Priestley, 1937-38 Henry W. Nevinson. 

Vice- Presidents : Walter de la Mare, Bonamy Dobree, E. M. Förster, 
Philip Guedalla, B. H. Liddell Hart, Desmond MacCarthy, Gilbert 
Murray, Ü.M., R. Ellis Roberts, V. Sackville-West, Rebecca West. 

General Secretary and Treasiirer : HERMON OULD 

Executive Committee 1941-42 
{in Order of seniority) 

L. A. G. Strong, Irene Rathbone, Phyllis Bentley, Noel Streatfeild, 
Llewellyn Wyn Griffith, Henrietta Leslie, B. Ifor Evans, Barbara Noble, 
Tom Harrisson, Lettice Cooper, Philip Guedalla, Alan Thomas, and 
Marjorie Watts (by co-option) 

International Presidential Committee : Hu Shih, Denis Saurat, H. G. 
Wells, Thornton Wilder, Hermen Quid (International Secretary) 

Teniporary Headquarters : 
The Porch, Tring, Hertfordshire, England 
Telephone : Tring 94 

CENTRES DOMICILED IN ENGLAND 

Secretaries : 
AUSTRIA : Franz Kobler, 59, Priory Road, London, N.W.6. 
CATALONIA : J. M. Batista i Roca, 49, Wentworth Road, London, 

N.W.ll. 
CZECHOSLOVAKIA : Viktor Fischl, Fursecroft, George Street. 

London, W.l. 
GERMANY : Frederick Burschell, 32, Stratfield Road, Oxford. 
HUNGARY: Paul Ignotus, c/o 20, Oslo Court, Prince Albert Road, 

London, N.W.8. 
NORWAY : Wilhelm Keilhau, Kingston House, Princes Gate, London, 

S.W.7. ^ 

POLAND : Mme. Poznanska, 9, Royal Avenue, London, S.W.3. 
YIDDISH (London Centre) : Joseph Leftvvich, 8, Risborough Court, 

London, N.IO. -. 



Jan.-Feb., 1942 



P.E.N. NEWS 



EDITORIAL 

" East Coker" No English poem published in recent years has 
attracted more attention than Mr. T. S. Eliot's " East Coker ", and we 
are very happy that the poet responded to a Suggestion made to him by 
the Czechoslovak and English Centres in London that he should give a 
reading of the poem to our members ; this to be followed by a reading 
of the Czech Version made by Libuäe Pänkovä. The meeting will be 
held at the Czechoslovak Institute, on February 17th, as announced on 
the front page, and as the accommodation is limited and the attendance 
likely to be large, we hope our members will send in their applications 
for tickets in good time. 

The Crisis in the Book Trade. On another page we are reprinting a 
letter to The Times, sent out from the P.E.N. Office, calling attention to 
the serious crisis in the Book Trade caused by the shortage of paper and 
strawboard, by the shortage of labour due to the calling-up of printers, 
machinists, binders, etc., and the hindrance to distribution brought about 
by the rationing of petrol. The letter in The Times was the subject of 
leading articles in several Journals and led to the publication of other 
letters from prominent authors. Other Steps are under considcration 
which it is hoped will lead to a Solution of the problem. 

Dr. Hu Shih. Before this issue of P.E.N. News is out we shall have 
held our Luncheon in celebration of the appointment of Dr. Hu Shih. 
Honorary Membcr of the London Ccntre for many years, to the Presiden- 
tial Committee of the International P.E.N. An account of the Luncheon, 
at which Clifford Bax presided, will be given in the next number of 
P.E.N. Nezos. 



An Appeal to Members of the London Centre. At the Annual General 
Meeting the Treasurer referred to the small deficit — about yflOO— shown 
in the accounts relating to our XVII International Congress. Many of 
those members who attended the Congress were thoughtful enough and 
generous enough to send a donation in addition to the Congress fee, as a 
contribution to the organising and running expenses. This appeal is 
not addressed to them, but to those who did not contribute at the time 
but may be able to do so now. We ask members who can afford to make 
a donation to the Congress Fund, to send their remittances, made payable 
to The P.E.N., to the Treasurer at The Porch, TRING, Herts. If more 
than the jC^OO is subscribed, the balance will be applied to the general 
international purposes of The P.E.N. and will not be misspeiit. 



Jan-Feb., 1942 



4 P.E.N. NEWS 

Rcpnntt'J frorii THL TIMLS, ht Jaxiuan., l'M2. 

BOOKS_ IN^ JC< AR TLME 

" DISI\TEGR.ATION '~OF^HE TRADE 

THE C.VjE FOR CONCESSIONS 
'lO THK KDITOK OF THE TIMES 

Sir, -'1 hc apathelic disresfKrct shown hy succcssivc (jovcrnnients 
towards letters and men of letters has been one oi thc siitc<4uurds of 
frcedom of expression. It is now. in thc circumstances of this war, 
robhine thb» freedoi'n of any sigrulicance. 

L'nless aulhonty. m the person of the appropriatc Ministers, siitTcrs a 
change oi mind. the condition of letters in this country will he quicklv 
past prayer. Any who thunk that this dcfcat at home will havc no cticct 
on the cuurse oi the war d- • not rexisc the cxtcnt of their folly. In :i war 
of idcas and machines it is foIIy to lei half y^ur line of defence touiuler 
from neclect. ( >ur cncmy has not rüde this nv-Stake. 

Books — '"nur best export " (Mr. Brendan Bracken)— and the book 
tmde are not mercly another industry. They are the daily food ot our 
mental and spintual Iife. and the evidence. to other pcoples, that it exists. 
But unle>> actwn is takcn and takcn s^x^n. to arrest the disintegration ot 
the lxK>k trade, the public which is turnini: morc and more to books f()r 
the help thev cive. and thc LioNcmn^.ent Departments (War Offue, Air 
MinistrA. Adnuraltv, Mip.i<tr\ of Informaiiom :o which books ot various 
kinds are t-k<entul.' \nll ask and cet nothmg. Let it be noted that the 
v.u.t bulk Ol Kx^ks producx\l cv^nsists of reprints ot educational books, 
icehnuvd Kx^ks, and ciasssi.-^ : ncuon is an cxtremely small percentage 
o( the whole. , 

The Steps uhu-h it is ncvX-^^-N' to take to avert breakdcnvn do no 
mvoUe auN disturKmc-e of the war en.-n. The present allocatum ot 
papcr (ov Kx>ks reprt^vus onls U p.^r eenr. oi the tot.il consump.on 
An uK-rease to ,h> n;ore than ij ixt ccr.:. would suth.e. ^ince less han 

.uvded. And tor d,stnbu::on. an cxtren^elv snull suppiementarv um^ 
uauMV These raets are anipline.: m Mr. Stanley l nw.n s art.eh in 
vvmeni / .,v »tu / « :.';r>-. u hu'h sho-a'.d be read. j^^^ 

It bN uuiitK-rvnvV. it bN ne-ac^nce. thesc Steps are not ^-^^l-"; , , , 

A-vi :o the tuture uKalunanK. 
; uherebv eiMÜzation mav be 
r--^ <-v = ser IS Wmston Churchill. 



lo \\w vX'untiN p.vHv IS ca!cu!ab.e and s>.'vcri 
■' bvv^ks in all thc'.r \arwCN v>rter the 
vaiiuvl uuin^pb.uuo toruard. 



\\v- -i:e. S:i. \vn;:>i ra:;nra..\, 

b:\\cN . Fi^x:in:> F.im^^n : 

p..;p^ GlEDAlI.A 
""'WUTr.R DE !A >hM<l^; 



Hvk: 



l VI KV Nv 1 

r S lnoi . b. M tVN< 
1 vNtt^v^N . b H l iiv>y: : 
IHnN'^np M vcv' vs;', :\ 

rKisM>vN . H C NVb-s : Kvt^^vvv\\>^'- 

riu n \ . i;n i\vc^ i-ia^:, iU::> 



DohKn- ; 






l\v. 



.Hh 



Jan.-Feb., 1942 



P.E.N. NEWS 



HUNGARIAN P.E.N. GROUP 

The Hungarian P.E.N. Centre has not bcen heard of since the dom- 
ination of Hungary by Nazi Germany, and we fear it has either been 
dissolved or reduced to impotence. There are many Hungarian authors 
at present in England, who, subject to the formal ratification of the 
International Executive Committee, have formed themselves into a 
P.E.N. Group, with the follovving personnel : 

President : Lajos Birö. 
Acting President : Ferenc Körmendi. 
Treasurer : Yolanda Földes. 
Secretary : Paul Ignotus. 

Address of the Group: c'o F. Körmendi, 20, Oslo Court, Prince 
Albert Road, N.W.8. 

In a letter announcing the formation of the Group on November 6th 
last, the Executive Committee State s that the members of the new Group 
regard the preservation of freedom of Hungarian thought and writing 
as their supreme task, adding : " The Hungarian P.E.N. Group in 
London would like to offer its loyal fricndship to, and cordial co-operation 
with, all those who stand for the ideals of the P.E.N. World Association, 
and hopes ihat it may count on the understanding and goodwill of all 
P.E.N. Centres." 



THE AUSTRIAN CENTRE 

The Austrian Centre has been reconstructed in accordance with a 
decision taken at its Annual General Meeting, Held on September 13th, 
1941. The Rules may be examined by any member of the Austrian 
Centre on application to the Hon. Secretary, Dr. Köhler. 

The officers of the Austrian Centre are now as follows : 

Honorary President : Franz Werfcl. 
Acting President : Robert Neumann. 
Hon. Executive Committee Member : Stefan Zweig. 
Executive Committee : Fritz Brügel, Arthur Koestler, 
Joe Lederer, Karl Mannheim. 
^,-^'Hon. Secretary : Franz Kobler. 
Hon. Treasurer : Leon Schalit. 

It has been resolved to found an Austrian P.E.N. Refugees Writers' 
Fund, in order to give financial grants to such members as are in tem- 
porary distress. Any subscriptions to this Fund will be gratefully 
accepted. 

Monthly gatherings are planned. The first will be held in January, 
1942 ; a separate announcement will be made. 

Communications should be sent to the Hon. Secretary, Dr. Franz 
Kobler, 59, Priory Road, London, N.W.6. — - 



P.E.N. NEWS 



Jan.-Feb., 1942 



DECEMBER LUNCHEON 

Phyllis Bentley presided at the Luncheon which precedcd the Ann aal 
General Meeting on December 3rd. She vvelcomed a number of forcign 
writers, members of other centres ; also M. Robert Crottet, a young 
Swiss playwright and story writer, the author of " Maouno ", and a 
group of writers from Spain which inciuded not only Sr. Arturo Barea 
(a member of the London Centre) and Dr. J. M. Batista i Roca (Secrctar\ 
of the Catalonian Centre), but also Srs. Pi Sunyer, Portillo, Vergcs, 
Angel de Gondra, and Jose l. de Lizaso ; thus all three Spanish litcratures 
were reprcscnted : Castillian, Catalonian and Basque. 

Henry W. Nevinson. 

Before procceding to her impressions of the XVII International 
Congress, Miss Bentley asked the Secrctary to make an announccnicnt. 
The Secretary said that since we had last mct the P.E.N. had lost a voi y 
great and devoted friend — Henry W. Nevinson ; that we were collahor- 
ating with the National Council for Civil Liberties in organising a mcmorial 
meeting in his honour on llth December at which many wcll-known 
man and womcn would pay tributes to his life and work. All he feit 1k 
would like to do now was to quote a very few lines from a private ktler 
he had received from Nevinson a few weeks before his death : " M\ 
ribbon, like myself, has almost pcgged out," he had written, " and of 
course it is impossible to get a new one in this exile, any morc than I 
can get a new life. But I want to thank you for your news of the great 
Congress . . . To have missed the occasion is one of the grievanccs ot 
my life— like missing the North Pole twice ..." The letter closcd with 
a sentence in which the Secretary thought Nevinson had written his own 
cpitaph : " Think of me only as an active man capable of great endurancc, 
a good traveller and war correspondent, able to express myself in dcccnt 
English. That is all." 

Impressions of the Congress. 

Miss Bentley gave a vivid account of her impressions of the Congress. 
She Said she had attcnded it with an open mind and an opcn notebook. 
The fact that the Congress was held at all, in a bombed city in a 
beleaguered island, and had representatives from nearly 40 countries, was 
a matter for pride ; and the faith which had prompted the undertaking 
had been abundantly justified. It was necessary to " carry on ", war or 
no war. If writers of the past had waited for peace, we should not havc 
had much literature. It was said that China, for instance, had produced 
more literature during the past fifty years than in the preceding five 
thousand. She went on to praise the milieu : the charming building 
which the Institut Fran9ais had so courteously and graciously placed at 
our disposal ; also the smooth-working of the arrangements, the abscncc 
of fuss and confusion ; the hard work of those responsible for the Pro- 
gramme and its carrying out. Her only serious criticism of the Congress 
was that so many subjects had been dealt with, so many problems poscd, 
that it had been impossible to thresh most of them out to conclusions. 



Jan.-Feb., 1942 



P.E.N. NEWS 



She would have liked a number of Round Table Conferences in addition 
to the set sessions. *' This is really a compliment, for it means that after 
Hearing forty speeches, I wanted more." 

There is no space, unfortunately, to give Miss Bentley's comments in 
greater detail, but we quote her closing remarks. "There were differences, 
tiffs, even explosions ; members attacked each other, even impugned 
each other's motives and veracity. We were scolded, some of us, for 
arrogance by Mr. J. B. Priestley, called rats by Mr. E. M. Forster, jibed 
at by Mr. Robert Neumann ; whole continents were repudiated. But 
around and within this diversity there was unity. A unity of belief in 
freedom and truth ; a belief that a free enquiring critical spirit was the 
highest possession of man, because from it sprang all progress. The 
deepest impression made by the Congress was this love of freedom of 
cxprcssion ; this determination to allow it to others and to guard it for 
ourselves. Storm Jameson said at the Inaugural Luncheon * freedom 
means what his skill means to a musician, something they must practise 
without laziness.' To practise freedom without any laziness : that was 
the motto, the method, and the message of the XVII International 
Congress of the P.E.N." 



TWENTIETH ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING 

The Twentieth Annual General Meeting was held on Wednesday, 3rd 
December, 1941, at Frascati's Restaurant. Miss Phyllis Bentley was in 
the Chair, and expressed her regret that Miss Storm Jameson was unable 
to preside, partly owing to Indisposition, but also for reasons which 
members would not be slow to understand. 

Minutes. A report of the Nineteenth Annual General Meeting having 
been circulated in P.E.N. News the Chairman asked whether the Meeting 
was willing to take the Minutes as read. Agreed. 

Annual Report. The Annual Report having also been circulated in 
P.E.N. NnvSy this was taken as read and discussion invited. The 
Secretaiy gave a short resume of our activities under the various heads 
and expressed his willingness to answer any questions members might 
like to ask. Henry Simpson raised the question of the responsibility of 
the P.E.N. for views expressed by the authors of the P.E.N. books. 
The Secretary referred to the following Statement which, as explained in 
P.E.N. News, appears in all P.E.N. books : " The author of this bock 
is a member of the P.E.N., but the opinions expressed in it are his (or her) 
personal views and are not necessarily those of any other member." 
From this it seemed clear to him that the P.E.N. as such accepted no 
responsibility for any opinion that might be expressed by individual 
authors. Discussion foUowed in which Colby Borly, John Hilton, 
Max Murray, Margharita Widdows and others took part. The adoption 
of the Report was proposed by Maysie Greig, seconded by Noel Streat- 
feild, and passed unanimously. 



8 



P.E.N. NEWS 



Jan.-Feb., 194. 



Treasunrs Report. 



apolcgised for thc dclay ,n distrihutin.u them, duc to wa - m c ün ' 
stanccs ovcr wh.ch wc had n. control. IIc cjaotcd thc fo c^ ,' ;,"' 
^raph from a Icttcr just rcccivcd from thc auditors : '' 1 thinTvou^w li 
agrcc that .n an assoc.at.on such as thc P.K.X. li,.urcs matte velh 
and hat thc past ycar should bc judgcd hy whcthcr or not vc,u a .i 1 
hc th.ngs you sct out to do. This you can judgc bcttcr than I, hu to 
ho d an International Conference in a ' War ' vear, with all it^ chaos 
and restnction, is certanily no mean achieveinent, and, to judgc from thc 
rcport 1 have read somethnig nccesssary and worth while doing, rcallv 
wel donc Ihe I reasurer went on to compare some of the itenis 



in this year s accounts with those of thc prcvious ycar. The improvcment 
in oiir fmancial position should not he taken too light-heartedly One 
itcm which showed a dccrcase was salarics and this was duc to circum- 
stanccs which could not he cxpcctcd to recur. Xcxt vcar vvc must assumc 
that cven if we continucd to undcrpay our stafF, we" should nevcrthclcss 
he nuolvcd in a nuich grcater expenditurc than during thc vcar undcr 
review. The expenditurc on postagcs, printing and travelling had not 
sulFcrcd niuch changc. 'I'hc suhscriptions during thc ycar wcrc down onlv 
/.16 and thosc in arrears inight hc cxpcctcd to hc paid aftcr reminder. 
Certain nionics for P.E.X. Xms from San Francisco, New York and 
Scotland— were still outstanding. One very satisfactory item announced 
hy the Treasurer and rcceived with applausc was that somc fiftv new 
inembcrs had becn cnrolled since the end of thc Club year. 

The Treasurcr stated that the accounts for thc XVII International 
Congrcss had becn kept separatcly and would bc auditcd latcr. In rcply 
to a cjuestion, he said that there was a deficit of about/^lOO which it was 
hoped would bc voluntarily suhscribed. If it was not clearcd ofi" in this 
way, WC should ha\e to spread it ovcr thc ordinary accounts during the 
ncxt ycar or two. Mr. Simpson said it was currently reported that thc 
cost of the Congiess had becn borne hy thc British Council. The 
Treasurer expressed bis surprise that such a report, which had not 
theslightest foundation, should have becn circulatcd. Thc Congress had 
heen financed entirely hy mcmbcrs of the P.Iv.X. and thc Executive 
Committec wished to put on record their appreciation of the ready 
response which their appcal for donations to thc Congress Fund had met ; 
thev thought the London Centre niight congratulate itself on having 
organised a congress on such a scale with a comparatively small deficit. 

The formal adoption of thc Report was proposed by Vera Brittain, 
seconded hy I). C. F. Harding, and carried unanimously. 

Executive Committec. The Sccrctary stated that for the four vacancies 
the foilowing nominations had becn rcceived : Lettice Cooper : proposed 
by Fieanor Farjeon, seconded by Irene Rathbone ; Philip Guedalla, 
proposed by the Executive Committec; Tom Harrisson, proposed by 
Storm Janieson, seconded by Li. VVyn Griffith ; Barbara Noble,, proposed 
hy Christine Jope-Slade, seconded by Henrietta Leslie. The Chairman 
proposed that the Executive Committec, with these new members,. should 



Jan.-Feb., 1942 



P.E.N. NEWS 



be elected en bloc. This was formally moved by Irene Rathbone, 
seconded by Eleanor Farjeon and carried unanimously. The Committee 
for 1941-42 is therefore as follows : (in order of seniority) L. A. G. 
Strong, Irene Rathbone, Phylhs Bentley, Noel Streatfeild, Owen Rutter, 
LI. Wyn Griffith, Henrietta Leslie, B. Ifor Evans, Barbara Noble, Tom 
Harrisson, Letlice Cooper, Phihp Guedalla and Marjorie Watts (by 
co-option). 

Election of Treasurer. The Chairman stated that no other nomination 
for the Office of Treasurer liaving been received, Hermon Ould was 
willing to stand. In proposing that Mr. Ould should be re-elected as 
Treasurer, Mr. Wyn Griffith said he wished to interpolate a piece of 
his mind. He thereupon embarked upon an extravagant tribute to the 
Treasurer and Secretary vvhich the latter is reluctant to record. Mr. 
Griffith then formally nominated Mr. Ould, Professor Hilton seconding ; 
carried nem con. 

Election of President. The Chairman, in asking members to re-elect 
Storm Jameson as President of the London Centre for another year, 
said she could not imagine that anybody would wish to öfter any alternative 
Suggestion. Storm Jameson liad held office during one of the most 
difficult years of the Club's existence, and had given her time and inspira- 
tion ungrudgingly. The Executive Committee wished to nominate Miss 
Jameson for a further year. Professor John Hilton, in formally proposing 
that Miss Jameson should bc re-elected, said he knew he was speaking 
on behalf of the rank and file membership of the P.E.N. Club in saying 
that we had heard with deep satisfaction of the proposal that Margaret 
Storm Jameson should be President for the ensuing year. It was not 
just a matter of our accepting with good grace the Executive Committee's 
recommendation, but of our whole-heartedly taking it over and making 
itourown. Forhimself, asone who had not been long within the fold 
and who had not previously known Storm Jameson, though he had known 
her from her writings, he would say how from his first experience of her 
presidency his respect for her gifts and his esteem for her personal 
qualities had grown. But in all that he held no more than the common 
view. Her presidency of the International Congress, her gracious 
bearing during the course of its proceedings, her manner of resolving 
the organisational difficulties and the personal heartburnings which are 
apt to arise on such occasions, was such as to command the whole-hearted 
admiration of one who, such as himself, had been under the necessity of 
attending international congresses of many sorts through many years. 
This was no time to change over to another President even had there 
been one of anything like the same quality in prospect, and he therefore 
moved, in the name of those with whom he had spoken, and he was sure, 
of the entire membership, that Margaret Storm Jameson be elected our 
President for the ensuing term. 

Peter von Mendelssohn, speaking in warm support of the Executive 
Committee's proposal that JVIiss Storm Jameson should hold the office 
of President for another year, said that as a comparatively new member 



10 



P.E.N. NEWS 



Jan.-Fcb., 194Z 



hc feit proud of bcing privilegcd to second her nomination. Carried wiih 
iicclamation. 

The Chairnian ihen thrcw the Meeting (>pen for gcncral discussion, 
in which the following among others took part : Colby iJorlcy, \'era 
liriltain, Victor Cohen, Willard Connely, Max Murrav, Harry Stevens 
and iMargharita Widdows. Among the suggestions for future activities 
was one Irom \'era Brittain, that instead ot" " lunciies on a geographica! 
basis " we might organise occasions at which editors, publisiiers ami 
critics were ihe chief guests ; another trom Willard Connelv was that \w 
should arrange lunches in honour of the neutral countries ; a third froiii 
Harry Stevens, that we should have meetings at whicli the literature ot 
the smaller countries was discussed ; and a fourth that we should organise 
a sort of " brains trust " at which the authors of the P.K.N. books sh(juki 
be invited to answer questions. The Secretary said that all thesc 
suggestions would be carefully considered by the Executive Coniinittce. 

It was the general sense of the meeting that arrangements shouKl bo 
made when possible for mcmbcrs to send the money for lunches, dinncrs, 
etc., in advancc. It was not thought necessary to increasc the postagc 
and printing account by issuing tickcts ; seats could be reserved on 
receipt of notification and remittancc. 

The proceedings then terminated. 



MARION RYAN 

We regret to announce the death in December last ot Marion Ryan 
(IMrs. Peter Fletcher). It is probably true to say that she was the \ery 
lirst nieniber of the P.E.N. , becausc' when the idea of establishing tho 
Club occurred to Mrs. Dawson Scott, it was to Marion Ryan that slic 
went tirst of dl for help and ad vice, and it was she who callcd t(^getlicr 
the little group of journalists who did so nuich to launeh the !'•• •^' 
Marion Ryan was an American, but spent the greater part ot her liti m 
luirope. " She had a verv successful career as a Journalist, coiUnbiiung 
to numerous periodicals. notablv The Dailx Sketch The Kvoun^'Stündani 
The Daily Telegraph, The Yorkshirc Post, The Ne^c York Jlcrald Jrihunr. 
and The' Dispüteh. She was one of the hrst woman columnists m tlu> 
countrv, and her regulär column in The Dispatch dealing xMth cuiuni 
literature was not onlv verv populär but was the means ot helping man) 
voung novelists to obtain recognition. She was an acute cntic ot n()\j- 
and was ipiiek to recogtdse nierit in new writers. It wns this taai 
whieh brought her into touch with Mrs. Daxsson Scott whose ^J^'^^ ' 
(uiieklv diseerned to be of unusual quality. Latterly she lued oui 
I ..„Kh.n, but her interest in the P.E.N. never waned, and she was pu>u 
at Ihe recent International Congress in London. She died P^''^;-^ ■• 
in a nursing hoiue in Hon e and will be niourned by many who tounu 
a ilianning companion and an unseltish triend. 



Jan.-Feb., 1942 



P.E.N. NEWS 



11 



NEW ZEALAND P.E.N. 

From time to time we receive the Gazette of the New Zealand Centre. 
From the last number we learned that Mr. Eric Bradwell, who had been 
the secretary for the previous two years, was unable to continue in office 
as he had been transferred to Auckland. A party was given to show 
members' appreciation of his Services, and he was presented with a 
cigarette case. Mr. Fat Lawlor, who had been the secretary in the 
early days of the Centre, accepted office again. The President is Mr. 
Alan Mulgan. 

Nearly 150 entries, covering over 400 poems, were received in 
connection with the Jessie Mackay Memorial Prize inaugurated by the 
New Zealand P.E.N. No vcrse competition has ever aroused such 
intcrcst in New Zealand. It will be recalled that the late Jessie Mackay 
was the Honorary Member for New Zealand of the London Centre. 

l'hc New Zealand Centre played an important part in the literary side of 
the Ccntennial in 1940. During that year over 50 books of Centennial 
historical interest were published in the country, and poems by Eileen 
Duggan, in honour of the New Zealand Centennial were published not 
only in New Zealand by in the American and British press. 

The following motion, presented by the Secretary, Pat Lawlor, was 
discussed at a reccnt Executive Committee of the Wellington Centre : 

That the members of the New Zealand Centre of the P.E.N. pledge 
thcmselves to assist in post-war reconstruction by keeping in mind 
always, in whatevcr they may write, the Inspiration that they and their 
fellow men may obtain from the love of beauty, of honour, and of 
self-sacrifice. We abhor the trend of the past twenty years in ex- 
perimental literature realising that this has led so often to debased 
vvriting and thinking, which has been a potent factor in creating the 
World war. Such writings have contributed to the present trend 
towards the enslavement of man depersonalised, and have thus worked 
to destrov the very freedom which is our most precious possession. 
From this crashing through the jungle of disordered and often vicions 
thought, let US by discipline, and the consequent refinement of the 
emotions, find our way to a clear and noble vision, with nothing of 
dissension in creed or race, but in the truth and beauty to be found in 
fine clear thinking, in the home and in Service, one to the other. 

After a lively discussion the meeting approved of the first sentence in 
the motion and postponed the remainder for consideration at a subsequent 
meeting. 



12 



P.E.N. NEWS 



Jan.-Feb., 1942 



i- 



P.E.N. BOOKS 

General Editor : HERMON OULD 

The purpose of thc scrics is to set up an evcr-growiiij^ 
record of facts and opinions rclatinp; to litcraturc and author- 
ship : a contribution to world culturc and Illumination from 
members of thc only worid Organization of writcrs. 

Each volume Crown 8vo, stiff covcrs, price 2s, nct. 

Already piiblished 
THE END OF TIIIS WAR, By Storm Jamhson. 

THOMAS HARDY: Foiir Chapters, By Henry W . 

Nevinson. 

MAGIC CASEMENTS, By Ei.kanor Farjeüx. 

JOHN AHLLIXGTÜX SYXGE, By E. A. G. Stkono. 

PLATO'S iVHSl'AKE : The Poet in thc World of Toniorrou , 

By Richard Churcii. 

WORD FROiM WALES, By Wyn Grifuth. 

ETCHING OF A TORMEXTED ACE : A Glimpse ot 
Contemporary Chinese Literature, By Hsiaü Ch'ifn. 

l'or puhlicatiun shortlv 
THE ENGLISH REGIONAL NOVEL, By Phvm is 

Bentley. 

THE MECHAXIZED MUSE, By Margaret Kenmdv. 

In active prcparation 
Books by Bonamy Dobrkr, F. L. Lucas, and B. H. Liddeli 

Hart. 

Piiblishtrs 
George Allen & Unwin, Ltd., Museum Street, W.C.l. 



Jan.-Feb., 1942 



P.E.N. NEWS 



13 



HENRY W. NEVINSON 

A Memorial Meeting to Henry W. Nevinson was held under the 
Joint auspices of the National Council for Civil Liberties and the P.E.N. 
Club, at the Caxton Hall, on Thursday llth December last. E. M. 
Forster presided. 

The meeting began with Bach's Chromatic Fantasia and Fugue for 
pianoforte, played by Edith Vogel as a tribute on behalf of the refugees. 

" Fellow members of the Council for Civil Liberties, fellow members 
of the P.E.N. Club and all our guests," said Mr. Forster, " we are 
gathered together in the name of Henry Nevinson, and we have begun 
this meeting as best it could have been begun, by music. Now, Nevinson 
was not only a good man and a good writer — he presented a particular 
way of life ; it was in a sort of way a symhol, and we are gathered here 
to-day, not to express our private loss, grievous though that is, but to 
thank him, to thank him in various ways for what he means to us. He 
was many-sided and we shall only have time to touch on a few of his 
aspects and to call on a few Speakers to illustrate them." 

Mr. Förster gave a list of those from whom messages had been received 
and referred to the many representative men and women who were 
sitting on the platform. He thcn called upon the Speakers to pay their 
tributes to Nevinson as Man of Letters, as War Correspondent and 
Journalist, asthe Friend of Ireland, as the Champion of Women's Rights, 
asthe Friend ofAfrica, and asked Miss Vera Brittain, at whose Suggestion 
the meeting was called, to read some extracts from Nevinson's works. 
If P.E.N. News were three tiines as large we should quote most of these 
tributes in füll ; but we must be content with the following short 
extracts : 

Professor Gilbert Murray, O.M. 

There was something quite special and characteristic about the 
admiration and affection which Nevinson inspired as a friend, an artist, 
an adventurer, a knight errant, a being not quite to be expected in this 
commonplace world. In thinking of him I am often reminded of a 
remark of Mary Shelley about her husband : he seemed like some hero 
out of Plutarch who had strayed into her drawing room. 

He was, of course, a great war correspondent. I doubt if any war 
between 1897 and 1914 managed to conduct its affairs without him. 
But he was always, of course, something more than a correspondent. 
One feit that he went to the wars because he hated wars as he hated all 
oppressions, all infliction of suffering by the strong on the weak. It was 
in the same spirit that he went on his great mission to expose the System 
of slave hunting in the Portuguese plantations in West Africa, an 
expedition which neariy cost him his life ; the same spirit in which he 
went to relieve famine and sickness in Macedonia, and to work for the 
Friends' Ambulance Unit in France. 

The adventurousness of his life was so prominent that for a long 
time people did not see what a fine writer he was, what an artist and 



14 



P.E.N. NEWS 



Jan.-Feb., 1942 



} 



a Scholar. It was a trifle late in his life that the University of Liverpool 
made him a Doctor of Laws, Dublin a Doctor of Letters, and that 
conservative and fruity institution Christ Church at Oxford one of her 
extremely small and select body of Honorary Senior Students. In this 
connection I cannot quite forget in how füll and true a scnse he was a 
Greek scholar. 1 do not mean that wc was a scliolar like Porson or 
Browning's Grammarian. But he loved Greek Htcratiire, and the Greek 
spirit. He was a scholar hke the liellenists of the Renaissance or again 
like some of the nineteenth Century : men who found in Greek studies 
a living guidance and inspiration, helping theni to pursue the typical 
Greek ideals, Beauty, Truth and Freedom. As to those three it is httle 
good talking about Beauty ; the only thing is to cnjoy and create it, 
and that Nevinson emphatically did. As for Truth, the prohlem of 
its pursuit is with us always in whatever we do. Of Nevinson niorc 
than of most pcopie it can be said that he was faithful to Truth. He 
was a great unveilcr of facts that ought to be faced, of wrongs that could 
only be set right if they were cleariy known. And never did he conic 
within a hundred miles of either saying wliat he did not bchevc or 
suppressing what he did belicve from considerations of ianie or Convention 
or worldly advantage. 

I dare say some of those prescnt will remember an Annual Dinner of 
the Rationalist Press Association at which a Speaker proposing Nevinson's 
health dwelt on the unfailing courage with which he supported the 
weaker party, the beatcn or faiüng cause. And how Nevinson indignantly 
repudiated the compliment. lie had been, he said, a consistent chanipion 
of conquering and triumphant causcs : he had worked tor Free Thought, 
for Free Speech, for political and civic freedom ; for the eniancipation 
and equal citizcnship of Wonien, and for Peace betwecn civilized nations. 
And all were bcing successful. 1 cannot reinendur what year it was ; 
it must have been a very long timc ago, becausc we thought his claim 
was true. 

Mrs. Pethick Lawrence : 

I want to teil you something of the meniories, the visions that come 
to me . . . I have a vision of Henry Nevinson in his fall riding kit and 
gaiters, seated on his horse, riding with our suflrage processions though 
the streets of London. No mockery could assail his dignity. I do not 
think he did meet any mockery, if my remembrance serves me rightly ; 
as he passed along riding upon that horse he was greeted by many wno 
knew him and by others in the crowd. Another niemory of hnn comes 
to me to-day as one of the group of men and women distributmg hand- 
bills in some local suburbs of London, putting them through the letter 
boxes, giving them to the passers-by, exactly as if that was bis day s worR. 
There was no service so humblc, so insigniticant that be would retusc 
to do it, that he was not glad to do it. 1 remember him keepmg watcti 
over the prostrate form of Sylvia Pankhurst as she carried out her hunger 
strike before the strangers' entrance to the House of Commons, thcn 



biriKc oeiore tne strangers entrance to the nouse oi v.uui..iw^., 
making his way into the House, insisting that a mcssage should be 



Jan.-Feb., 1942 



P.E.N. NEWS 



15 



to the Prime Minister, Mr. Asquith, and himself bearing a message 
from the Prime Minister back to Sylvia Pankhurst lying outside on the 
pavement, a message that put an end to her misery, that said that Mr. 
Asquith was prepared to receive a deputation ; then iifting her up with 
such gentleness and consideration and putting her into the taxi and 
seeing that she was comfortable. 

Of course, one cannot forget his humour — that humour half ironical, 
half rueful, but so enchanting always. Another memory I have is of 
census night protest when, as a protest against women not being allowed 
to be called persons under the law, we decided that our names should 
not be registered on the census and so all together we took a big hall 
and we entertained one another all through the night so that nobody 
could put our names down in the morning. Henry Nevinson was there, 
enjoying the absurdity, enjoying the fun. 

Well, he has passed now. l'his man who in his long life represented 
the best side of our British culture, has passed from the scene, and it 
seems as if a whole era has passed away with him. But though the 
future is vciled in clouds of uncertainty, we know that his spirit lives, 
it livcs to-day in the young and the generous, who will reconstruct again 
our fallen work ; it livcs in our gallant airmen, in our brave seamen of 
the Navy and the Mcrchant Service, in the Army, in the civilian pop- 
ulation of all kinds, men and women, bearing so bravely the sufferings 
of this war. It will live again — it does live again — that is our great 
consolation. Our beloved comrade Evelyn Sharp is with us — his great 
friend, his wife. With her and with all those who were privileged to 
be his assistants we will work together in the furtherance of the great 
purpose which he served. Above all, for the frcedom and the triumph 
of man's unconquerable mind. 

Lapido Solanke : 

I am speaking on behalf of a section of African people who are serious, 
who I think you would agree are leaders in the future of their country. 
The late Mr. Nevinson was a great man, and our friend. I 
should like to sing one of our African funeral dirges in memory of 
Mr. Nevinson. 1 shall sing it in our own African tongue and then I 
shall translate it so that you will understand it. It is one of our funeral 
dirges that we always sing in memory of a great man like Nevinson, and 
it will suit this occasion very well. 

(Mr. Solanke then sang the very moving funeral dirge.) 

The philosophy behind this particular dirge amounts to the answers 
that we can give to two questions : i, what is the lesson or lessons that 
we, the living, learn from the life of Mr. Nevinson ? ii, has his death 
any useful message for us ? Insofar as we Africans are concerned, we 
are bound to the memory of the late Mr. Nevinson because the more that 
we know of his life the higher we esteem him along with those great 
British humanitarians who have gone to Africa : William Wilberforce, 
Grenville, Mary Kingsley, Dr. Livingstone and others who have fought 
for the emancipation of the African race. Nevinson is the latest — but 



16 



P.E.N. NEWS 



Jan.-Feb., 1942 



as we know, all these past British humanitarians have fought for cman- 
cipation of the African pcoplc from physical slavery. As vvc all know 
tüo well, there arc varioiis forms of slavery in modern times ; phvsical 
slavery, economic slavery, educational slavery, social slavery and other 
forms of slavery cxisting in the world of to-day. Rut Mr. Nevinson has 
fought against all, particularly physical slavery and economic slavery, 
both in this country and in other countries, and particularaiy among the 
Africans in Africa, in South Africa, Central Africa, in West Africa and 
everywhere in Africa. 

General Sir lan Hamilton, (\B.E. : 

Nevinson had served in many wars and rebellions, but pcrhaps the 
most terrible venture of them all was his single-handed campaign against 
slave trading in Central Africa, which has just been celehrated in song 
(which I hope some people have been capable of putting down). Nevinson 
was cver the champion of the under-dog, and all minorities. Morally 
and physically completely without fear, he was always to be found where 
bullets were flying thickest. At the time of the Armcnian massacres 
when the Greeks rose in Crete, Nevinson, inspired hy his cult for Hyron, 
was on the point of sailing for (irecce when he chanccd to meet Mr. 
Massingham, then editor of the Daily Chrouicle, who remarked : " You 
might send me a letter or two." Thus, quite casually, was Nevinson 
launched out on the most responsible of all professions. He would have 
no chief, no ovcrscer to consult. As a war correspondent, Nevinson had 
no rival, for he never ceased to bear in mind the destiny of his country 
and the larger issues, as well as his own copy. And thercby served both 
best. (At least let me qualify this : when I say that he had no rival, I 
must, in fairness, add that he had one— Winston Churchill by name, 
who at the Battle of Diamond Hill in South Africa displayed exactly the 
same qualities.) And I may say that in spitc of every effort on my part 
to get him some rccognition, I could never get it bim, bccause thcy said 
he was only a press correspondent. So I givc it him now. 

Apart from his impcrishable contribution to literature, how much of 
Nevinson's fame as a war correspondent will remain a hundred years 
hence ? I wonder. Wo nced hardly look back to the Crimea and Mutiny 
in Order to be able to say that the inHuence of mcn like Nevmson is 
incalculable, and certain it is as anything can be, that for the Student of 
history his writings will always be valuable. 

Nevinson had another string to his bow : bis dancing. I w^arned them 
I was going to say a word about it, bccause nothing would prevent me 
from doing so. His folk dancing. We Scots have never given up our 
national dancing, our reels and strathspeys and Highland fimgs. ror 
this reason, the Scots remain morc intensely Scottish than the English 
English. Nevinson was born to redress that balance. As I speak these 
closing words, the picture rises up bcfore me of Nevinson dancmg gaily 
up and down and round about vvith shouts of laughter and a great 
exhibition of impromptu steps. I love to bid adieu to him Iike this, 
so handsome, so vital. 



Jan.-Feb., 1942 



P.E.N. NEWS 



17 



Professor Benjamin Farrington : 

I come as an Irishman to pay tribute to Henry Ncvinson, and I cannot 
imagine anything more grateful as an Irishman than to pay tribute to one 
so great and so gallant, who was the firm and constant friend of my 
country. Henry Nevinson helped us with his pen and he helped us with 
his person. He was a frequent visitor to Ireland and a frequent writer 
about Ireland. He helped us in the Black and Tan days and in the later 
days when civil liberties needed the same help in Northern Ireland. 

Now it has been said here that Henry Nevinson was the friend of 
lost causes, and I say that he was the friend of victorious causes. Possibly 
with regard to Ireland, it may appear that what Henry Nevinson has 
championed is a lost cause ; but I would like to say that no cause is ever 
lost : what I do fecl is tragic at the prcsent time is that my own country 
can in the first place be divided against itself, that in the second place 
where unity is growing in the world, Ireland should be neutral, and in 
the third place that Ireland should be divided from many of her children 
overseas. At present the Irish in England, in the British Dominions — 
Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and now recently in 
America, are united in a common cause, which is also the cause of Eire — 
oniy they are united with that part of Ireland least united with ihe rest of 
Ireland. And also, all thosc sons of Eire whom that country is econom- 
ically unable to support, tcnd to find some function to fulfil in the common 
struggle against Hitler and now against Japan. 

And the tribute that I would like to make is, I feel that as the spirit 
of Nevinson prevails in this country, so certainly must the unity of 
Eire and Great Britain in the noble purpose on which they are now 
engaged be ccmented and made morc secure that it has ever been in our 
history. That is what Nevinson's spirit might achieve. 

H. N. Braüsford : 

Nevinson's spirit, I think, would have been pleased indeed, but a little 
bewildered, if he had hcard most of the Speeches this afternoon. He 
was the most modest of men. I do not think it had ever dawncd on him 
that he would go down to history as one of the great personalities of our 
time, and I am quite sure that it had never occurred to him that he was a 
great literary artist. But when it comes to my subject, well yes, he did 
know he was a Journalist, and he was very proud of that comparatively 
humble occupation. When I say he was proud, I do not mean to say 
that he was proud of his own personal achievements ; that would have 
been unlike him. He was proud rather of having served two great teams 
under two great captains. On the Manchester Guardian, under C. P. 
Scott, and on the Nation under Massingham. He had a way of identi- 
fying himself with the rest of his coUeagues and his comrades until he had 
almost forgotten his own identity, and if you had asked him whether he 
feit a little vanity at having written this piece or the other for the Manchester 
Guardian or the Nation, what he would have answered, I think, would 
have been that any vanity or pride he feit was rather that he had ranked 
as one of the staff. Now he was not, I think, a typical Journalist, he w^as 



18 



P.E.N. NEWS 



Jan.-Fcb., 1942 



far too grcat a man to bc typical of anything. He was not a Journalist 
in the sensc that he was ever one of thc hun^ry pack who scranihlctl for 
Fragments of ncws ; still Icss was he a man who hckl in liis haiul a pro- 
fessional pcn, least of all a mcrccnary pen. I cannot ima^inc an ixlitor 
who would have dared to suggcst to Xevinson that hc should wrik' 
anything contrary to his judgment or conscicncc. Indccd, whcn it 
occurred to me that I ought to say this, it Struck mc that throu^h all thc 
four and forty ycars that I had known hiin it had nevcr oncc occurred 
to me to know this side of him, because one took it for ij;rantrd wiih all 
one's understandinf; and one's subconscioiis valuation alniost IVoin thc 
first minutc that one saw him, and yet, in anothcr scnsc, a professional 
Journalist hc ccrtainly was, for he was a vcry scrupulous craftsnian. 
People think of him as a kind of Quixotc, biil thc fact was that hc addtd 
to a soldicrly disciplinc a scholar's punctiliousncss, and if hc pridcd 
himself on anythinu, it was, I think, that whcn you askcei liini to writc 
an article, his copy would arrivc at tlie cxact niomcnt al wliicli it \va> 
requircd and that it would nevcr hc a linc lonij; or a linc short. Hut whai 
it was, was an amazinj^ noweriny of pcrsonalilv. I havc known liini as 
his coilea^ue and latterly I had thc honour for four ycars to hc his cditor, 
and it used to bc one of tlie happicst, but also one of the most iinportant 
Jobs of my week to think out a suhjcct for Xevinson. He aiways prc- 
ferred to have his suhjccts set, rather than to find thcni hinisclf, but wlun 
you had found a sulijcct, thc thinu would comc back ylowin^ wiili 
imagination, pointcd with irony and a niarvcllous rcHcction of "nc "t 
the most unusual personalities of our timc. 

It was a many-sidcd, a very many-sided pcrsonality. Sir lan Hamilton 
mentioncd that he w;is a dancer ; I am goin^ to nicntion vct anothcr 
thing he was that nobody eise secms to havc known. In Ins youn^cr 
days he played the violin very well. Ikit what was fors^'ottcn was that 
thi's man, most of whose work was writtcn to ordcr at thc su^ucsiion ot 
others, was, I think, the first literary craftsman of our day as an cssayist 
and also a verv considcrable poct. I necd not say anythinu niorc ahoui 
his skill as an essavist— for what Miss Brittain has read to you will ha\c 
eonvinccd you of that ; but mav I bcfore I sit down, just read a stanza oi 
tvvo of one of his poems. For" I am inclincd to think that whcn hhkm 
eise is forgottcn of what he wrotc, thcre will bc, not a ^^vcAi nunibn hu 
perhaps five or six, of thcse poems that will live after him tor cvcr anc 
carry his name down wherever English is honoured. 

E. M. Förster : 

Our meeting which began in music, has cndcd in poctry, and thc) an 
the appropriate framework of thc meeting. And now ^j^^'^,*:,!]; YPf()\," 
and I sum up in three words : thcy arc FRh.bDOM AM| y ^^^..^^^ j 
Those two aspects, frecdom, creation, havc hccn wondcrtu \ i "^^^j.^^^^^ 
by the Speakers. It was not onlv lliat Ncvinson was protcs nig .^ ^^^^ 
things, making trouble, rcscuing pcoplc ; he was always ^^^'"''"''^" ' ^ j, 
that was why I was so particularly pleascd that that supremc c. i 



Jan.-Feb., 1942 



P.E.N. NEWS 



19 



of building up, namely poetry, should come at the end. He was a 
Champion, he was chivalrous, he was all those things that have been so 
brilliantly illustrated ; but he knew that there was that other side, that 
business of crcating things which, good in themselves, also inspire us 
vvlio are left behind to make things. That, then, is my summing up : 
FREEDOM AND CREATION. 



EVERGREEN SERIES 

Under the auspices of Czechoslovak P.E.N. and the English P.E.N. 
a scries of translations of English poetry into Czech has been started. 
It is called ihe Evergreen Series ; the Editor is LibuSe Pdnkovä ; the 
literary advisers are Bonamy Dobree and Josef Kodicek. The firät book 
is out — a translation by LibuSe Pänkovä of T. S. Eliot's poem *' East 
Coker ", with a comment on the work of Mr. Eliot by Bonamy Dobree, 
and a drawing by John Piper. Price 2 Shillings. 

Later volumcs will include translations of poems by John Donne ; by 
VV^. B. Yeats ; a selection from W. H. Auden, Cecil Day Lewis, Louis 
MacNiece and others ; English Love-poems ; and Langland's Piers 
Plowinan. The translations will be from different hands and each 
voIume will contain a comment by an authority. 



IRISH P.E.N. (DUBLIN CENTRE) 

At cur Annual General Meeting, which was held at Jury's Hotel, 
Dublin, on Saturday, 15th November, the following were elected to 
officc for the ycar 1941-2 : Austin Clarke, President ; Maurice Walsh, 
Vice-President ; Dorothy Day, Honorary Secretary ; Gerald Harris, 
Honorary Treasurer. 

Committee : Peadar O'Donnell, Kathleen O'Brennan, Lilian Davidson, 
Temple Lane, T. J. Collins, David Sears, Kenneth Reddin, Fay Sargent 
and R. M. Fox. 

After the election the meeting was addressed by the Irish Delegates 
to the 17th International P.E.N. Congress, 1941— Peadar O'Donnell, 
Denis Ireland, and May Morton— who gave interesting accounts of 
their visit to London. Irish P.E.N. sends hearty congratulations to 
London P.E.N. on the great success of the Congress. 

On Saturday, 6th December, we had a discussion on Jonathan Swift, 
Dean of St. Patrick's, Dublin. The present Dean of St. Patrick's, the 
Verv Rev. D. F. R. Wilson, M.A., opened the discussion and spoke of 
Swift's literary work including the famous Drapier Letters. Joseph 
Hone examined Swift's conception of liberty, and compared it with the 
modern democratic one. Denis Johnston, who has written a play about 
the famous Dean, spoke of his life. Amongst the other Speakers were 
Kathleen O'Brennan, Major Swifte and his brother (also Major Swifte) 
who are coUateral dcscendants of the Dean and who live at Swift's Heath 



20 



P.E.N. NEWS 



Jan.-Feb., 1942 



in Kilkenny, where Jonathan Swift spent some of his early boyhood. 
One feit that Swift is as much alive to-day as hc was in the sevcntccnth 
Century. Everyonc at the largc mceting had something to say about 
him— but owing to the neccssity for concluding before clevcn' o'clock 
(and last buses), the Chairman had to bring the mceting to a close, before 
all the Speakers had becn heard. 

DoROTHY Day. 



IRISH P.E.N. (BELFAST CENTRE) 

At cur Deccmber meeting we had the idea of forming a " Critics' 
Circle " who would review and discuss some prose work by one of our 
members. 

The book was choscn by lot and the fatcs dceided on "The Drcniian 
Letters " so ably compiled and edited by our \'ice-Chairnian, Dr. Chart, 
who introduccd the book and latcr rcplied to his critics. The Circk- 
included several of our best-known l'lstcr authors so that the discussion 
was both lively and intelligent, The letters, which passed betwccn Dr. 
Drennan and his sister Matty, givc an intiniatc and fascinating picturc 
of the political and social lifo of Belfast in the eightecnth Century- a 
pcriod whcn our city was described as the northern .Athens, and its 
inhabitants wcre identified with a higher degree of literary culturc aiul 
a more pronounced political integrity than we can, perhaps, claiin to-day. 

Dr. Chart was warnily congratulatcd on the creative ability shown in 
his prcface and on the inipartiality which distinguished his sciections. 
The meeting was voted a conipletc success anti we hope to ropeat tlio 
experimcnt at some future timc with a draniatic or poetical work. 

Mav ]\h)indN. 

ARGENTINE P.E.N. 

We have received a book issued by our Argentine Centre consccratcd 
to the memorv of Cunninghame Graham, who was the tirst Ilonorary 
Mcmber of the Buenos Aires Centre. The book is entitied " TcstiiiK)nio 
ä Roberto B. Cunninghame Graham," is printed on niagnilicciit papcr 
in 4to Format, with margins that takc no account of paper shortage. ^ 
photograph of the bronze plaque by I lector Rocha, erected bv the 1 1^.- 
as a mcmorial to Cunninghame (Jnibam, serves as a frontispicce und t.u 
text consists of an introduction and a record of the speeches inaic '; 
Juan Pablo Echagüe, President of the Argentine Centre, bv Mr. ''■^^'";'''|. 
Ovey, the British Amlxussador, bv Carlos Alberto Pueyrrcdon, ' 



son, 



DU IKM 

of the City of Buenos Aires, wheli the plaque was unvciled aml a -^^'^d 
named after Cunninghame Graham. Funeral orations niacU " 
March, 1936, by the British Ambassador, John Neville Myrrvl Wxiu 
and by the then President of the Argentine Centre, Carlos 
are also given in füll. 

This is the third substantial brochure issued by our Argcotn 



Jan..Feb., 1942 



P.E.N. NEWS 



21 



AN INDIAN ACADEMY OF AKTS 
AND LETTERS 

Under this heading appears an article in the November number of 
The INDIAN P.E.N., by Ananta Prasad Panda calling attention to the 
need " to maintain a common cultural link among all the separate 
linguistic units of India in order to keep up an all-India cultural unity 
in relation to the othcr countries of the world." Shri Panda, while 
noting the extent to which the Indian Centre of the P.E.N. serves this 
function, nevertheless thinks that there is good reason for establishing 
" an Indian Academy of Arts and Letters with the specific aims and 
objects of judging the merits of eminent writers, thinkers and artists in 
ditferent parts of India and thereby of giving due recognition and impetus 
to the deserving ones in the same way as the Nobel institution does for 
the whole world." Many prominent men, both Indian and British, have 
supported the idea. We think our members will be interested in the 
foUowing comment hy the Editor of The INDIAN P.E.N. on the scheme 
outlined by Shri Panda : 

** We have referred in The Indian P.E.N. on several occasions to the 
ultimate desirability of an Indian Academy of Arts and Letters, which 
our fellow-member Shri A. P. Panda advocates so enthusiastically. The 
idea of an Academy was mooted at the Ninth All-India Oriental Con- 
ference in December 1937 and in response to the questionnaire received 
from that body the Managing Committee of the P.E.N. All-India 
Centre went on record as favouring the establishment of an Academy 
but emphasised the importance of keeping membership on a basis of 
pure merit and making election to the Academy the highest reward of 
intellectual achievement. It seems probable that the proposition will 
be considered further at the Eleventh All-India Oriental Conference 
which is to meet at Hyderabad. 

Shri D. Visvesvara Rau of South India has been agitating tirelessly 
for the establishment of an Indian Academy and a number of Indian 
Journals are giving Space to his propaganda. The Behar Herald for 
April Ist gave almost two pages to his letter and bibliography on the 
subject and Jeevana for April had a long editorial on the project, in 
which it pointed out that several of the objects of such a body were being 
fulfilled by the P.E.N. in India. The Editors, both of whom, Shri 
D. R. Bendre and Prof. V. K. Gokak, are members of our All-India 
Centre did well to cmphasise that an Academy when formed must be 
run on' lines entirely free from provincial or communal blas. 

Now The Behar Herald for 9th September publishes another letter on 
the subject from Shri D. Visvesvara Rau which announces that a prov- 
visional committee has been formed and nanies ' The Indian P.E.N. 
Centre' as one of the bodies favouring the establishment of the Academy. 



22 



P.E.N. NEWS 



Jan.-Feb., 1942 



Some of the Functions which have been proposed for the Indian 
Academy are certainly beneath the dignity of such a body. We have in 
mind specifically a proposal which appeared some time ago in an Indian 
periodical that Hterary criticism should be made available by the Academy 
to writers generaliy, apparently irrespective of their Standing, and pressure 
brought to bear upon individual periodicals to accept writings approved 
by the Academy. Surely if we are to have an Academy at all it must be 
kept on a plane comparable with that of the Academies of England and of 
France, and the proposal to convert it into a super-literary agency should 
be nipped in the bud before the first Steps towards establishing the 
Academy are taken. 

<- We must admit that even the proposal to distribute annual prizes to 
writers and scientific workers leaves us cold. Better no Academy than 
one we cannot be proud of. Membership in the strictly limited group 
of ' Immortais ' should be itself the highest and perhaps the only prize 
within the Academy's gift. As the P.E.N. All-India Ccntre has with 
justification been listed among the organisations favouring an Academy 
in principle we feel that it is necessary to make cur stand clear and to 
repeat what we wrote in The Indian P.E.N. for October 1940 : — 

'Thewhole problem is a very serious and important one and the pre- 
mature launching of such an Academy would be a calamity,' 

Will it not be better to wait to launch an institution so important to 
national culture until India has the ordering of her own house ? " 



BULGARIAN P.E.N. 

As we go to press the news that the Bulgarian P.E.N. Centre has met 
with the same fate as the other centres in Nazi-occupied territory — 
suppression ! A dispatch to the Vichy News Agency from Sophia states 
that the Bulgarian Cabinet has decided that the P.E.N. Club, as well as 
the Rotary Club and the Sophia Literary Society, must be closed. Wc 
call to mind a number of our Bulgarian members who have earned the 
distinction of suppression ; many of them have been gucsts of honour 
at P.E.N. dinners in London and elsewhere: there is the poetess, well known 
to most of US, who spokc so eloquently at the Prague Congress on the 
subject of books for children ; the scholar whose translations of plays 
by the Greek dramatists, by Shakespeare, by English dramatists, by 
Bernard Shaw (hut not, for obvious reasons, of Arms and the Man) 
have been an important contribution lo the repertory of the Sophia 
National Theatre ; and the famous poetess who has frequently spoken 
for Bulgaria at our congresses and was feted by our Paris Centre just 
before the outbreak of war. We fear we cannot hope to see them again 
until the hand of the Gestapo has been lifted. 



Jan.-Feb., 1942 



P.E.N. NEWS 



23 



THE 



ARYAN PATH 



Vol. XII. 



AUGUST 



No. 8 



MODERN IRELAND : BELIEFS AND TENDENCIES R. M. Fox 
MYSTICISM AND SCIENCE . . K. S. R. Sastri 

LIFE AND THE UNIVERSE . . Merton S. Yewdale 

THE COMPLAINT AGAINST PHILOSOPHY P. T. Raju 

THE WEST ASKS SOME QUESTIONS Shaw Desmond 

THE EAST ANSWERS THEM E. M. H. 

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE PRESENT E. Cross 



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RABINDRANATH TAGORE 

HINDU WIDOWS: i 



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Editorial 
Vilem Haas 
11. . . Radhakamal Mukerjee 

PROGRESS THROUGH CATASTROPHE L. J. Beiton 

A NEW ORDER— FROM INDIA . P. Mahadevan 

ACHARYA RAY . . Radhakumud Mukerjee 

" A D 33 " • ■ Claude Houghton 

WHAT RELEVANCE HAS GREEK THOUGHT FOR THE 

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THE 




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Vol. XII. OCTOBER 


No. 10 


THE WORLD AFTER THE WAR .. 


Editorial 


LEVIATHAN AND LITTLE CROUPS 


C. D. H. Cole 


THE SOCIAL CRLDIT STATE 


Irene Rathbone 


EDUCATION FÜR RP:SPONSIBILITY 


Elizabeth Cross 


THROUGH THE CRAFT OF LIVING 


Hugh I'A. Fausset 


FOLLOW THE PATTERN OF LIFE 


Stella Gibbons 


TOWARDS SCIENTIFIC HISTORY 


Henry Holland 


NEW WORLDS FOR OLD 


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LIVING BY SERVING 


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NOVEMBER 
SPECIAL LITE«ATURE NUMBER 

LITERATURE AND NATION BUILDING Editorial 

LITERATURE : ITS VALUE IN THE MAKING OF A NATION 

K. R. S. lyengar 

THE POET AND THE DRAMATIST : THEIR INFLUENCE 

ON SOCIETY Clifford Bax 

THE GIANT AND THE DWARFS : THE NOVELIST OF TODAY 

AND TOMORROW Claude Houghton 

MODERN INDIAN LITERATURE: 

i. A Note on Contemporary Tendencies A. Chakravarty 

ii. The Literature of South India K. R. Rau 

SYMBOLISM, ALLEGORY AND COLERIDGE T. Sturge Moore 

NAWAB JAFFAR ALI KHAN ASAR'S MYSTICAL POETRY 

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geschäftlichem Vekricehr, immer jfttRiliBHxx 

füklen eich diese -^enschen in der ihnen geläifi 

ijjj ra-c c 
hebräischen Schrift und der vertrauten Aedrucice- 

gleichsam 
weise zu Hause und geborgen. Dennoch s^x&^Ia 

weist ->riefe 

d4K&&:xxxlBfB slKdxollß tut die erhaltene Keor esp. 

deutücne 
denz aus jner "eit l eiis diexS^juren aer unliebem 

Oft sciion 

Vandlugg auf.xSÄiuin versagen die he Lr.i sehen 

Kenntnise der Brief scnrei ber, zumal wenn es 
ihne 
es Bm jijuixm. ^shtüi^v -^azise lAi toeilun^en aus 

dem persönlichen oaei ries>.hf tsie en geht« Ds.&x 

und 
3.gBl3L2iR>.xAiBxäBjtxBjt^&lxjaiJtrxdBjftxi'a.iMH ri x&KJtiaiajnrn c n e n 

fciramriiatiöcx.c. 
xW&3ttiliiRg&R:'^s^xxit&iiRBii3kKiQxxxaanQund die deutschen 

ßdr&aJiBleicmente werden zu einein üoerwiegenaen 
den lo le^ondenteii 
Bestandteil aer SÄhxJsi.iaUtii&^ "geläufigeren 

Sprache". 

und die ääxä mit deutschen Elele-irintenstaric 



durchsetzte Umganfgss Sprache verar'-A.n^t inseos 

die gt-;i,ciüiJ»ii4^4>«U; blumi^t Ai^'s drucks - 
den brauen ürife n - den.iuit Bei bei uns a,imuu 



weise. 




«e... 



auch im schrif tiichejn XBXxkJar privaten 

oder geschaf tlicherri (^encehr 
geschcif tiicnem uericehr, immer fahlen sich diese -'-ensciieri 

Umgange hebräischen 

in der ihnen gertrau en b^rache und geiauf-.gen Schrift xg&:Bax^Äii 

gßborgeri... und 
gleichsam zu üause.üÄax^Jaax Dennocn weisen dieerhaltenen 

Brieeaus jecer ^eit deutliche Spuren der anhebenden Handlung auf. 

Oft versagen scnon jdie hebräischen Kenntnisse der ■> rie^schrieüe;" 

zumal wenn es ihnen um präz se Mi ttuilunge .. aus dem persönlichen 

oder geschäf tlichenLe Len geht, und die mit deutschen Elementen 



durchsetzte Umgangssprache 
Ja, als ein ^eichen der zunehtmende 

:g.%:^ Schon daE auf das ^ersagen der hebr 

dQ7ch das Versahgen der hebräischen Kenntnisse 
die zunehemn^-de Verdrangu g des ^e Lr...ai sehen 

Z^d-^ Ja, schon die zaseiHem /"Wesentl . uhx 'nüjcauf das ersahen 

( 
der he Lräi sehen Kenntnisse z^^rück zu fahrende 'iVerdru-nf ung des 

hebräis hen "^^ rief es ixixÄiÄ:>.S3t]a^tdim durch das mit deutschen 

Elementen atark durchsetzte Umgangssprache ist ein Sy^n^iom aer 



it. ■•' 



«iitaM*«-»*- 



Nicht nur die groiien Krieg eindern auch die 



•i-decsn rütteln 



and die Tore der ^hottos, aus welchen slia Je etr ""u timinen zu uns 
drinegn 





von unstillbarem Wissensdurst getrieben, ankommt und dich dort in 

einer schmalen Bachstube niederiä;it. Ein neues Zeitalter bricht an. 

Dieses ungeheure Neben und Gegeneinander der Kräfte hat in 

den aus dieser Periode «tammenden Briefen einen getreuen Ausdrucjc 

gefunden. TJoch sind es zumeist hebräische oder jüdisch-deutsche filUä 

von deutschen gewechselt werden, 

m»gMitt«»il«iiK Briefe, die Juden' untereinander XJuUisaUia- 3KPPQu^:sai4JM^^e 

Ein ' in der hebräischen ^^jrache findet» 
6f raebesvirds^egiar&saaehsin brieflichen Verkehr zwischen Juden und sogav 

statt. 
Mchtjuden ZBxn»aMlxlftl:x: Welche Bedeutmng diesem Briefwechsel Tan 

Äichtjüdischer Seite zuerkannt wurde ,beweijfet die von dem lasier 

Theologen Johannes Buxtorf verfaßte, im Jahre 1619 erschienene 

Inetitutjo .epistol argum hebraicarum ( Einführun^^, in die hebräische 

Briefkunst ), ein Weric von dauerndem Wert, das im Jahre 1629, veimenrt 

um eine Auswahl von Briefen berühmter mi ttdalterlicher Rabeiner, in 

einer von Buxtorfs Sohn besorgten neuen Ausgabe erschien, ^egen ünde 

des sidszehnten und zu Beginn deb achtzehnten Jahrhunderts untt^rhalten 

insbes :)ndere zwei namhaft deutsche Gelehrte, Jahann Christoph Wagenseil 

und Christian Theophil Unger, mit jüdxi sehen {"reunden hebräische 

Briefwechsel. Eine deutsche •'•'rau, die geitvolle Anna -^aria Schurmann, 

verleibt diesem Kreiee hebräischer i^rreßpondenten eineii besondemen 



Glanz. Aber innerhalb der fliüdischen Gemeinschaft fiieser ZÜt ist der 

hebräisphe Brief Jiein künstliches Gebilde, sondern ein all^tSfet-itshes 

natürliches Vers'tandigungsmittel, das «ur von dem jüdisch-deutsahen 

't/' Brief an Flüssigkeit un^ Popularität übertreffen wird. Ja, nirgends 
-t^-'' ,• '^^ jüdische Lebensart 

'^ ,-/'/ äuiiert feich die Anhänglickkeit anal die überiiefertcH garaBiQ so stark 

und in sorühronder Wette, wie in dem Festhalten an der traditioneilen 
;-.. - V" Brief stii. x£xtKf»ig mit den 

^ 3exi:&f£azBxSAXBi^]lBs JULkaäUtssjaxiocgil di e Texte überwuxchernden hebräischen 

Formeln 
ÜÄXXÄixxund Bibelzitaten. :)b Männer oder grauen, Erwachsema oder 

Kinder, Gelehrte oder schlichte ^ieute aus dem Voli^e, ol im privaten oder 




> 






von urietiliburem ^Vitteneduret ^jetriebca, aniComiut und dich ci.)rt In 

einer echmcaen fÖüch£t-^be iiiederläiit. Ein neuet Zeitalter üricnt an. 

Dietcg ui*geheure Neuen und Getier*ariiiander dei i^rafte hat in 

aen aub dießer j^eriode ötttmmenden Brier^n einen ti^'treuen AUfaürucjc 

gefunden. Noch sind ee aum-^itt hebrci-itche oder jüdiech-deuttcne JUi^i 

vjn deutfcchen öt^'i'vcchfceit weraen. 

BJLfiilta^liliMSlifiibX -ISriefe» die Juden untere. Ix.ander imjüu&JB^ii^ S3ULüi£J£)2iil.bi&iie 

lilin in der hebraiechen »-.^rache findet» 

gi;ffftebßL^ird£fi4«|^iittö6iaLäB brieflichen Yerkehr zwiechen Juaen una fio^^av 

etatt. 
rieht Juden xßxnw^Äsiiijtx '"eiche Bedeuton^ dieeem Jriefwecheel^yan 

nichtjüdi£cher Seite zuei.:ani.t wurde.bewtiijfefe die von dem BaMcr 

TheolOj^en Johannen Buxtorf verfaßte, im Jahre; 1619 ertchienene 

Int;tl tütj/one^jiE-tolarKum heti^raicarum ( Einf uhrun^^. in die neoraifeche 

Briefkui.tt "* , ein VIei\z von dauerndem V/ert, dat iu Jahre 16ii9, venae.xrt 

jim^ eint AuEvvahl von Briefen berühmter mi ttd^lterl icher Rab..iner, in 

einer von Buxlorft S )hn befolgten neuen AuL^^tie erfechitn. ^e^^en J«nafc 

det siebzehnten unu zu Se^iinn det. achtzehijten Jahihuiidtei tfc untcrhal'tcn 

inebeL naert zv;t;i namhc^ft deut^chw. Gclcrirtu, t^aharni Chritto^jn Wa^^eiituü 

und Chrittian Ti.eo.^hil Un^^ei, mit jUdJti&e/.en {'rcunden h^üraische 

BriefwechLe L. T^ine dfcutfcche ■'^rau, die tj^i^volle Anna -"^i-ria Cchurmann, 

verleibt diesem breite helruiecher itori etjondeiiten einei.. ^etonaeri.en 

Glanz. Aler innerhalt der ^üdiechen ^emcinecr.af t fiiefaer Z44t iet der 

hebräifcche Brief cein kanttlichee Gebilde, sondern ein alltät^lichcfc 

natürliches Vert t:4.ndiijun;j6raittel , aas nur von dem jüditch-d^ .-t£&hexA 

Brief an 7lüefcigiceit ui.d ?0i)ularitat übertrofien wird. Ja, nirt,enafc 

judißche Leoenfart 
äUi^ert vich die Anhäng li chice it ^-nÄ die uLer-Lieferi^» toxaiBÄ to fctarjc 

und in fcorihrai.der "eiie,wie in dem Festhalten an uer traai tionellen . 

Brief eti >. xJ&xi&fKi mit den 
ÄciÄfijazakSÄXJci^aÄX ÄBüsa:2ii.j£&>i>-iw.ini die Texte überwujachernden neoralfcchen 

Formeln 
KiÄÄXjÄJüaxund Bibelzitaten. )b Manner odür l'rauen, ErwachteaB odc-r 

Kinder, Gelehrfe oder echl chte ^eute aus dem Volice, o.. ir.i ^^rivaten oder 






Sprache, noch lebt und wei^t in seigiem Inneren der überlieferte 

Glaube mit der Gewalt einer unabänderlichen ^aturkraf t, noch "Isjb 

8ein Geistesleben ausgefüllt mit Gotteegelehrsö'iiikeit, noch Paf^>J9^ 
verfällt er 

dem^auber mes^iani scher Hof f nungen «hdNaigsdg^iä^^^i^. Aber schon bereitet 
sich von vielfältigen Ursprüngen her eine entscheidende Veränderung 
Tor: das werdende kapitalistische Wirtschaftssystem räumt dem rechte: 
losen j^uden, sofern er nur fähig ist, groi^e Finanzmittel herbei- 
zuschaffen, unbedenklich ein unbeschränktes Wirkungsfeid und Privilegien 
ein, jüdische Paktoren und EinaaÄ&genten XxiiaexÄSÄX^pöÄÄöÄXÄ werden 
seit dem Dreißigjährigen Krieg eine regelmäüige Erscheinung deutsche* 
Residenzen, die Ideen des i^umanismus und der Geist des Barock ne.jnen 
auch jüdische Menschen gefangen, die Beziehungen zwischen Juden und 

Nicht Juden verdichten sich. Eine Lebfinsform wird brüchig, in der 

d^s Wesen eines Volkes 

:}iUlXsi»Xil%x£(HUi durch Jahrhunderte seinen Ausdruck fand. Da&> jadische 

Kittelalter geht zu Ende. 

Groii ■Ind die G©fi«n8ätze und Spannungen dieser üebergangs- 

zeit. Der sonneahafte Geist Spinozas leuchtet - wenn auch im 

Verborgenen - schon über ihr, während der Thora und dem Talmud in den 

Ghettos neu hiBgebune-s volle Kämpfer erstehen. Das gesegnete Dasein drr 

elückej *öncHamel»ixaat findet seinen Niederschlag in der ersten 

jüdischen Autdbiogr^ie einer Frau, Das abenteuerlichen Leben u»d 

Steruen des Josef: Süii Oppenheimer,. selbst ei» Sinnhild des Widerstreits 

der Epoche, vollendet sich. Der entrechteten jüdischen Masse steht fiie 

■bunte Reihe privilegierter Hof- und Schutzjuden gegenüber. Die Juden 

Wiens und Niederösterreichs müssen auf kaiserliches GehefilStadt und 

wird 
Land verlassen, aber fünfundsiebzig Jahre später «XTltuTt der Pia» 

Maria There«ias,den Juden ^rags das gleiche Schicksal zu bereitem» 

zunichte gemacht. 

Es geschieht um dieselbe Zeit, daß ein unschtobarer Knabe, Moses, der 

vierzehnjährige Sohn des Tho raschreibe rs Menachem Mendel aus Dessau, 



- 15 - 






XJUdDKkKiq^^jxLEliutrxiüaxKhxiiusL^ unschuldigen 

Täubchen ein kleines Geschenk zu senden, aber ich sagte zu mir: ich 

eelbet will der Bote sein. Auch lehnte es der 3riefbote ab, etwas mit- 

zunehffi€ini ? Noch war die Ehe mehr ein Band zwischen zwei Pamilien als 

^nd darum) 
zwischen zwei liebenden :'i[enschenjLi^ÄiaÄii>^wa.r die "Wahl der künftigen Gatten 

ein Privileg der beiderseitigen Eltern. MiiiixjlxJBLxgLRl&kxxRai{^«i Xxämb 

BiÄttigaBQX MOch Mldete die Gelehrsamkeit des Bräutigams das wichtigste 

Kriterien itiüiiäx für die Beurteilung seiner XÄXxiöiiÄkxBiJkx Person. 

Bin von keinem geringeren ais dem großen Rabbi Lipmann Heluer eigenhändig 

geiBchri ebener -^rief an die mit ihm versch-^agerte Witwe des Salomon Mcilkes 

gewährt klaren lüinblick in die über die Köpfe des Jun^^en Leute hinweg 

geführten Verhandlungen. Ein dichtes, nach ehrwürdigen Regeln geknüpftes 

Netz inniiger Beziehungen und ererbter Werte verbindet diese i^eBschen« 

Sie sind stark in iiirem Gottvertrauen, einig in der grenzenlosen 

di, e 
Einschätzung der Hingabe an Vt'hora und Xa±ia»Bl:5J. erfüllt vom Gefühl leben- 

Jn dieser Hjnsicht sind insbesonaere 
diger Gemeinschaf t. ; Zwei halbamtliche Briefedes Seicretärs der Prager 

Gemeinde an Leb Gutmans und den Härener Rabbiner Abraham Pleech in Sachen 

der Auslösung eines in oesterreichi sehe Gefangenschaft geratenen, aus 

5l[xtgiiRjäx:js.Jüix:xÄxagBz:>JSsDai:i.n]iÄ Böhmen stammenden Juden :8iu«iJl vielsagende 

Ze.^gniste opf erv/illiger Solidarität. 

Denrioch enthalten die Briefe auch Si^mjj^t.Qm^ eineceich «üe^gitÄ 

der ?rau 
voroereitenden ^andi-ung. Die aridDüdAdriiö des Dr. Lucerna iixÄXA^iiSL^3t.Kiner 

e;Ln 
:aE30W\von den Wiener Verwandten veEagtex Gastf reendschaf t mag Vindi viduelley 
Vorfall gewesen sein, obwohl ihrsia ei^entiichen Grund 

^Mhä^^-gfeliaiüUiliaawai:^ xilBiJixdÄJbez- auch in einer durch Lockerung der 

gesucht werden könnte, 
Famillinbande hetofeeigef ührten -Untaemdung josgxiifäaÄSU^ÄtefeixkÄJQÄnx Allein 

die dem Chanoch Mamersahlg^ durch seinöißohn berätete ICnttaubchung kann 

Btaiii kaum anders als ein Zeichen der Zeit gewertet werden: das moderne 

j^ungen 

Uirt£chaft8-und Groöstadtleben begann scnon difi ^jüdischen Manne r^ ... von 
der traditioneilen Beschäftigung mit der Lehre abzulenskn. Und deutlich 



Einl^ffitung 

in die üßLiiiJBiÄetroiicreichetü Siedlungen 

der Diaspora^xBxtSJBXJ^xS. und gibt das Zechen 

zu Verfolgungen vone einer Graui^rakei t,«*<ie £ie - ' 

Selbst die an Crraue uberiei hen ""edchi^h^e 

bie dhin nicht, geican t; hatte. 

Seite 16. Dieses Gemetz eö gliciie inem Beben 

• .. bis: Stroms." Eine Flut jüditche 

F.luchtline eri^oa t;ich,... " bis nach'7ien." 

S,16-17 Kaum ein ^^ah rzthnt^ bis: "die zu 
einer röhrenden Rolle innerhaln der ^^dtametn 
Juden heit bestimiit war," 

£. 17 Y/ojhL setzte . .nach dem ITordc, 
Ui.d alt an" einem Her.iSttate de Jahres 1745 ein 

unscheinbar Kanbet ....biss "Entscheidungen 
fallen. " 

S. 18. "Noch war es'* bis '•zu vereiteln,'* 

So steht diese ^"eriode von Anbeginn eis zum 
?]nde im Zeichen stürwscher C-escliheniSLe und 
aäuierster Spannungen. Sie haben in der Judischn 
•^rief li tera tur eiscn..-t rnden i^usdrucic ^v^funden 
S, 19. "Koch sind es** uis "Urkunen stammen," 



'^' •^.'^/ .< 



Groii sind die iBe^esätze inl Spannungen 

dieeer Uebergansze f t, ^^/zhxnnjsL. Der eonnehafte 

Geist Spinozas ieuchet<=i Joeiuinii&iiisJo^U&xjULxJsüar^e: 

SKnx- schon üuer ihr, wahre nddsuix^lu&jtJtsx 

nsKxXBJif^&x aer Thia andu ndes Talmud neue 

hingebungsTolIe Kämpfer erste. len, Dcbb »gfa^yiigii 

einer Jüdischen Mutter 
Das sjüalliüitn, gesegnet Daseine der Gliicai^tah 
der ersten jüdischen Äatae nbiogra 
vn Hameln findet in ni.nB«yMiistEyti>ikgXnjuxBuch 
weienr Frau ihrea seinen ITiederschlg. 
fcseine ITiederschalg.Das abernte i liehen i^eben und 

Slnx^e&eben und Sterben des Jose^Süi^ Oppleneimer 

vollendet sich. I>er entrechteten jüdischen Masse 

Ļi steht die bunte Reihe priijvileguerter -tiof^ 

und Schutzjuden h gegenübe r.xSl&A^esamte 

WinnexxiEiuLjdu&xxxXl&Bxsxx Die Juden Wiens 

ujd niederöstrreichs müssen auf kaiserliches 

Geheiß Stabd und Land verlassen. Aber fünfunzs 
schietert 
siebzig Jahre süatex der güdn Plan Maraia Trresis 

den Juden Pargs dat ^^ .eiche schic^csal zu vreietn 

Es ge:::chieht um dieselü Zeit, da4 ein unsch invear 

Ein »eue Zeitalter brivht an. 



rolog 
Das Ende des Jüdischen Mitteialtrer 
Einleitung 

1^5-14 

Von '*Die Geahichte der auf aeutschem Gebiet 

3aiK3^ siedelnden *^uden" 

Bis : *'• . • Jis^X&K>^^My-ki&imjim^xASiXyji&}it£2.k^ii 
JüjäÄKkjRiJtxJaÄfiaJaijasÄÄnxÄüi^JBßinJU^v t rag e r 

einer die gesamte J^denti erschüternden und 
Verwandlenden Umwälzung se-^fit, - 

Die Spuren denr kamDULFLäßRAS^v heran- 
nahenden Wandlung last^en eich bis in das 
eieL'zehnte Jahrhundert verfolge, 

15 '*Noch iet der jüdische Mensch 

... .Ausdruck gefum-en hatte. "^Das Snd-* 
des jüdischen ^itte Liters bxxÄiut dumme rt 
x>^xBi5iBi$äl>^H>.iäxMRkjeiiQliaxA herauf». 

^£j&^äFeigQg4^bsägeB^Kriges£oi.gt 
das deutsc e RischDuninpf und unheimiicn ist der Auf tu 

ctreiiigjciliri^e 
der neun Epoche. XxxKaaxiijUdj&r Das gXia.:jiÄ.:>. 
xS&jiXÄJB.iQiji2ii>OvX>.s t.Wirbei veher enden 
^iLR7LxliB&XB.xR^Rxi.ia iiis 86 ineB&x&lSi: Ziehende 

für SKüi&ßhiünd ve r^ängn ) s v tie -— 

jäiEiJi-ig^aLiixiSÄ Rin^ien zieht i^i&zk die ^ üd scen 

Siedlunge in sci.Vver --ii tieiderischaf t . Aber das 

Jahrl.648, das dem Eiaiia d&üJ» Deutschiax.d eriösun^ 

csron d >n ScnreckniSLes des furchtbare., ^vrigee 
ieiterfür das jüdische Volle 
bringt, wjtxtl xr rx txx&ah t erst rech eine 

dütter Lt-idenszeit ein. V/ie ein 7ürgenegel 

fahrt Bgfian Chmieiraicici , der He tman der 

/ 

Saporiger Kos icen wahrena seines ^'jSrMzt^ges gene 



den Po 



In. 



"•s 



'/ 



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( i ••■'■ .• .. 









'■•^ •■> '<^«--- < 



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VORSPIEL 



s> 




DAS ENDE DBS JÜDISCHEM MITTELALTERS 

Einleitung 

JDB S. 15-19 
Von: "Die hundert Jahre deutsch- 
jüdischer Geschichte'*, S,15, 
bis: '*.,.. aus der diese Urkunden 
stajnmen. ^ (S,19,Z. 10) 

I. STIMIGN AUS DEM PRÄGER GHETTO 

Zu Beginn des siebzehnten Jahrhundrrtß bildete das -t^rager 

Judex.viertel, eine der ältesten jüdischen Siedlungen Europas, 








einen Brennpunkt der Diaspora, Geschmücict mit den berühmten Bethäüeern 

- der Altneuschule und der Klaussynagoge -^war das Prager Ghetto um die 
Jahrhundertwende der Sitz des gefeierten Rabbi Jehuda Low ben Bezalel 
-des **Hohen Rabbi Low'* - , dessen Name bis zu den fernsten Winkeln der 
jüdischehWei t drang und bald zur Legende werben sollte. Auch nach seinem 
Tode ( 1609 ) blieb Prag ein Zenrum der jüdischen Lehre: Rabbi Jomtob 
Lipman Heller, einer der gröiiten jüdischen Gelehrten seiner Zeit, und 
der mystisch . veranlagte Rabbi Isaiah Hurwitz eammeiten um^ sich eine 
zahlreiche Schar hingebungsvoller Jünger. Zugleich unterhielten die 
Juden Prags intensive -Beziehungen zu den Talni^ßnöchschulc-n - den Jeschiwot 

- in Polen. Viele jüdische Hausväter betrachteten niemanden als voll- 
endeten Kenner des Schrifttums, der nicht einige Jahre an diesen 
Bildungsstätten zugebracht hatte. 

iiiin Verkehr ganz anderer Art bestand zwischen der Prager und der 
IJiener Judenschaft. Ss waien vor allem wirtschaftliche und verwandtscnaf t- 
liche Bande, welche die beiden Gemeinden eng, ja intim: verknüpf ten und 
UliA zu einem ständigen Austausch von Menschen, Waren und - Briefen 
führten. Selbst der Ausbruch der Feindseligkeiten zwischen Oesterreich 
und dem Königreich Böhmen, mit denen der Dreißigjährige Krieg Eeinen 
Anfang nahm, brachte diesen Verkehr nicht zum Stillstand. Lob Sarel 



- 1-9 - 






daü man von einem Ort zum Smderen zienen kann: man danict Gott, daii 
man eri einer Steile ILeiben kann. Giauu mir darum, daii ich mich mein 
Lelen lang nicht so ei aeam und so voll Kummer gefühlt hahe, wie in 
diesen Tagen. Ich meine. Du kannst es nach Dir selbst beurteilen. 
Gott, gelobt sei er, möge uns JoddLs helfen, bald wieder in Freuden 
beisammen zu sein,... 

Nun empfange hundert tansend (sie! ) gute und gesegnete Jahre 
und einen guten Sabbath von J^einem lieben Weib, die allezeit Deiner 
zum Guten gedenkt undDeinetwegen sehr besorge ifct, 

Sarel, tochter des Moses, 
seligen Abgedenkens. . . . 

Dieae und die übrigen, den größten -^'eil des Fundes bildenden 

Privatbriefe vermitteLn ein nahezu lückenloses Bild des damaligen 

Die-, 
jüdischen Fami lienlebens.y Väter und Söhne, Mütter und Töchter, Männer, 

und 
Frauen j;:^|iy^gK3ü5i&t J^lBlngxiClJugüBxg Geschwister, Verwazidtenund Verschwa- 

ni4 erreichten 
gertender XzLxB££attJftlU3IC4UiKX Adressaten ziehen allxjUi]ix|»&&0j;ixsUuui&x 

geisterhaf tK» und zugleich von lebendigster Wiri^lichkeit xoxjoäx 

durchpulststÄxtaxixxaxiDjuujo.iiaxÄK anÄ dem Leser vorüber. Wie «ind .. 

xja Zeugen der Geburt eines Kindes, das dem in Wien weilenden Moses, 

Sohn des Pessach, von seiner Ehe-^rau i^chendel im Prager Ghetto geboren 

Samuel, Sohn des Gaöriel, 
wurde, und nehmen mit dem glücklichen gesprächigen G r o ;i va t ef^Y ü-lT de r 
in Gegenwart dee berühmten 
XÄn/:3d3e»q^iDo«öexi Rabbi Jesaja Hurwitz in der Mcisl Sj'nagogue vollzogenen 

Beschneidung, soWie an dem von zwanzig Personen besuchten Festm hl 

!v!eir Epstein, 
teil; in vdem Schwlggcrsohn des Barel Loeb Iffutman:^, lernen wir äinen 
hingebungsvollen Lehcar» der Thora 
S0j(^i^BnHa;S4^ei^>^^^2m^l%^$r ic£2uo. und in äanele, der Tochter dei= Abraiiam 

ha-Levi Heller, ein zärtliches Wesen kennen, das neidlos an dem 

Eheglück der nach ^ien venieirateten Schwester teilnimmt, iiiinen 

,-v- dem 
seltsamen Senui bereitet es, in hebräiscnen Brief dee Chanoch, Sohn 

des Isakk, an seine künftigen i:»chv^ iege reit er j^ Jakob und Bliael Teitsch 

alö einzige in dem gesamten Hort vm Briden entdeckoare Spurate einer 

Liebeskorrespondenz die künsttoll aus BiDelstellen geformte Ansprache 

seiner Braut - 'Mein Taubchen, meine Unschuld, die mir zufiel in Süie, 

wertvoller ^als Perlen, die Ju^^gfrau Bela, solll-leben" - und eine 

winzige Hachschrift vorzufinden: "Ich hatte die >^bsicht^ meinem 



- 14 - 




aa« 


mf.m 


I. e i. 


die 


aot 


bei 


unä 


-d^uia 



man von einem ^rt zam Ludercii zi<i..tn la^^nn: ruan (Xuiu^ Gott, da^ 
aii einer :." teile Lieiüen karuin CJ-au... mir darura, dct^ ich aiiuh ;ncin 
cn lan^^ nicht eo c ..eani Uiid to voll. Kuamier gefiüiit uube, wie in 
een ?aji;e.ri. Ich möine. Du icanast fit liacii ::ir fceils^t oöux'tej Lein. 
t,j^clobt sei er, xnäi^t unt UsjüLä iieii'en, bald wieder ii. .Fr^^üueri 
uam.^^.cn zu &<iin, . . , 

^on empf.iiige huiidert tattfcend (fciici ^ ti^te und gete^nct Jahres 
eiiiun iiuten i:'ci.''obauh van -^eiutic iiei^en V.'ei ij, die auiozüic Deiner 
Guten gedenkt unu-i-^cinetwe^jen tehi üctDi^i itt, 

Sar^l. XoGiiter de;, i^-ossefc, 
fceiiiO,en AtigederUcen;; . » . « 

Die© Ui.a die uuri^^n, der] ^J^öiten -»-'eil deb i'^ndc^ bi l.dend«ii32. 

Privatbrit'iJe vciinitteln ein n:xhezu LüCÄüniosc l Bild de;; dc-jauii^en 

S.: i c;. 

jüdi..chtn Familienlebens;. Vi^ter und Söhne, Jiütter und l'öuiiGex, Mc».niier, 

u nü 

PraünnK,^L|k3|:vx5dÜQj^.tiiclxi>iJLjwC^ ueEchv^it t^r, Vcr\¥c..j;i^iLei. .md Yertciiv^ci- 

nii f-;i) c'i chten 

t^'ifateihaf txji und z^;^leicii von lebendijj;?. ter V'irx: Lichkci t Jisa.'^s^X 



ciüichou Lc t5cÄ3dk^;'?Jsi:Aj|[ÄJLÄ;atixji>.iioxK ö..ji dem Leter vori.ibcr, :Vic &4 



Xii -'ejciLij ^QT Geburt einee '■Cinden, dac de l in Wien weilenden }^o&ck, 




toY^V: deji Peetach, von i^einer "Sirit Trau >. c;iendeL iii .:^z'i-ei d-.i^tto ^cboren 

£ainuv.-i. Sohl aefc Gacariel, 
\A.uide, una nehmen mit dem <iluciciich-in jej-:..jrcichi^ea ai0.iva terrae c^.n der 
in Gcj:eXi\v:-~rt 
a^n. aeü ^^rOiien Rabbi Jes-;.-^ J'j. Hur/n tu in ^^r :!.;i£i Svnc^^o^jc Y)ii;:Otieiien 

Befcühneiaun^, fo^ie aix den von insiJ;iL*/-iiiA ">c^i'tonen bet-uehtc'i i?'e i; t:ii/Jii 

"eir :!ip&lein, 
teil; in dam Scn^^äKg^ff rtohn ues. Bö.rel "*.?vl üFutmc^a^, i»-rnc:. wir üftnen 
liingeuun-fcvo 1. Un Leheet? aer '^hora 
^avwi^-^ÄiüiiUi4i&^*>'*U4a4ri^'^-:&r xüjjuc Uüd in ^«inele, der Taohlcx* a^t /üri-iiiun 

lia-Levi rlelicx, ein zkrtLichet Teten keni.en, dae neidLo.^ ■ i. 6.xm 

Ehfc^XuCiv der ntich ''"ien ver^ci ^c^te ten [. chA-tcter ^ ^.i Lriimiut. .'^iiit:!: 

de:?: 
Ltlts:^-:!!«-!. &enu-i bereitet ^e, in h^ ijrciiücr:v.n orieT dec nUc^noch, Sahn 

det itakic, un ceirit künf tii^en Lch..iegeralterj Jckob una .iLie-ei Teitcch 

alte eiiiiii/ie in aein i^et^-mten Hort v )n 3ri|en entdcjckoare Z^^ui'Qii einer 




Lic-betkoii efcjondenz die icunLttol.l au.=. "j ue li- te l. len t^eXon^.te Ansprache 
tofeiner .""rciub - "'^eii. "^äubchtn, mein:. L;..:c:.uld, aie mii ;iufiel in Gü.ic, 
Mvertvollei ial£ I'erUn, c.iv, Ju'4^frau Bela, tiolLLleben'* - ana eine 



winzii^^e "''acufcicnrif t vorzufinden: "Ich hatte die üsicht. meinem 




•• 1,4 * 

da^i iiiariiftofi^^iäJil ' zum anütiieii drt ziehen xcuiui, man danki Gotiu^daii man 
an einer Stelle bleiben icann. Glaub, mir ctururn, afc.4 ic^irlSich zntsin Leben 
Iciug nicht fco el-i^jum und £o voi.1 iCumnu&r t:;efühi^t" habe, wie in dieeen 



iagen. ich rjeinc, L'ü ii^ri^^Lt et nctch lUi' 'ßt'lK.L t leux teilen. Goto, iv;eiobt 
ßei er, möge unü x2S,iäK7. heip^m^^s-ld vUedt-- in 5'rv. men bcisaiiiiiien zu 



„•--^ 



IT Uli eiai>x£ui^-e iiur.derl ta-utcnvi ( f-.ict\j .ute and t.e--.'i;net Jahr« 
und einen guten ßabiath v^n Delri^ni Lieben Teib, aie alloiieiu 





- 15 - 






Täubchen ein klelnee Oeechenic zu eenden, aber ich ßa^te zu mir: ich 

8i4bßt will der Bote sein, Ai>ch iehnte ee der iriefbote ab,-etwae mit« 

zunehÄÄnt?? Noch war die }5he mehr ein Band zwiechen zwei Familien als 

uiul darum 
zwiechen ü.vei lietenden '!engchen|^i:i»aÄX>^WÄr die Wahl der icünftigen Gatten 

ein Privileg der oeiderbeitigen Ultern. 3ajifiL>jsU.J8LxgjdJLfiLiiX3B ««tt k i JLxjaUii£ 

BJikiJtlgäu&jB ^Toch Mtddti,' die Ge lehr samkeit de^ Bräutigame dais wlchtiget^ 

Kriterion x'iftirÄÄicefür die Beurteilung eeiner XjKXsäi^&hiueJtiu- Gereon, 

Bin von keinem ^erinc^eren ale dem grOiien Rabbi Lipmanxi Heller eij^önhü-ndig 

geischrieltiier ^rief an die mit ihm ve rech -agierte Witwe defc üalomon Maikee 

gewährt klaren ^^linulick in die über die i\öpi'e der Junten Leute hinweg 

gefülirten Verhandlungen* Ein dichteß, nach ehrwürdigen Regeia geknüjßf^es 

Netz inniiger Beziehungen und ererbter V/erte verbindet dieee i>ießfcchen, 

Sie Eiiid £tark in ihrem Gotiver trauen, einig in der ^irenzeiAtoeen 

die 
Sinechätaung aer Hingate an Thora und Xsüjjmn^ eriullt vom Gelühi ieben- 

"n dieeer H;iifciciit sind inLLt'i. oiidere 
diger Gemeinechaf t. 2wei halbamtliche Jir: efedefc Ce-tcretäre der Prager 

Gemeinde and Leb Gu tman& und den H&ener Kabbjtner Aoraiiam i'leöcu in dachen 

der AuelÖeung eines in oe^terreichi tche Gei'angenfcchaf t geratenen, aue 

Miutg±:K:B£lK:>vSlJSxx3lx&gBXxG£mi>i,nxsLK 3öhmen ibtamraenden Judex; ^^ai& vieltagende 

Ze-gniete opfei-wiliiger ijolldarität. 

Dennoch enthalten dit^ Briefe auch S^^räbi^tL^äi^^n GinQSUii^h k^ügkLsk 

der Frau 
vorbereitenden Tanduung« Die Hii(ttidd4tdiig dee Dr, Lucerna isauiLXjjäi^ja^ji^^MAij: 

' • ■ ' ■ , '"""■'■ ein 

£|ai»l9en den Wiener Verwandten vesagtex Gas tfreondschaft mag individuelle/ 
Vorfall gewesen eein, obwohl ihrKn eigentlichen Grund . . t r- 

S^^tide^^^ha^idiuQia^»)!!!^ allB jb R ^ da i H aa r auch in einer durch ijockerung der 

Seeucht werden könnte. 
Pami liinbande hebteeigeführten ^ntfltemdung jos^xäiöBSJfe^i^ÄJÄJüaixÄa^ Allein 

die dem Chanoch Mamefbi^^H du rch eein^aSohn beri^tete linttatrfcchung.£Üäi&rr - 

KfiüiJt kaum ander J5" ale ein f|^|W|lili'ii|K^^ werden:*- dag moderne 

jungen 
0irtßchaft«-uiidGroÄetadtleben* begann iichon Uta judischen li«e w ft # #»i vjn 

der traditionellen Beschäftigung mit der Lehre ^^üzulenisan. Und deutlich 



- 14 - 




dai man wonc^tBem zum anderen ort ziehen kann, man dankt Oott.daii man 

an einer Stelle bleiben kann. Glaube mir darum, dai ich mich mein Leben 

lang nicht so einsam und so voll Kummer gefühlt' habe, wie in diesen 

lagen, ich meine, Du kannst es nach Dir selbst beurteilen. Gott, gelobt 

sei er, möge uns JcaJüiJix hellen bald wieder in iFreuuen belisammen zu 

sein. . . . 

nun empfange hundert tausend ( sie! ) gute und gesegnet Jahre 

und einen guten Sabbath von Deinem lieben Weib, die allezeit 





- a - 






^eit der HaiiCllung itt ääx Preitagjai|||fteiütr iiii. rovember 1619 
( 15. ilitlev 5ü30 ), dt. Dil ü«fc Iniitrc dc^i Jlaufcfcr ici Pn^^er Ghetto, wo 
Mamier, Praueri uaa Kinaer fiti^erhuft rni t der ^TieäeriL-irift v >l .Brltä'Bn 
Uli ihi'ü in ""ien Vvjiu:hurtch Vfcrv/ar.dtüii UiiU Prcunde befccii:<.i'ti(^ t fcina, 
Sic haoci* aLi.üii wiruiid, lxCu zu ütüi Lcjü. Denn der Bote det Lob ZixrGi J§f;' 
Giitrai'.ne, deL aii^v^Ltiieiicu ''rc.^cr Kauinuiiiit , der trotz der •^iie,..ßvdri'e2i 
eintn privaten '.^o£ tvt:rkei:ir '^wii-ch^x, 7tu^ unu T-'jen ein^ericci; t hhz, iet 
eLci; i:^; :::<ui^rifrt nLch '''ien iiur^ci;iiyii^"^|?^iit;urid aruiigt auf Ueoert^aoe der 
2rief c-./.ber n:^cl. nehr t.ifc üjrcii ihn vvLrxic;ii die- .:>ricfLchrii jer durch 
den ücvort. tfcher.dur. /-.nurucii dci; Suubaovoruuei.äfc ;i'j hochttcr l'-ile an-^.-e- 
fci>ortt. !Tie:':ai. unter ihntn ivöxii.ue ül vor Cott Vcrc.ntv/orter. , die Subbat- 
ruhe durch Cchreiüen entv/eiüt zu ha,^en. lii der Tat vvirü die ^ctbznt^ 
Post für v'len deui 3oten v.)r Conhcnu*. tcr^;ü.i.^3 eineehdr-di^t, .iltin 
Iceiüer der --^rie^'etoll te ii. diu i\.r iiia üeLiii-^: t.nHii.dc -clLin en. 

'''ax' y.uf aer "'anrt iii^cr: ''.'ier* de: ?..i.r:a^*nr zui2tle*>, cauu nicht 
mit i. i c 'i e r h e i t -^ e g.a ^: t w e r de r. . !i; t- oe l t eh t j t: u o c h u^Mvilv . . e i n 1 i c h , d a ^ er 
.11 jenen 'lUgen, die dem verhängnisvollen 7/jiajn:T,eiit to .s awitchen T::.lfcer 
Ferdinaiid und dem '^falzjrciren Fradrich, .Ccini^ v.m 3öh:neri, v-jr^^ngin^en, 
von ö£ tcneiciucheri H'-Ucherr; uaja^ijiun^en wurde und dao die von ihm 
beförderten triefe ir; die lande der ütt^-rreichschi £ :he:- ^ehäruen fielen, 
die fcie b.1^ verdächtige ^orrt,^onde:iZ becchlc^^nahjnten JedCiiTails geriet 
das ?c.Ezikel schiie jiich in dat 'Viei.er -lof-und Sta:. tE-Ar(sr]iilrir, .vo es 
durch fui-t dreihundert Juhre unberunrt lie^^cn biioo und erst an^j^an^t dee 
neunzelmten Jt^-hrhunderts entdeckt v;urde. 

'}v:n I'c r^ULi^e ücrii a*^;. 7u;.uei:: , Aifre.' Äj--.diiu ui^-i ;ernh^ra 
^rachfctein, die eine in-s'ccrhafte /».L-^uce der triefe in J^:^hrv^' 1911 
veröffentlichten, itt es »gelungen, ni /i:it nur alte Brief texte zu 
entz;iffern, sondern auch eämtliche ^rieiEchre^ber zu identifizieren. 
Auf dieee V/eiee iet e£ urifc ermöglicht worden, un H^na der Briefe 



Ghetto 5) 

Maor Katan ( das kleiner Licht ) entgegenschwebt. Sein© Praxis war 

nicht auf ds Ghetto bescnriäKt, exn gutgs Zeichen seiner ^eleibtiheit 
bei der nictjüdischea ^eTöiicerung £^rags. Au^»«MA^«««i»ft5Hxs^lliaf:ptmi 

tlWNIIliitlAEliJIÄ^ttÄ^«-^«*-»-«'«' beöabs uuclirw^bbinische GelehrsamKeit. 

Der ^rieg hactre xihuen toü sexuea W«Ävt Reöel^..ÄxxA2'«BAxxÄXja*»AÄjax 
getrennt, ihxocji»lijbEJa«xxW«ii»«J«xwiirx>-xx Bei xhren Amgehöpigen in Wien 

weilend, wünschgte sie nichts sehnlicher, als ihrea Mann nachPrag zu folgern. 

für den Gatten 
Es war Jceine leichte Aufgabe, ihr aueeinanderzuseltzen, dass otusxKiaxsr 

#Äxg»g»A«Ä««xJ[«xi»äiX«i}B»»ÄXMB«»|3kx«ÄWÄXx sie geduldig einen günstigeren 

ZeitpuDict auwarteu müsee. 

Dl. AxOfi Lü cerua au s ei e Fi au_ Res el 

"Ic h wexüe Di Cii u uQ_oiie Ki ucte. 'tiicht vor xc os ufi öoi lange xxin «ei n^ 

ofx'en saAtt we r d^ü" 






6. 



i'rau Sarai Gutaans schüttet ihr Herz aus 



Sarel, die i'rau des Loeb Sarel Guctmansgi der den Postrekehr 

zwischenPrag und Wienorganiseriu hatte, hinterliess in den zwei ad 
ihren aowesendeii ^^flatten gerichteten ^rieien eici cmBy^ gereues 

BlJc:dni5 Ihres liebenswürdigen Wesens. Mit bezaubernder Kaiitt^at 
mischt sie zart Gefühle und bitterVorwürfey mit K+agen wegen 
der gjBOCJKSWNXiBxxligBHXscnwere^ sie beurangenden^rhge, I)och Tergisst 
sie aaroo jocb uüorit, das grosse ^nshals uer letzten Tahge, die 
Krönung des Köui^sp^c^reis zu erwähnen« Ja, sie ist die einzige unter 
aen Brief schrieb er^i uxe a^roa Kunde gab, Die geKeiixen Brief seh Äibe 
aus der Umgebing des Rabbi Lipüiaii teocec bi:äa^i$Fen offenbar iC /"^ , 
weltlichen Erlegnlsen uieser Art nicht \riel jtamnBXw übrig. 

Sarel Gurmans an d ihren Gatten Loeb Sarai O utaians 

a) Bs gibt ni e ts was mir so teuer i st wleDeinl ange s Leb e n z u 
hundert <^ahren , die s ist men Ge bet am Morgen und am Aben d " 

b ) Ich xuhi )jMi^fiaica , oteeu gesag t, wie neugeöoren, si beglückt bin 

dujTcn cLk,e Nctcaiüiht Ton Dienrr teuren Gesundheit 



^r 



vöemitteln 
Diese und 
den gröjten Tiel Privalt 

Die übrigen Faalüjtxjutrief e dee ?undes 
bidenderi schafinn des dmaiigen 

ÄJBXjraisxtänifllgBn fate lückenlos das biid Jüdieciieii 

tf&ii^LUiuslxExau 
?inlieinlebens; : auaxjüuiAuß sprachen zwteebeBsVater und 

SöhneR , Müttern undTochtern, Mannern uöäsPrauen 
und Kindert , 

gBÄRikJoxxiÄii ^eschiwster, Jt£XJ£2Jo. Verschäwgeret un( 

dieddae Präger Ghetto Levölci ia tte 
^erwandte gicgiichen Grades ziehen an dem Lefcern 

zugleiLch 
dieser nlJ&jcja^Ä^s>;.H:^]USl£xi.iax£x:)^jä.£JS£6&die geuesterhaf r( 

und flts]UUU(X ¥on lebendiger Winclichkeut durchpiöidtten 

Post vorbei, Wir sind ^eugen der "^eburt iJBa:x^Ä&chi; 

eines Kindes »das dem in Wiene weilenden Moses 
in Prag 
son de Pest ach von JtBiJiÄiiix'Äi^^ eten SheLfrau Lchendel 

borene worude und n hemne mit dem glüc^clichen 

gesprächigceii Samuel sWohx. des ^abri 

roivater und brief schriebenan der ^JBuckÄÄiJwUings 
n dem nertihraten Rabi Jeaa^a y^urwitz 
BXBmiitxXJüiÄMX^K^B^sl vori-iezogenneii ^esxhcnd düng 

tcit der das von 20 personenjÄ besuchte Pest a^i 

in dem 
im Hause Samuels folgt ; d^rSchweir^.ers hn der 

der guten Sarel Gutnams, Meir Sjjstein, lernen wir 

engewißK-ehhaf en Hau Isehere iCÄ»nen, una in -^^anel, 

der Tochter desAbrsihaniha- ,ev ^ elier eine xa-. 
wescn 
zärtlcheSebwesifeer Icennexi, die niedlos an dem 

Ehegiidk iher Sdüiääxx nach wWien an and den "irnemeh 

und gekerten Smon ¥of Auerbach bc][ieritart^"i8t. . 



Text ?ra^ 2) 

iy Auer auch Eiiax xbLexx eine so berühmeter j 

Eine "enuü eeisamer |Lrt bereitet es gax .sIää 

im hebräiSL^hen 

Prief ÄÄÄ^xiÄl eflie BiRxigRxlJixjiÄix des V anoch, 

Sc iiwi ege re i te rn 
So li des Isak.jn seien i-üüfticien Schwiegerfater J^ 

und Blimerpr sein Brau -c^eia beetimmtes 

Teitscii ein winzigex jcaatBkriptum zu BMLsaicen, 

Nachschrift -seen 

d^e als einizige in dem gesmatten Hort vou 

en 
Biiefen entdeckabare Sp:r einer -^lebesic xx^^^ajulen 

vorfindbare Spur ...entd ecict »«.erden icana : 

uj echuidigen 
'Ich hatte d e ALSicht, neiner x&xjuo^ T ue 
ein Kleines ^eachenk zutendenm aber ich sa^^te zu mj 
jch sei st wilifcder Botes sein, Auch lehnet es der 

derB^.drfbort ab eurs ra izunehemn. . . 
IToch teetreatee KaHsiioxjl mehrfi iSBsdteggaautJLjp&x aut&i 

wtir die Kheh meh ein Band zwischen FamiÜens 
als zwsuchen acjwedxjsöiOÄ^aBÄn sehen, zwei 

IOC rjlxxjIkx stand zwei Libenden, nocn stand im 

zärtlich-boli sehe 
lBxi.JBJi.jati^e exiubc die di^n sprach seiner Braut 

•*XÄxjieAin mein T .uhchen, meine Unschuld, die mir 
zufiel in Süsse, wertvoller als -Kerlen, die Jung- 
frau Bei. soll lebe*' und ein» winzige XasisNachS 
Schrift vorzufinden. 

VxiäÄXgÄHJBU noch war für die Wahl des SiHAaiaÄnes 

..«diidaüidiem 
Brüut garasdessen destenGelhrsamiceit XÄÄXij£Ä±aj£ d , 

xLl£K.&u2iix2i.l&xuiiddas wichtgst Ktierion dfiir die 

Whla durch die allein maigeLdnend Eltern der " raut. 

dem groiien 
Ein von keinem gerigenren als Rabbi Lipman ^"'erllei 
eigenhändig 
XKxtot gescriebenÄer verschäwagrte Edel witwe aes sali 

opmon MaUes ge.adr«« 



Text Prag 6) 
vollen 
gewährt jcaüjen Einblick in die über die ^pfe der 
künfrigen Braut- 
juKgÄM Leute hinewe^, geführten Verha.-dlungen 
nach ehrwürdieg Regeln geicnüftee in ererbter Werte 
Ein tlichtes Metz inniger Beziehungen verbindet 

diese ^enschen und wenn auch, wie der Aufschrei 

zeigt, Enttäuschende ErfaJirungen 
Dr. -^ucernae zBl|;l:)^xx:£A:t:t2ifiLseliuxis&^v 

bleiben 
dem Einzeri ••..beriet werden, :t«li£ia: sKg&&li:H:t£ 

¥ 

Sie eins stark in ihrem ^ottver trauen, Äx£k±jbt 
grenzenlose Ein 
einig in der Svhätzung dee £]:i»YaBtlij>ixiitx^Hingab^3aj^ 

gegeseitigeii 
anThora und Talmud , tifüllt von Wohlwollen 
echter 
und KÄxaiBi: Fürseoge. Zwe halbamtlche Brif des 

kretär der Brager ^emeimde and Gutmans und 

braham Elesch, de Ifiener Rabbiner, im lÄiBXÄÄi.e 

welche die Auslösung eines in ^etse r ichsche Gefangi 

sind scfi^e, unwide^plgüche 
s afr geratene n M^cJtgeled der Gemeinde jdkju&ji^&a 
Zeugnisse -v^-^s^ ^,^.^.^ 

die opferwillige Solidarit Ät. ^ 

D nnoch gÄfctx^st daJSxSiidtitxx^Än 




'^■^«^ 




u 











lC<:-7f-^-^ 




Ä?^— 




<i^C^ ^ ^/ 



/iA^/>tiy^ 



ist der Sinflii der Umwelt im ges tei^^erten 

Korresojndeiiz- 
Lusxus bedxJrbi£ der Kxs.iiB>iAiiK^>J[äjäwei blichen 

?artnerx :öbx 
iCaiiXEJi^iajäfijajLfim erlcnecnbar, l\^icht nur jüä 

BilXÄXum Schleier waren ein oB^iiiLjt&jEivObJeivt 

]äfi.xx ihrer im:r!ier wiederiC ehrenden Tünüchc. 

für 'Vien bestimmten 
D e genauen Maie eines e Lganten Prauenplzes 

der 
im Briefe Ä!fl.iid Schweste Ghanjch Haraer^chj.a^fc 

an ein F uendin und Verwandle könneauch als 

Ma^istab der innerhalü de judischen V/ett sich 

s teuf^erndt^n Verweli .icht n^-^ dienen, -üine nahende 



Baanmerung des Ghettos kündigt sich an. 



i.^v. 



l/ 



y 



x/ t. < f f^/ I ,^ 



V-r'v,^. 



c. 



/. 



2wi feeginn des siebzehnten JahpgundBrts bildete die J4Ädxaalie- aemeinde 
de^ i8Xal^Uul^lTtrti"ftn Stadt Prig '1 nfirt Jja gini riiiitenri^ii 2rerrH^n der 



V ' 



.1 



JkUl^rHTeltJ In Herzen Euxopeas gelegen war sie In el«oa staMndigen Austausoh 



^y J)/.^ t, Yon Menschen und Gedentcen mit den üenachaarten und entfernten Jüdischen 



'<//'/v ;■' '■ i^« *• 



/, 



■ ' / ' 



i( .1, 



Siedlungen Dgnrfen* _3tarlce wirtscnaxtllche önd persönliche Beziehungen 
Terlcnürten die Jaaon Prot^s axt dea KaluuLSKk««xKiMtxaMrtXtltV]* Brüdern 



Das. Bit dan jichoci Q atflai s ü erühm t en ^V i c tgo gta ^i und den ansehnlich RKhais 



-V --f- "^t v^> '^^ 



.r. 



>x.,v/'- ::■ ••-*" uv..... '^v -.-'-•<..--. . gefeieruB ^, 

ges6hnüaKV<9.Gtetta was Sjait. der Sitz, des Raub^^ Jud ah oen Bezalei, 

^^^ "" ^ V aregendöpe*-ftrtiin ' ^ 

des "Hohen Raobi Low**,/ dessen Mam in dio fernsten Winkel der Diaspora 
., y ^ Auch 

'-''^ liBlcaiiNXXxirsr gedrungen war. N«iB»jixilÄn Mach sunem Tode ( lb09 ) ^li«t) 

Jüdischen 
das jüdische Prag ein ü;EgMgai ntct der jüAjiün Lehrei tÄÄX^ der mystisch 



ß ■ 






¥eraiitag te RaObi Isaiah Hurwitz Uüd der Äfgeiclärte RaOöl Jontsoo i-ipaman 
Heller sammelten um sicn eine oegeisieret Schülerzanl. Zugelifehh unter- 
hi*ten die Juden Pra^s exii intensxve Beziehung, zu den Talnushoschschuicen 
- den Jesipwou - you •t'oien, Ytiiei ater ihuen o^rachtetn nieüienaden,.i=4#r 
als Tollendetn Kenner des ficioni ttuas, üer uicht; seieu Lehrjahre au 
diesen Bildungstätten zugeorachte hatte^ 

Ein seltsamer iUnd einer Anzahl den Adressaten nicht zugestellter 

_;.--. ..^ ■'■/ ' " - ■ •■ *'^-''- " ' ' ■• • 
äxtntm fast durchweg an densleben Tage gcehribener Priratbriefe aus de« 

tiefen 
Jahre 1619 gewährt einen unverg6eichliCfeep Mnolict in das äussere ud 

innere leben diese Jüdischen Uiicroicosmosx zu Beginn des Dreissigjährjp-gen 

ii'neges, Der Ursprung dJ.M»r BraÄe selber ist ein dramatisches GeschÄhtiis 

ttil tagl-cn.^ 
fllMxiHAfil*mxÄBT..ßnaTaJtXfix oab ttuoi;aaiaiaixei:bÄr 0mm Tfhaoen aer Ghetto^ 



Iwwohfier un»j. «ooi.«aar leschalri»^^^ ( »^ ' ''- ^ 

Zeit der Handlung ist dSreitag« der 22. Noreraeber ( 15. Kislew 
5380 ),d»r Ort das innere der Hauser »Im PrJtger Ghetto who Männer, Fra««'' 



^ 



und Kinder fieborbaft mit der Nioderschpift ron -^riefen an Ihre in Wxeu 
wohnhaften Verwandten und Freudatfe beschäftlDt sind. dnxftraiidtxdt9xx£ito 



li±U2 3ie haben alle zund , sich zu beieln. Denn der Bote des Lob Sarel 

ehrenwetten »^--w \ - ^ -^-^/'"'^ ■ 

Grutmans, des whihab enden -^ rager Kaufmauns, der exneu priraten PustveiDldir 

1*4 

zwischen Prag und Wien eingerichtete hai^, iso eben In ^ egriffe nach Wien 

zurüctczuicenrea uaa drarigt auf Uebergabe der B]*iefe. Aber noch mehr als 

g^««^<»^ höchster 
durch ihn weraen aie Brieiöuhrie^ei.- zu xea.aeflfc rasch ec ^±le durch den 

berorsteh enden Anbruch des Soobettroryibencls angesijapruc, Nieaaaa unter ihnen 
könnte es Tor GkDtt rerantworten, ddibe SabDatruhe durch Schr&etoan entweiht 
zu haben, Snx In der Tatx werden alle Briefe dem -^oton Tor Sonnisnunt^g 
eingehändigt. V/axltei und seijan JU^werlc zustiess kannnorxxx nicht ait Sicherhe: 
gesagt werden, hs besthet jedocn aller Gund zur Annähern dass er in j jenen 

Sagen , die dem rerhaguisToilen Zusammenstos zwscnen fiaxevr -Ferdinand II 

und Priazgraf 

dem Friedrich, Awm König Tob Böhoieii , to rangingen Ton össtereichcheschen 

Häcäschern auige Langen wurde und dass aie Ton ihm befördrerten ^roefe ind 

die Hände der östt erriech sehen Behörden lieleu, die sie als verdachige 

geriet 
Korrspoadenz beschlagnhmten* Jedciixails WKXswxdas Paszltcel schliessü 

in das Wiener Hof und Staatrs ÄcchiT, wo eiedurch fast dreihu.idert Jahre 

unberührt liegen blieb e^'mnd erst anfangs des neunzehtnen Jahrhuderts 

entdeckt wurden y \ ^ x 

Dem bewunderungswürdigen Schatfsmn und Forschvrfless Mr Ton äBTred 

Landau und f'erhhard Wachsi^ein, die eine musterhaitiAusgaDe des Rindes Jh 

Janre lyii Terörreritimen gelang nicht nur dile "^riftexte zuetriffern, 

zuidentifitieren« 
sondernauch säiatlche Briexschrssbetfr üBcliiJ^xBrxilmmjQxrxxxxKxtMiitif 
Auf diese Weise ist es uns 
Diesirief e erraöglicheu «erdaaufan Hand der Briefe durch die engen Gasen 

des "^rager GhettxD zu Beginn des Dr ei ssigj ährigen Krieges glieichwie durch 







3 






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Spinoza 4) 

ineäer an die ^eaeinaevorsteher gerichtet Petition 

als KetzerishM erklärt • Zarfati bezichtigte Nieto geradezu, dass dieser 

die Anschuungne den exlcoamuizi erten ( vor 25 Jahren rerstorbenen ) Spinoza 
rertrete. Daroo entstand ein tiges Zerwürfnln, das die Gemeinde in zwe 

einander befehftenae Parteüh^^spalete, Schliesslich wurde toschlossen 

irr- i. . ■, : 
dM Fall fimpa deme C lacauiu Asken^zl zur Entsciixdang Torzulegen • In einern 

eeifLlarten _, 

TonLondon, <^9 Tattnuz 546 !> datxorten SchrexDen MxBX die Lonodnoer Gemeinde. 

H « üass wenn^e*" _ 

stehen nach eingehdned -^arsteiluri oer Sache aeoehrwo **Seiie UrwUrden M9i^ 

sich als Jdnrivein 
dea^alle seine Sorgfalt zuwenden weroe, er zva Instrument de Prledaasm, 



u 



der Eintracht und Ruhe für die ^naze Heilige Gemeinde erweisen würde." 
So geschah es, da^ achtunzwanzi^ Jahre nach Spiknozas Tode, ein drabbinisb 

/ / / 

Gericht in De^i^schland über s/ine Philosophie ein Urteil fätlwje. Es war 
in Bli«iL iij ^ 



JtHX Wette^eifcchten spxtXmTBTxiäxiiTBider nahenden Auicläxuni^. 



Rabbi Zeri As ctiicenaa i an ol e Vprsteher der Kodon er Gem einde 
"Eier gel ehrter Rabbi ist zu beglücfcw ün sehen . dass e r die schaftlchen Theorien 
der na t uralistischen Philosophen Terworfen hat 



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A^' 



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..'^' •■■'■^'-v- ^■; '.-X^ 1^^/ ^./' 

<;-•-■ J:^ ■ 



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Spinoza j) 



\ 



Spiooza hat Öurch diese Enüschtidung mehr > / nicht nur seinen 



Seelnef rieden gerettet. Denn in dorn nächsten Jahre k»sttXx%ii9xaxxxitxBsiXa:swn 

wurde 

die Pfalz Ton den i'ranzosen besetzt, usöss Heiaeioerg eingenommen ujd die 

ünirersitat gesperrt. Fabritius selber musste flüchten , ein Schicksal, 

das Spänoza beschxdene gewesen wäre, wenn er den Antrag des Kurfürsten 

nicht aogelehnt hätte. 



Ei n rlab inische Urteil über den Spinozismus 

/ und überlebender 

Rabbizevi Aschfcenazi von Altona war Spinozas jüngerer Zeitgenosöe. 

In Mähren geboren, hatte er sein<JJu|genä in Saloniki und Konstantiapel 

zugebracht «Schon damals fxiiilKKxiliHx wurde er Ton den dortihen Sefaftrd im 

wegen seiner lin^^eijhnlichen Gelehrsemlceit mit dem TitS^ "tiiacham" ^ 0er 

so 

Vi/ eise ) ausgezeichnet. Bald war erinl^ame in derganzen Diaspora bekannt, 

IM 

jöxxNSxiUiXartunQVon weit utix ureic wurd6ti iluix]ezxK9ax£yxmXXQ(msxx sein Gutacht 
eingbolt^ wurden. 

S9x^1Kr«8xwif|^ üaüiDt de Aato-riät des Chabäctm Ton Itdoaa, dta««x^ie 
wurde aucn angerufen, als in der 
Loddader ^eminde xmMx«XÄxSMJc«»5^xxx ein schwere*; die Gemeinde in zwei 

Lager spaltender KlMfiilctXÄaxiDxx KonTliict ausörtcn. Den fllass bildte 
die am 20.NoT»iüeber 1/0 :> iuderLodoner Synagoge gehätene Prdigt des 
neubestallte RaDDi David Nieto aus Llromo, ios h error rag enden, pHloso hisb 

fÄcniüten Gelehrten. Bxxx j^r a>eiic Aulsführungen Nietas zugreundtliegen^fe 
ag der 
Gedanke ^^ ^^^ aee, aeiss Natur uui Goci »xmies, mna Gott und Natur eines 

seien. MiBBtdxjrimxxdiarHDtfxhin Nieto erklärte diese Behauptung dahip dass 

was die modernen Denke Natur neeaan nichtaanderes alsdJe Vorsehung Gottes 

L. In diesem Sinoe betrechte er Gott und Natur als ein und dasselbe. 

Diese Behauptungen wurden i" pshua Zarfati, einem von Nieot s Zuörear 



Az 

-^' 'ne Art, auf .4velGhe,-tiGh ^abricius 
diese Auftra^j^rt e rindig te , ^^r..i.t dejtlioii 
Z^ra.r lia 1 1 -^abr cius durch due ■'^'ajd tunt^- des 

Briefes suäx dem Ifidereteben mit dem er 
Eich vom K, erteilten Aufte{2;e8 ntLddi^te 
den Auf ria des Kurfü ten ruwate^JtigiaBjay^hÄ^ite , 

und 
"^^i-B^y^SiSß^^» Icein ^^ehl gemacht. Zwei fllo fe- 
iet SJiinaza die }ciüil£ von Pabricius an den 

So. 
Ta^^ ^'ele.^te kühut Zurüclchaltunj nichii ent- 
wie in allen seinen Entscheidungen 
ganzen. Allein seihfi-hichu- , nichc i^Xjljl-jo^ 
haben auch in diese Falle 
menschliche, ailzu'ie ciichii-hc Motive den 

AusEchlaggegeben. 



n 



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Deutgche -^erbung und Strett(b um Spinoza 

der 
in unendlicher Perneleachtenden endet 

Gleich einem t^xnJ&Ji Gestirn vollzijsÄ^t das Leben Saruch Spinazas 
seinen 

Lauf jenseits clep deutsch-jüdischeii/ÄJBijfe.BerfticjJLS. AXÄXXHaiiaii 

w d. h r e n a e r t l ein b ^j a t e ty^e s c h i. e c ii u öj&m. &» « JMr^^^^^' i- Cc\< rS «^^v .^ 



KxBiiiB Aber, ÄRar^vxaxxxBiR&x^Se l^::>8^iier ho^iamdische Siirsaiiuccit 
zurL^iLcxgezoen^ W&XJäJä We-i-«^ ' i/«w^«**j*'''^r?^- i /^ ^ > ^.-^ 










^■^^ 



in Ventidvg''^ ,<^ --^ \4,*r-<<' 



^U'^i ^/v ^>-^''v-v 



T»r- 




\\ 



ie eiii ii; unenuiio-ire-r^JS^cne^ Luuchtendet Gestirn volieaaet dat 

Leuen "ßaruch Spinoza* s seinen Lauf jenseits Deutschlands und der 

ifleutech- jüdischenBereicii:«;, J^nnoch icanii.van>-väÄjayvEÄZijghHne£n.t..die 

hat ^ji-Ho^za, dessen Lehre einst in Goethes Spruchdichtyn^ ihrt 

flieh teri sehe Verklarung; finden solltfe schon inxsß-iiiBrzuLeb -^i ten 

/ durch 

eine starken Zauber auf deutsche Ht^nschen ausgeübt undxiiXÄiJiÄiEuo^2.Ä2Jt , 
asn einen l.edt'utun^bvoiien 
gßiA.igBliJ^Xontakt mit ihftnn BiBBy.^.^^^-^^^ Beziehjn^^en hergestellt, 

ü;ei£tiger ^/7;')_c- 

die wie ein Modell sp n.tererF-cuntdschaf ten zwi sehen .Deu tschen und 

ija-nÄirftrri'ü 
Juden erscheinen. Xjqbxxbjüx Efatse^ön ^kaxt-: .bä-'v ist, es ii.i ^otou a^-r 
- ) ' /'\.^s)U tsche Judenheit ^ 

]Sii2.k im d.aLJt£i2h>^.;;.ylxiÄXXÄAJvÄXljßi.ah ^i;. iuk. ucnt:-iehnt>i Jahrh JU'ir 

bewahrten innigen Anhänglichkeit anÄ das alte j^..düsche jlrugut begründet, 

in ihr verbannten, V 

dai die Ideen des von aer jpdi sehen ""emischaf t Losgeöösten UemKers 

keinen 'Viderhall fanden. Dennoch xssiaiaÄiixBssollte es geschehen, dai 

ÄRXXBLXKi^^ der erste bald nach Spojnta^ Tode in der jüdi seilende ot; entbrannt 

erbitterte 

Streit uird seine -^"hilosophie auf deutschem i^oden ausgetragc^n -vvurde. 

"^s v;?ar wie ein mächt-' es Klopfen der Heuen ^ei t and die Tore des Ghe^|-rU)s. 



/-» 



^c 



<- 




•'H... 



-'•ix 



i Wi^v/^-<^ ■ ■•■' ■■ f^ ^ . • : ^ / j^l r ^ -K^ ■.»>^? / = 

^ III 



/.^. 



/ 



/ V . 






x»«Mf«x3^wxm»wKi<rgür»t 




aMtx3g»li3clMt»Ryx« 



en 



^üeüei- der Bez^..it^ BÄXÄÄfi SpinozäFs zur üeuzscirieu ®eiswesY/eJ.u 

iiasXBltttiwai'^et e±fi^s|rt/t8öia^s (>eheii»nis« \ iQ^ einem lernen Gestip» 

I^liVSIS^xetasxEBiDSKi vollendet das Leben Bel^Qh SplnoLa^as sel^e Kreis^auiT 
jenseits ctesgeo^^i^ep^Sj^ü' j;s±MBXixB<jrai«hbecjüchbarteii Bericuaer D&uscnerj 

JudenJ^eat. Alielu während er-t ein spätes jüdiscneu Geschli^ciit von 

seiner massrollen Sewä^t arigoziLgec> wurde i^odcc nacndeiH Herder, Lesoiug 

h^aua JUUCftxn £JK"^" ■'-" seiner höllauaiscneri JüansauHLeit 

uuiGUijQ^ttLe / ^Ho^i^^li^SpiriozafXKSiixiaxsjexiiJKrxMiIaMAxxBkBnxSlnjiBMlcszx 




^'?4r-:; 



XXX 



aessen Lehre einst in Groethes/Spruchüichtang ihre dichterische Verlcl«uig 



riiiueu bollte,J ^öe.4 



Uu 




i*iit ueutsuhe.4 Menschen in inniger Verbidnug,j 



üboii J , wuXbranio b__a nach öoiuejiToae lunerMalü der westlicnen| 

eroittortetr 
jüdischen Weit ein Str^t um sien Philosophie, der schhiiessijLch aar 



deutschem Boden ausgetrogen wurde. 



1. 



¥c^,cr"r^^-^^ 



Absage a n 




'-^ -•' 



üeber Oer -^ "^^ 

Du«<^e2iehung Öpiaozas zu dem führenden deutschen Philosophen 

seiner Zeit, Leibnlz, waltet ea.n seltsanes ^eheianis» Sicher ist, dass 

leiDniz Spinoza in deia Haag oeusoht und Bit ihm Briefe über 0]^tiic gewechsll 
hat. Diese tTärnuxt^mn Bziehungeu hau^ä.. Jedo.o iceine dauernden Frucht» 

gezeitgt. Ja, nach dae Tode Spinozas hat Lelbniz dessen Philosophie hcitlg 

befehddet. Dafür entspann sich zwischen tn Spc^noza und dem aus Bremen 

londoner 
stammenden seicretafl der iksrnt^imBoyal Society, Heinrich Oldenburg, ein ectt 

freundschaf tTerhäl tnis, das seinem Üiederschlag i n eines aoonntsaAcStaD 

MjttwtmM^mmXxigntu. langjährigen Srlflichen Vericeht gefundenz hat. Dieftiefe 

der beiden Männer bilden sigar den ('rundstoolc Ton Spnozas ■onamentalem 
Briefwechsel, den Croethe dascintersantest Buch genannt hat, Mas man in der 



Welt Ton Aufrichtigkeit und Manschinlieoe lesen Icönnei" 



SjyK)na£^ c ) 










ei-ci«} 



■eh^zzutrexTena als für axe ftaxwcrt, a^e Spluoz^a ert^w^Xi htic, 

vom Kirrfürsten Ka»l Luawig Tön der Px'alz 
T^ DeutschlandsseMercdercfiiitfcBcstaocnBKlicecssog, an iha der Bur ergln^^^ 

dxe Lehrstelle tfär Philo soptile ap aer Unversitat« Heidelioerg z\x uberne^iaea* 

Die Derufuug wcsanscäeineciu aaroh Kar>i Ludwe» £laLXS ^rosszü^i^er« Pla^i, 

i. 

ELril^Uflg aer Kxxc2i«a ueroei^MiruUrou, jj& Zu.^BL«iw^haMJP* DoraKa[|boicxd,rii«e Kiurx ffürst 
oetra^h&oi«« Q>.giBitir>är Spxuo^e als aou exrizi^eu Philo sophen^ de« er für exn 

Mülchw.^ PiroJwiü.c ^^vjX£}riv£i 4LK/..nto» XiiX|puixJuUxfiix:K At2i( a:Le Amre^ung ron Urbaln 

CheTreoUy eiaeu ntimharton Gs. w^i&^u cjn i:caifwioullOk^«i$ci RoTo, erjt&chlo^s^ or 

B4i»ao«rewitf von 
sich Spinpza actcii nelcleli;>ei.g eiiizuleicieriy gieichvvxe DiBJCäu^ Sir Kunlgla Chrlsclna 



YonSchweden nach Stodcholm beiufea worden war« Sbhana Ludwig Fabriclus, 

Professor der Philosophie und Tbologie, der zug:b^i.ch als Bevyer ues Kuri'u«80en 

fc>oiira.xxlcne >7 

fungierte, wuede aaait Duürout, kxtk Sp^ad.a aie üilaiuauta^ uk i'^ccix^x^utJ^ 




Joa.-u^n liadtvxg ij'ctOx-.c.i-Uo oj:i<i. Sjt>la»^z 



04f 



»Q 



Sx 



_ra2{^ f^xr^^t^acLo ;>i UyüffLM.r3^:>i.j x'-XuSn^ 



-fe? -.«s*.«..Vi'^, .i-u -Ol e.4s^-^.!C. ho ö_w ö Gröj. s> x, er^ 



^c g Si<ä r^achDwC, 'rmldvoxler l^Zj 



Höidoiböjfi lo. Februcii 167 >• 



5 



Mehrere Wochea rerstriche.:*, beiur Spinoz«S* alese vexxülirerxoche 

/ / / ^ 

Anüra^ oeancworteoe./ Er seioer gesonaa ±u öeiii 8r-j;ex^- wie schwer ihm aer 

EnGSchluöö ^exw»xleiJ«-.x« Au er uxe Xöu exue EiiT^öCiiÄxuunii mehr im ExriK.Jio.ti<t 
Äixti aem Chci-rciitTitfr exne.^groo*jer4 *'c*iiric gewöene, Uüu icdum ist jeinaxö «ine 
AOxöhriuri^ lu exner euxtsreu ^oxm erioi^ii. yx-. in SpinozdS Antwort« 

Spmo Zu, äL£L. Jo h <^ liLu ü vj i ^ .„.?ab rx u. u s 

Sie seeaen ax^,^._^j!^^ ji.ass xch Liichc lu a er irwagunß_ei£ies höh er en Glück: e^ 



s ouaerii aus Lxeug zuiii Fri eae u 



Den Haag, 30. März 1673 




Manner bilcleri eogar den Grundßcocic «ron Spinoasas rnonuinentalem Brief- 

'S. 

V 
1ii(^ech6el, den Goethe da£ in terei^ean teste Buch genannt hat, ^^dae man 

\in der Welt Ton A-ifriclitogkeit und Menechenliebtleeen känrie.** 

GoetheE Charakteri eierung ie für keinen der Briefe mehr 

zutreffend als für die Antwort« die Spinoza erteilt hat» alt unmittelbar 



aue Deutechland vom Kurfürsten Karl Ludwig von der Pfalz der Huf an ihn 
erging, die Lehreteile für Philosophie an der Univerei^tät Heidelberg 
zu übernemen« Die Berufung 8t8u:id mir Karl Ludwigs groizügiü®^ Plan» eine 
Einiguhg der Kirchen herbeizuführen im Zusammenhang. Der aufgeklarte .^^ v 
Kurfürst betrachtete Spinoza als den einzige.i Philosophen* den er für 
ein £olche£ Projekt gewinnen köniite» Uecer Anr&gung von Urbain (Thevreau« 
t'ine namhaften («elehrten am kurfürstlichen Hofe entschloß sich Karl 
Ludwig den unstrtttenen Jüdischen -^hil )sophe hach Heidelberg einzuladen» 
gleichwie Descratcs von der Königin Christina^^yon Schweden nach StOiCholm 




berufen waorden war, Johann Ludwig Pabricius, Prof est )r der P 

■ •-' -^i.-^ ' ■■■' 
und Theologie» wurde damit betraut » an S^)inoza dies schriftliche 

Einladung zu richten. 



Johan Ludwig Pabricius and Baruch Spi n oza 

Heidelberg, 16. Februar 167Ö 

JDB 28 - 29 

err! " bit 'kurfürstlicher Rat.* 

ajf 
Mehrere lochen verstrichen» bevor^Spinoza dieeen verführerischen 

Antrag rea]^ierte. Zwar hatte'^pubriciue durch die Faet^ung des Briefes aus 




>. 



dem Widerstreben» mit dem er sich des ihm »rteil.en Auftra^^es entledigte» 

^ -■ *-- 
keiti Hehl gemacht, und zweifellos tot die von dem krfürstlichen Rat an 

Spinoza 
d^Ü^pag j^elegte kühie Zurückhaltung nicht entgangen. Aber wie in allen 



seiren EntEcheldun^^en haben 





iaus der Tiefe seines 
überlegenen Weeens geschöpfte Motive den Ausschlag gegeben. Er selüst 
gestand in seinem Antwortschreiben» wie schwer ihm der EntechlUii gefallen 



- 18 - 




Manner bilden sogar den Gruridstocic isron Spinozas monumentalem Brief- 
wechsel, den Goethe das **interetsanteete 3uch'*genannt hat, ♦*das man 
in der Welt von Aufrichtigkeit und Menschenliebeleeen Icännö." 

Goethes Charakterisierung ist für keinen der Briefe mehr 
zutreffend als für die Antwort, die Spinoza erteilt hat, als unmittelbar 

aus Deutschland vom Kurfürsten Karl Ludwig jron der Pfalz der Ruf an ihn 
,.4urch den Tod«X des 1672 gestorbenen Lefevre freigewordene 

ergini^jliie Lehrstell für Philosophie an der Univereiztät Heidelberg 



zu übernehötiU.Die Be 



rufung stand mir Karl Ludwigs groiizügigem Plan, eine 

(Kürfürst, der eintt für aas Gebetbuch 




Siniguhg der Kirchen herbeizuführen, im Zusammenhang. Der aufgeklärte 
dBxxEXKLSt^vfBE seineE Sohnesdie schönen Worte niederschrie ü: '»Keinen Stand, 
JüaxfibaEjt iÄJtraBiitJBtÄ>wjSpiK»xa>-&is>^Ä«Ä^ 

keine ITation, keinen GottesdiesBt verepo tten»*, oetrachte tß Sjinoza nliiwtom 
..»ein solches Projekt gewinnen könnte. Ueber Anregung von Urbain (SHievreau, 
,alE den e'^ihzigen Philosophen den er fprj 
einennamhaf ten G^elehrten am kurfürstlichen Hofe,entsGhlOii sich Karl 

i 
Ludwig den unstrittenen jüdischen -c^hilosophö^hach Heidelberg einzuladen, 

gleichwie Desc^ctes von der Königin Chris tinac von Schweden nach Stox^holm 

beruf en .w^orden war. Jq&ann Ludwig Pabricius, Profestor der «Pki- 




UÄfil Theologie," Wurde damit betraut , an Spinoza die schriftliche 

Einladung zu richten, 

Johan Ludwig Fabricius and Baruch Sp i noza 

Heidelberg, 16. J'ebruar 167o 

JD3 28 - 29 
Vtfn] ••HöqhgcehtteriHerr! *• bis "kurfürstlicher Rat. * 

auf 
Mehrere Wochen verstrichen, bevor. Spinoza' diesen verfüiireri sehen 

der im Bannender mi ttelal terliche''n Scholastik stehende 

Antrag rea&ierte. Zwar hattetaliricius durch die Passung des Briefes aus 
dem Widerstreijen, mit dem er sich des ihm eirteil^en Auftrages entledigte, 

keiii Kehl gemacht, und zweifellos ist die von dem ütfürs tlichen Rat an 

Spinoza 
geÜJTag feelegte kühle Zurückhaltung!; nicht entgangen. Aber wie in allen 

seilen Entscheidungen ha'benr:aabh inöießemr.'J'alie -äurcaue der Tiefe seines 

überlegenen Tesens geschöpfte Motive den Ausschlag gegeben. Er seibst 

gestand in seinem Antwortschreiben, wie schwer Um. der äntschlUii gefallen 



%k7 



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^'^ -t f % , ^^ ^J^'--'/ » ^.,'-i .'■#'" «*•>►- 



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'cA^C >^''''^ />^^^v.^^^ 



\ 




Denkwürdigkei ten 

der 
Glücke I von Hameln 

aus dem Jiidisch-Deutßchen 
übee&etzt 

mit Irläuterungen verbehen und 
heraußgegegeun 
vonDr. Axfred iJ'eilvhenf e ud, 

Viertei^uflagel92ö 
( C^pyroght 1915 ; 

Jüdischer ^erlag Berlin 

Gl. geb 1646 in Hamburg 
Withe in 1689 

Die zweil letzten Bücher sin ix. einer viel 
späterteren ^eriode ihres Lebens ( 1715-19 ) 
[inzugefgt. 

Kaüfman : Die "^emoiren der Glückelvi^n ^. 
1896 ( K, gest 1899 > Frankfur a 

Verl vonJ Kauf f mann. Die Edition lepulit 
aufl einer Handschrift der früheren - 
neueraings d r Pranif u-rter Stadtbibliothek 
einverleibten • Merzbache rechen Bibliothek in 
MünchcmjQ, nednder eine zweite, mindrr voll- 
eiämdige Handsch ift zu arte gezogen Y</uid^ ( im 
Igrovatbeeitz tu ^raükfto ) 

Bertha Pappenneim Ausgabe 1910 

Anfang S. 11-15 ( Lücken! ) 
•dachet k 158-159 



II 

... ' • . ■ '■ k^ . ■■ ■ 

3^a Gl ücteel -v "v^-^ /^A * i. c.^.^ 

AI s • 

iiixGmcKel You Haiiieiu ( ^euorcuXu lb4ü in Hamourg, göstorDen in Metz 
iTrl/24 ) ^^® ^iia^LÄÄiüjs Hci.uüur^er Bur^esirttu, aereri Öestl wxe eine 
VeiKöipei-unfe Juaiöcheu We^noö ö^ö c«r Z«i c -TaxxStibruchder aes zu Nei^e 

zu^s, bervorpttgt, aaro ging ihre Erinnerucjgen ni eöerzu seh reit» en, wer 
sie e-LH Witwe und die Mutter von zwä2f Kicindern. SXBXKÄrxÄinBxgÄbcjreo 
Äjpx»hl)e*i« Das Buch, das sie schrxeo, ist dsas Werk einer Tollendeten 
./y jc/A^ Erzählerin, dem %ust zu rabulieren" anscheinen d allzu launge unta-er- 



^i//.. 



n-.: ^4^/ .'- . 



&^< *. V c V 



-Y 



K . 



' ■. -'l 






drücict worden ner, Vieüiecht ware^a^-öbes ejkifU£«xxx^4 unrer^liuiilichen 
Memoiren, üie erst wäekx^^xx^ id , k! Jaiire nach ctöü* Tode der ^erfaserln 
( voii DöViü Köuxiüuun^^iuö Luch-^i ^eüracht wui-aen ) ungexchriben geb, lieben, 

nicht oäb Beuurdiis geiühoc, sichihren K9dn«rn tu erörfnen. 



'^'*'j'r,\io\X gigctcel 
^ '- /-> '/i /^. , t 

oheneneine *B^lÄ*lX>:.<.^ wehrhc-HASgetreien Bericht über xhr Leben zu erbi^itton 
: r' /^ '^ tüLer wledergege<»■^|e*^'- 

. ^ ^ und ihre LeDensfürhtrung zu beeinflussen ^icht nur die in der ilieitun 

und an rieleD Steilen voricanLieude Ansprache "Liebe KiderW. sonder die ganze 

hel7iö.4che überall spürbare Atmosphäre kennzeichnet die keometren dem 

d<»n aah»en 
GlücKel vonHauieln als exÄ=ia, eiisnfl lauÄgeaehntnen Brx^aelLS gesp^Mü^^i^ y. .^ 






, einer 

AU 




.ie>5 an ihre Kiuaer go richte tu Br^ier. 



Hl u ctc el vo n Hameln an ihre Kjniaex ^ 

"Die s Tor allein^ melneKitJoer; seia ehrlich iti Gelöfatigeltr^iiehj^ xhen^ 
gr^.eichTleK: cüiKt g eg^enuüer Juden iwie Nicht Juden, MäxXj aux dass nichc der 
der Name Hottes atgsent heiligt wwerden möge ... 



SflfxsBfcxxxxi»^öhlx^Jl«>^iB|^m0i*«n-^3y^ön> ßlti«Ki&l5a«c> TXMxx>; FÄhlgeK 

ÄiSv.ÄriBl'^L hre:.. Giückel hat in ihre kemoiren vx-*± zahlreiche,' Anspeilet^n 

auflhrenaudgeDeriteten Brjß fwechsel eingefügt. S±bx Bedauerlicherweise 

der Nachwelt 
ist kein .er dieieser Brei e erhalxeti geblieben. V^as ämx daaruch veräore 



GlUctel 2) 

Amx vou GXüCK.el üeborgüeu 
gxng, tanrj aus ör r e^etiaueu WjLeürrgai^e eiues eiazltea dt»x»r Briefes 

- einem Uesuerostoct wxeoligher Diploiaatie und einem schönen Beispi» 

d«s der Gluctcel eigenen Sinus für Humor • geschlseen werden. Der »rief 

in a J'rau Jachet Krumbach in Metz ^^ö^iijit»*^? crj werden, als nach cier Verloliu 

Ton Glücicel's 

«»r Tochter Estoher mot Moses , ortHxÄüBnFräu Jöchet*s S ihn, Warnungen 

von angeblich wohlmeinenden Freunden top dem Brttutugam einlangten, V/xe 

ülüofcel dies»xÄ«lwrixÄMxchhoedurhcgescharfen Lage zu meistern wusste, darüber 

hat sue vilee Jahre später mit giusem Vergniü^^en in den Memoirerj benc! tel 



Frau Jachex rea^xerte aä aie gegen inren Öxho gerichteten Ve^ 

VeraChCUttK an^ n ^ rr t .--n*. 

dacr cigugen hulo u^veriiüilcerü Zorn. Vxoj.o aXiJlomciLX sehen Brieie mustssten 

noch zwischen Hamburg uno Merz ge^^echäeic iveroen ]^ore Moses Krumbach 

schlieslich Esther ehelichte. Das gl'"cr^lic;I.Er^eorjx oer Korrepondenz 
entschide zugleich Gl ückis eigenes Schictcsal Denne es geschag dTruchMo» 

Moses Krumbahcs Vermittlung, da st^ Glückel ihrem sgVs'eiten Betteti , üerf Ley, 
eina namhaften Banfceier von Wetz und "eusgezecieiie t Juden" tcenne lernet, 

dessenfinazieller Zusamabruch and früher Tod die alternde GlücKiel in 

neues Unheil strze, dasa nur durcn die aufoiereiide L^eoe Esthrs und igre 
Gatten gemil dorrt wurde* 



^ 
.# 



#► 



• 2ö « 



III> DIB 



.«jlhiViirÄsiaS u iiU ■ . r 



l! '''iiL" 



-^..f .« i» 



ÖLUSCiCEL 




Als der unermüdliche Erforecher der Jüdiechen 7ergangeuheit, 
David föufmann, im Jahre 189 j3 das über huiidertslebzig Jahre alte 

Manusicript der von der Hamburger Jüdin Glücicei von Ilaiieln verfaßten 

nicht nur 
Memoiren herausgab, hat er der "Welt Äiiüut:xÄüX einGt der anmutijgö teii 



Bücher geechenict, eondern 



auch }m diia'eGre schichte der Juden um 





eine wunderbar anziehende weibliche Geetalt bereichert» ohne die uns 

heute die deutsche Judenheit der eiebzehten Jahrhundertweiide ^caum 

vor£tellbar erECheint. Glücicel^ddvcn !Taraen durch ihrai^'&XBlil^alui^g 

Gatten, 

octjt de» Kaufmann Chajim Hametn, mit der Keijuat dee le^cndäecen 

Rattenfängere verknüßft vvurde, ist el^n&o die VeriiörpeiuUfc^ der^au f^ 
Jener Zeit in den Gemütern lebendigen prömmiß,i<eit,wie des die jüdische 
Gerne inEch^>.ft damaLß zusammenhaltenden Jaiailieneimik^Cic vei tritt^eden 
Ty pu h ]i&jLx^kjsUL£flüii&i4ASacaji.AUAjdyJ£ull&x.Aa^ 

xiaxflLtae^ii'Biiiag RaxtxaÜt t e 1 ne r versunkenen weiblichen Generation In eo 
vollendeter Tetfce, da»i sie wie ein idealet J^orträt der damalig^ i'rau 
und ü^utter wlrxt. Allein mit dem ihr eigentümlichen Ilamor und 'luttex* 
witzz, mit ihrer bemerkenBVferten Fähigkeit« d»@j^4f|ichTraditi9n und 
Lektüre gevvonnene Gedankengut selbetändig zu verarbeiten und zu 
verwerten.^ i£t Glückel zugleich eine aft&gepragte iJuUiLlfiLiiiäÜLeSinzel- 
}ereönlic]:ikelt. Ja, ihre Keigung zu SeXbi:tbe trachtuue:. und &tib£tkritik^. 
ihr Hang zu TCineamkeit und Melancholie verleihen ihr überra£:chexid 
moderne individuelle Süge, 

Mit dieeerc Durchbruch zum Erlebnie eineiü jjerfcönlichen Daeeint 
ißt auch die >:ntetehuBög ihrer Memoiren - der ersten, die wir von 
einer jüdischen Prau beeitzen - in unlöebarea ZLicamnehhä^, Glückel 
war eine 45jährige U'itwe und die Äutter von zw&f Kinderntals sie 
in einer echlajloeen Nacht daran ging, Ihre Brinnerunt»en nied«r; 






- 27 - ; 

Zu den erstaunliche ten Anomalien der neueren deutech-Jüdi sehen 

Ge«(ühichte gehört dae Aufkonnen älner prlvllegierte&i K,i&sß%t 

der Hof Juden, Mie eich im cchärfsten Kontrast au der entrechteten 

und immer 7ifiö4Ä^^3Jiif^E6^^ Verfolgungen auegeeetzten Jüdieclien Maeee 

einer l:c7orr;ugten rechtlichen und «ozialen Sondere ceiiuiaö erfiüaten« 

T5ie Tntet3hun<; dieser Klasee iiht nicht auf eiue oroWiiüchü Difreren- 

alerung zurückzuführen« Die HofJi^den wurei:^ vlelmelir eine Icünstllche 

Schoafugi;^ de: absoluten Hertßcher iin. Zeiaicer des ilericuxiuilibiauö, 

wenngleich l}ei der individuellen AuewalU l^ähi^eitön, iii-rahrung und 

weitverzweigte Bezlöiungen den Aueechlag gaben. DeJDeAuf £tlieg der 

Hofjüöen ö£.tiert seit dem Ende aet Dreiiiigjahiigen Ki-leges, als der 

, und 
Z.uüam'neritruch der£,^IWEn^ deutEchoiBankinaußeri die Verarmung der 

deut&chen 
BeVS^lcervingecli^ Für£ten zwang, sich nach neuen Gfcldquelien uiuzueehen« 

Die Institution der Hof Juden bürgerte eich Im Laufe dee eib^b^eht^an 

uxid achtzehnten Je.hrhunderte mit einer reichen RKaeoiiheit öin, dai 

«chlieilich fE£t jeder einzelneeder zahlreichen deutfaclitsü Souveräne 

über einen. Ilofjuden verfügte, 

Iiie Tlofjudsn waren die finan^^ieilen In& trumentedtt. Reichee und 

der Kleinstaaten, Sie habenaäi»lss.0di})ahenl2<|;ji9}Utimurr da^ dduiltteiiheWirteohafts 

l^läÄaribeeinfluüt, sondern äÄeh die Ausf^öhrung inner- und auäenpolltl- 

aoher Pläne ermöglicht, Manche von ilinen habf^n wtdltgeschlohtliche 

Bedeutung gewonnen« Andere sind zu tragischen Figuren der Jüdischen 

Geechichte geworden^-||p^» von ihnen haben wich als Q^^unwi^^^iMhtMmr 

ihrer zu rüclcge setzten Brüder bewährt, :u i allear ihnen anhaftenden 

Paradoxie waren sie, die Kinder deä Abeoiutismuä, nicht nur die 

!5itschöpfer dee modernen Kapitalismus, sondern auch dio Vorlaufer der 

E^Tianzipation, ihre mit ihren Herrechern und Dien.:tge oeni gewecueeltenn 

Briefe gehören darum a.ch zu den ersten Zeugnicten einer V3n Teuteciie, 
3'uden InÄ deuteeher Sprache geführten Korrejpondena. 



- 28 - 



BSR KAISBRLIC 




Tlfim VW V^^W TnCBTTTttTUfJ^ 



Im Jährt* 1670 verfügtem Kalter Leo^>eld I, die Vertreibung der 
Juctii auii 'i^ien. Dit Btjdrohten eandten nach allon SiÄÄf&i^en Brief« 
um Kilfe und ITür^jitte, Aber weder die Intervention Schwedens, noch 
eelbfct die VerN^uduxii^ de^ Heiligen btuhlee vemochte dae Ve rhänt^ni s 
abiuvvenden. juifaii^L üugjst befand sich Jcein Juae mehr inneihalb ddr 



_ 8. 08-41 

YOn; '•Drei Jnhre epäter (167ö) brach der Arie^ mi i. ]?ranicrMoh 

aue" ( 5Ceiie 5 voü o1»en» ) 
bis:gt . . . •'*YeiTiiögen und WAchetum erreiaiaisin werde. *(24j&* 16 von 

oben. ) 




2^ Di:^ PATROIT W!S gRO TiÜCTAigCia rCN KIRCHS 

Der um die Gemeinde Halbere tadt und um öle jüaijsv-nc beaie 

verui^jit Jiet'achar Bermann v/n^x ein Zeigei*3£;:e samLcn TettnciTicr?« 

( UriinittBlitoÄtt|^nechlieüend: ) 

vi,r. JIB S. 4Ö-44 

Vin: "ALeÄttideiit beim poiniichoü Aonig*» ( Zeile 15 von unten.) 

ble: ( zur Ui tertchrif t: ) D.ji. Jaolonsicy. 

3 t JU7> ST TRSS CTOATT IKRT DIB PRACrS gSlUSR ADSLOTG 

Dai^if|i|)rillflderBprüchen erfüllte» an ^ider8p.rüchen grauscta zer^yi^^ 
bMecHenliel>ei)e^ede^trv8$frfn de;> Herzoge Ktt^rJ: 

AleiKanrier von Württemberg, der unter dem Kwnen Jud SüÄs in die 
Geechichte einging, muate zur Legende werden. Auch hier, in Keiclx« 
der Phantaele, blieb «e eelniim Äi7l«fpältjM^öl» l5§JJiökfiÄl. vtJpf^MM: 
ein Atf#ÄI trennt den f ragwüraigen Heiden der Kuuffschen Erzählung 



von Jenem Jud ßücs, den Libon F#ucbtv;anger ii: Drama und llomuxi gestaltet 
hat. I5r5?t zweihundirrt Jahre nach SüdA'Tode drangen dichterische 
Intuition und corgfältige j?or6*hung zum ITeeenekern des Mannes vor, der 
in seinemDaeein den Glanz der Barockzeit verkörperte und mir dem 



Hoxjuderj z) 

Inxerventan 
Hilfe und Fürbitte, fter weder die ifiBrK*M«Kng Scnwedens, noch selbst 

die Verwt.uciuue,Qes Heiigeu Stuhieto vexBiochte das Verhagnis aufzuhalten. 

Anfangs August 167^ befaua sie fceicj Jude wehr iünerhalD der Mauern Wier« 

Stite 3ö : Drei HJahre später bi»..4il ^r. .. .erreichen werde. 

3 ' Jud Süss '^(^{^^y/^tU vT^, yfc.rf ^u. \M^ol 

Seite 413 Als Saason WertheiiiK^er bis 43: reheissen will 

actiix 

3. 
iiiin Patron der pro testantischne Kirche 

Seite 43; Wie des Schicicsal bis44: Jaolonslcy 

4. 



IV 

^'T iliiMirr- °-ri — 



1 



Zu ucu va.ei«u AmawaLXi.MtLX ersbualxchen •^nouu.xeci uer imxuMjeuou 

jucLXä^chou ^oöolixoi:iiüt» geiiorb aus Auri^otiuieii ei.ner prXTilegirten Klasse/ 

der Horjadeai aie sicü Id scharr st eia Ko6ii^ras( yon aer entrechteten und 

lamer wiederkehrenden Verfolglngen aust^esetzten Jüdlsoheu Masse auhobi 

Die £nts(«hung dieser K^iasse war nicht saf eineorganiS' che soziale 

zurücKzuiuiiren. Die Hoijuaeii waren Tileiüehr K^^r^oULren 
Dlfferenzleiung zDtxttcItxctfotfeixeiiiLxBisxXaf^dftiixwazenxxielmfit^r ^Myfttiigzn 
icünstiuoiie Sciiopxufibecj 

der adsoluten Herrscher Im Zeltedter des Mericantilismits» ^tr^^c^^^nte 
werja£p.eicd oei der Auswanl Srtahrung und wietrerzwigten 

fltxaxxlclayiijLiexfiXiäSJBAiäer iCaiLJMiXejii'atiiglceiteny BezlMtaggon deniUisschlag 

gaberu DeriUirsti^ aes Hötjudetj als spezitiscne Sctiiciit datiert 

TOiü W es cphetll seile frueden und hat wälirend aes siebzehntne urjd achtzenrifi 



V 



y 



/ 



iBSCii 



Jahx'huoaerts aas aeatscbe VflrtsohaXleben wesentXcich ueienilusst. 

y»JBXx **1Ä der Zeit rerfügte fast jeder einzelue der zahlrejff:hen gto 

Gfle . 
utid kleinen dvtschen H^Bagahen über eiaon Hof Juden, jABXBmxMxsimk als 

finnzielle instiumente, b9Hl9Ht«ii betrachtet wurden und als olohe zumcit 

J / 

höchst erfolgreieh funKitloniertea. 

waren die finanziellen -Instrumente des Reiches und der 
LiiHof Juden wa»SKcbeOeooich(DcnQ<rcdaeLWie56ch(rfeleOeacwegea^llyh 
Kleinststen. äie haoen als solche nicht nur das deu sehen Wirt scfiaflieDem 

beienflust, sodern die is'i'uSiriing^pofirxIccier i^ltte ermöglicht. Manche Ton 
ihnenhaben weltgeechichtllche Bedeutung gewoonen, fÄ»»xKB»s»iil»34lc»ttBx 
/^Manche sind zutiagischen Figuren der Jüdsicben ^exchichte geworden, 
Viele Ton ihnenhaoe sich 8±s «ongureiciie »«iier Ä»X3c ihrer zurüctcgegsetzten 



Brpder bewährt 



y 



. Mit aller ihnen anhttitenden Paxadoxic 



waren sie, die Kinder des Absolutiaus, nicnt nut die Mxtsrhö fer des 

modreun i^apitalsmus, sondern auchdie Vorläufed der Bianzipation. 

I 
Die Kaiserlichen FaKtorea ^ 

In jähre 1670? Terfgte Kaiser Leonpoldi; I die Vertreib»ung 
der Juden aus Wen. Die Bedrohten syadtennach ailsn Richtung, Briefe 1- 



'Wh} 



i / 



■^ 



xici}-) «^ 






/ 



/ 



iV 



7.« 



/4IA ci-cti vi.e.lefi 4VJS40-'aiäi.A;sö s;;i!jtaiiiicf«ön -^^iio .iibfi uer üoaeiuüij 



der \>rjadc:Ji, oie f^rLcn i'SCh'i rf steu AOtrcraso von der eut rechne teil 'icjd 

i'T.ner wiefic?!/!cehr'"^jderi ^^3i'fo\:^l'-iß'^ü 3\Jiüi\<jsezzZQu J dj. sc'"e?ti .''asr-e ebhobl 

X.Q l, :tüO' 'JLtii, öi-^^iii- -^IfT-^e wf^r nicht auf taneorrariis che soziale 

Zut''ACKZ\ii' irr Kill, .'ii-e i-otj'ioeu vere»i vilc:»ioehr ^-i'-t^'-turerj 

Küriotl -■ eilt- ..ciiü :>iafi._ t-cj 

c'ex c :. L:oi. .:iet:: ■'''eit- * loI"--!' im Ztä Leiter des *-*ei-tCf;iitx.l.tsr.'«'3| ^^re^v^fd-^iite 

vJü{uit.ioxcn üc;X üt;r -tiUöW&ni «x-A&nrun^.; urjd Wie! vei-zwigteti 



c'i e 
n:! icltitien d»3'l9cbeM l'louar^^3''-."i üb*^.?.« elt3öi. ''ofjuder:, dvi-rriuil-Jirict: nl p 

hoc s i ei lo L e;r ex <; '^ : f"4i ( i . tio 1 1 i e rt erj . 

v:,rQu c:. (.' fiii-ur.ieiirn ^'ii^'ciiiufc'rjte ciey ribleiic'»^ utul der 

Kie-i.usoste;i, 'jie riciOe.j aiü üüich»; (ücnt r.iur daa ■v>rUbc:l.t,*f.i v. ix'tijc'.. Hriib'ben 
D^Jui/lUüC, .o::.vu r.x^ ^•iS^^U.rmo%^f£StinSi ^^^.^ ^,,,:;^UciU. ...Eriche vm 

;.h.:,..;t]hov)en v;g1 t^. c/ochici'ixiilcüe- -^edeatun... ^(i\;o rierj, i^irs? ^'öi"<i:^Julc^';!fejt;4$9:; 

. .n.'icf;e 31. id zat n^l8chf:r.i Fi^ivirefi der Jjdsichcii v^excFiichte i;^evorderJ, 

viele vor.' l'^:ieil■'^^o^i sic.i '-Is öen .,rei ii-; iU-ifer sfjST" ihrer zuraci:, egsetzxen 



J red öl' bevTä-irt 



, i/i 1 1 alle r 1 h a en f^i tj *' af t e rj ä eri -^ 8 ^ s do 5ri e 



^sren siej r?ie /linder des HOfM?lu«:l»sug, r^ic-t ti\z die ^ llsvh':] .'er det^ 

liiacre n uj-^it ismis, s.üdera aiAc' diu yoriäufed der jjnüazlpatxon. 

-üi Q tc ; 1 1 ö vi ri i c ' i ö j i i?'"a i.i 'CO r eu 
äam-ji.ieJL ^o t^r j h^e im e i\.u <5.1i{.. oaii so n_ w e r t h ein e r v©m i i. X cn 



iii j £)h . e 1670^ verrb^^ i^vaiser i-.rOijpolaK i die VerireiOKU .i. 
;..er Judeti r»'!;-^ i,ieri« < ir« Bf-*rN-fT'"f. ^ u «\,*>n'rf^r.nof»H £sn<^i Hic'ntMiiv .^jrl<)tfc in 



H0i.juaea 'dj 



ilfe ünö j/ürüitce. Dir xjocc 



j.rittfi'Ve'itaii 



d 



.. K .^t -i., o.,r.,,o ^.,c. .cein ouoc ,aehi. x.r„«riu.lG üei-.;B.K,r„ .ie,» 

'—-'*. j <_ u • . » , , , , ^x ;i^ « a 4.L j 



üeito 43: 



2. 



^ ?* « « • « 



er V ei c (^ er j i'/e rd e • 



Juc 



o<-icu .;i: ;,ij5 



...j .,_ ..,.,,,, Oxt, 4>: Vc; eis erj v;ili 

3. 
1^' ci^'b ochicicsri... ,.. 6i344; 



*iüüiousK,y 



4, 



' a • e 



5. 

t 

das Leoerj der dBQcxxskvji Judeu iunerhaib aes aeu scaeü Berexchs in gewal tilgen 

Doppel 
P endelaus sc liliig^en. Ein solcher Auscülag^der gross te ron allen, in Le±<i igirnd 

Erlösung, ist BKch auch das Gescaihnis der Prager J^denrertreiDung und 

ihrer VereitiJbung. 

Den Alibass ftr den verhaugnxsYollen Eocscnluss der KaXsvBln Mat^ia 

Gross - y, .' .. , ' 
Thersxa, dactidem Beispiel ihres Vaters ein raijüi,ealteriiche JÄdenrerfolgung 

im Znotrum Suropas zu yerausta/ttejjm, gaa:si0Ki mii g9 gen die Juden Prags 

au I geoffachces GerüCi.x;, ösoerreichisciieu » 

J6wnehTSn^^^y(i^mnttii^ wanrond des ErurXfifetii^rxöeE den Feiü gefördert zu heben. 

Xxxxass^rsxfi-xHaxxDaeKxgKex^- Der Verdacht ^Sh/r^JuxT dia judetiielalicfi e 
Maria Theresia, Gt«r^i judenre±fjaliv.hex Gesinnlng : 
*>// ^Kai serin eiMxw±tllc(SMiaeBr>:yQrwa»4xxäBrxÄen>:^MiäBn nlorfctxTBrhBh nej. verheulte, 



den willfcommenen Vorwand, 



Ct. 



oDen 



V Viele KrSte vereinigten sich 



/ 



ihremVürhaTiL^isvollen Entschluss e^tge^^et^zuwlrK:erJ : der Widerstand der eiegen 

Joeainterischäft, die, l^gtervention au sv/ärtigel- kächte, insbesondere ijaglöricis 

und deri^j-ederl^jfjG'e, und vor allem die Anstrengungen der Juden in verschidenen 

Landern der iJiaspora.The Kanpf war lang und bitter, und »fXxXKloljeRxjes, als 
gar (lach einigem Verzug gaz^^ais 

XB±±Xjejaywi&iIiev^äBBiitoiiag]enx.e«>X<}lgle«^MM^^$^iNX«xxx^Bxqi: des Ausweisungs- 

v/Sriciich 

befehle «S^K^Mfi3Eg%-Ver^ü«>^SilSlJEiM^^'äöPf in Vollzug gesetzt wnÄde, 

ii^l^Ty.^%1^ schien es, als sollten alle Baühungen erfolglos bleibeD. Allein 

Juden 
die ^K«X5Bk»Hx5^äHa3pf er verloren wederHoffnung noch Ausdauer. Sie kämpften 

mit unbezähmbarer Standhaftigkeit bis zum glücklichen Ende. 

DXÄXtnxÄtelcraJrxxöÄT Sajnson Werthelrnerd Sobn Wolf^„_d^r den Hauptsitz dKs 

Hauses nach Augsburg verlegt hatte, war berufen, in diesem grossen histrosichej 

£>raiaa die Hauptrolle zu spielen. Von Augsburg, dem neuen Haputsitz des 



l 



Vertreiöung 2) 

Hauses, organisierte er eirieid weitverzweigte Akction zur Hettung der 

unglüctclichen böhmischetj Bi-pder, Lr ^öBKKxXe übertrug seine Begeisterung für 

die Sache aui* seine Verwctuciteu und Freuncie, v«^i-sorgTe sie mit Informationerj 

eixert^ü sie iiMiaer wieder 
RatschiaKeu und Ani'egU(ige9y ucicl ^j^RRutüxwi^d er mch noch deänsiaxMxxhBt J^ ern 

fiHStan, in ihren Anstrengungen nicht eiuei* ^^eüolibK zu Versagern, 

Krorrespondenz 
Diese kaapagne fand ihren Nieöerschlat in eitiear titmfangreiJlBen Brl4 
der 
Wechsel cvon welchem Tierundschtzig IStüsIc zumeinst in Jiddischer Sprache 

geschribene ( anscheieon YonWerthl^ieBer selber gesammelte ) Brief erhalten 

blieben. Sie wurdera, fast zwe **ahrhuncierte soiate^ ron S.H.LeieDe veröl fen "Glicht 

Siegehören zu den. grossen Detamälern der jüd:^schen Geschichte: die dumpfen 

Urmotive jüdischen Scnxcicsais, Verbannucid und Wanderune,, begleitet und rerkläÄ 

von den warmen aiclcoraen orüuerliciier Küte uuu Oplerbereitschaii . Sie 

gewähren zug eion tn Aübiia der inioxeiearoprii-öchenJudei h^ox an Vortiöend 



der Emnazipationsepoche 



1. 



Alarm von Prag 



Unmittelbar nach der ii«rlascung des Ausweisungsbefelhls richtete der 
Samuel LBwi Lasen, d er Vorstüheu uer Pr^^er Oememae und Hau Diner der Kleus- 
Synagoge, eine^j Briei* atict seiiieu Verwand oen Eisitc, Rabbiner der GemeiOde 
Schwabuch in Bauern. 

Rabbi Samuel Lasch an Rctbbi Ej-siK 



UM=:*^_l2l2x_Ilir_Bniderj_ Kinder_d 

Bih steht das_Rechtzu_zult_^rlosung_un^ - 



8 45 



Scho-am 27 .i^ezember 1744 trigft die i>iachricht von der angordneten Vetreibunt; 



VertreiDung 3) 

in Augsburg ein. Schon aiß nächGtexi Ta^e scnreiuc Wold Werheimer an sierien 

Scbwa^er, aeu Raooxner Moses Kauu in i'rauK.xarx; : 



l^i®_äll^£_^"^^^ I0^^£!^^§^Ü_?:?*Li'^£5^iL v-g-t-üe, aie Stimme oerHiile, __aer: Su hutzeej_ 
~ aer Wiexbio 



Seite ^Vt)B( ergänzen! ) 

In demsüben Sinne geschribliBöB Briefe gehen in den nÄbbsteu 
Ton Augsburg 
TageD nach allen Dichtungen ab. Einer dieser Briefe bezweecfct, Elnriuss 

aiS den Kanzler Ton öt^men^ urafen Kindlcy zu gewinnen, der im Rufe stelt, 

ein "haBtan** zu sein. 



Wo lf Werheimer and Meir und Eisitc iftMx Landau in Ula 



Tuet es un de r gr uedhöf e willen mit gen Grtoern d e r_h eili gen 

Maer ^ Qie xu _a er Erqe ruhn" 

ö. Januar 1745 



/ . 



/ 



lietters p96-7 



3. 



B ereitw illige Helfer 

Aus den Antworten, die balÄ daraaf einlegten, spricht der gleurhe 
Gexst, der Wafxixxx Woli Wertheiiuer besslt« In den ersten Tagen des 



w4< 



"k f! 



Januar 174:? ist die Hifsattion bereits irnroileii Zuge^ At\r^i^-^ c' A m j *- 






Mlchafejg Apt Steiuscaneiaer an< Wolf Vi/erheimer 

»'Jedirmannwiraaui seinen Po soen sthhci una tum was nur mö glich ist 
um ei ne Stadt una Mutter iu Israih^ zu retten^ 

Dresden, 11. Januar 1745 



Letters 597-Ö 



YerTirexouug p) 



**Sxc; vv ü xuetj oex jeaer Sxtzuci^ tttU se^ jCMeiu uu^e n Jhi v rem ; j^e ü erma nri^ 
wil l sex ti Deoonaextfn Fahi^Keiceu herlJlrlcbcbpen " 



w 



Letters ätijl^is 004-6 



ll?ie.i, j. F>-brufcir 1745 



5. 

Baron Agullar beri chtet 

voij SaBuel Wolf erwähnt: 
Der exiffiusbricbte Manrj nter den JHden Wienjwar ^j5T'=Ö5rp*iaÄ'Oe 

Ufer 
Diego ae ^lAguilar, jBXMXJDBÄKMXjeiaflEXAJilMszafirtMXMMCl Genrrelpc-chter aee 

Wicht nur üie wichtigen finanziellen Dienste, öle er dwi 
österreichischen Tabaicmonojö^ols. ijofB3tg«x«Äinjerx««pfefiröi»EfafiRxAtostaBEiUÄg 

Regierung leistete, auch seitje sephardische Abstammung verschaff ce ihm 

im Gegensatz zu der 
die Sonderstellung eines Aristoiaraueu, Et» oeKutiöeteüQau©^ ioicöluien d- ?,. 



Co<'<{^y- ;^x^x^Q^e;'iloge(ineit dür 



ein ta.tKrf.1 i^l{i,e 



SepharÄUianxEUX ,^SÖ-^-st-■ nicht ^ig(i^ Solj-dötitf^tfi riit den veridl/nen 



/>■ 



^K \ 



r ^xj u.^©»^ ^L J-ii toeiueui c'r. Woli Werüheimer 

te er »on 



j, 



Athtc j[iaz±in vOi.Preg» %<^iin 

oeuLiächetj 
ßerxchct; cetiBrjBJBx </üti"uiiyerer Nüt^aü" o^^xci^it o^^röc ,. 

döüisi noch hciuiifeen gepfolgenheic der Sephordim ab. 
"i§s_ mö^e fieiner go c iliuheu Mc« j « « tat gei"! 1 eu , üa.ös der gev/iin seh t e 



Erfolt:. eu.utr*xit" 



S«ju tc "i-::^ 



Wjitöii, juO . i'c^or ±/t>» 



«^ • 



Dxe S ol iiTimc? exuca Pessimisten 

Mobt;^ Looö, cifj ochr c.Uc^i'^'j-—-^ '-■■-- MiigaXieu ciex* \,ietjer Oeiiej-uGe, 
Wa.uer eiai^ö uitör Wjxf Wcfrthei::^rc Kjrrcspodü.^teu, der eiue vj.j uer 
allgeiiieicieu Aasxch c aowexciit-iiüt? Auffäsuiig öer Scuecion vertrcit, B r «<»<ar 
Wohl vertrax^mit üer J da j. sehen geschieht ucid Cjtuh atiEx-fagrungiefr 
eridiJreu xuj VcK-tii- ltic j-^ehordetj t. rucnsunau te er cieu v.Di^j ecj Sc chverhalc, 
v7e»it]gl-LCii sxc bei.i« pösiii!£xsoxs:chc^ Pi-j^^tjoee t±üchcli^. r- er^'wiete fjichirtlc! 
richtig ei-wies. 



VertreiDung l) 

Dw eund ern sw er t er 

RoDxnsons mit groüem ax^louiBZXscnen UeschicK aua Geduld urjcerHommener 

VeröUch,öUi üxö Kw.i.beri.n einzuwxeüöti hafeie^ oxcli Jeaochieüeiiiaxlb als 

-TitiihTü zulj-übüffi Z«yö<;k:w„J 

Oö&^oii-ö^oh^ mLl<i-htjL^v3a Verourjaütau« Baö ano aÄHxyaxxx M0000 Hört 

Breoxtju^, oxueo der LouoQU(;^r Aeiteöoen, -erich ocoex Schitjueti xbi 

vüieexuhuaäö oöi-edoeboc DoituineüO, Uciö ax« öN^j-^iör i^oi^or g^ciluobcr- • 

Wo±i' V»'ö 1-1:1 öiiAör aii Moööb Höx'O Bxt?si.öa 



KM 



Re^euböurts, ±0, Dezeuiüer 17 -li^ 
LöLterö uOt^-xO 

September 
Das Janr l/4d brachte dxe glücitlicne Weuöurjg, Im lUv^st dxetjc 

uiese Jahres KiixaKAaie zsxishnEXs Mbräiei TheciDj.o t&^D Juden Pr«je.s uitie»^ 
zehnjdrigetj »Hisciiuu, BEx-xSjshxixx.-.WÄXx Dieß Veriuguog v^'iii'i ein verha.llttjr 
enügültiger Widerruf der Vertreibung. Ein ür^i-': Note mmH W^. rtheimer 

(riri o«?ikieu VuLer eiithiAtJbo die eriitiSt^iiae Nachrichc« 

StimxmüL Wcruhtfiaer o.^id Woix' Wcrtheimer 

"D-u c Jaü<?ti Prc=i|^o lii u^eti w i äfde r ihre yre-Lheiytien I^.^o©ti ^ 

Sj l'ätfxloi Vorh-^a^ ük>ercQi:ecie«K(tec6AMie u^ch oeifi ScdxUi^saict 
aeö Dröiüaö, ücib ^eich emejj siMjaiÄix erboüncno hia woro^suhöu Dlcliturig 



ttöS jüdische Miotltf^iter zu beöChiie;^ö«n ocl^tsiat. Nichts h^-te j-ü d^r Tdty 
Uctö Hei'aiitcOiaUKiii einer neuen Epoche sinnvoll ercdlcanöigeti icunneu, c*iä d^ö 
Scheiceru aes Versuches, aie Juden mxxxbmx lu der Miütes des I0. Jcilu-hUfKÄ-erts 
aus einer im Herzeu Europas geieRetjeu Haupt st süc zu veroauneu. Ja, die Art 
auf weiche Ajusx^Eiimxxisxx dieser Versuch vereitelt v.T.irde> besitzt noch einen 
stär^erensj'^iboliscnenaehalt als 51er Erfolg an und für si<^i^« ^®r -«BadpSfiLte^ 

<*^F*^^^^^ V^-*-*' '■■■ »T., mn III* ' ""w 

Widerstand^ def jadischen Diaspora, «der österreichischen Bear terjschart und 



Vertreibuu^ o) 



_Moses Loeo an Wolf Werheimer 



**I ch ^üti seh t e_äjLe_KifiQer ji Ji^i'^n ö rau ss en io ^'r! eä en 

Wenn blutige fampl e_ iiiiZage sein w ercie n " ~ 



Wie«, tLKi. i^'eoruar 17 4^ 



i>. 



MJS A uxbcüx-ea. der Vexü eifiti teii 
Aiietj Beöiuhaa^eii z^:. Tiutz üIiöD ütjr AUbwe^bun^sbex eli4 aurochti, 

Nur Aufschübö iciuiiceii erreich ü weroen, aber iis )Iföhre 1745 mu^sece ein 

Tex der Sfisxis jpdi sehen fevöl teerung Prag verl&sserj. Die ehrwöraige Gemeinae, 

uie fiiio Jeraöalea rer^icheux wjLru, schfiijnt; verloren au selOf jUaxJrofX'lJexaucBe 

OoaacnXüSigKeDLL Vertragenen noizh 

ÄxrÄS«e ttvistxil««xWXiij|jeriB ausgesetzti treiDen sich die ff^ÄÄ*Äid-*-6^ xm Wiijier 

l#04ü dia Latiue uiüher, ^-^^ Hxjxerui' aer GeiüeiMderorsteher gibt Ton ihren 
Noten erschütternde Kunde* 

Dxx Präger G » üj oinaevo ra t eher aa dxe Oeme mue Px^ersee 

*Viex « sterben uaui d e n_S t Jffi »s en *•_ 

X). Dezemoer 17 46 



S. 49-50 



Wieder war ein J^hr vex'c»w.ii^e^*.Die eiir\.ardUGe Gemexcaae, die mit 

Jeiuöäxcui vcigiiiühen vv..rd, öchtsinc Terior^-n. Aoer Woif WerLaexmer XöC 

*^eit doTon eüixernt oich duni^t ^Dzuiinu««« Soxu« GHoiinuiJiei i^iäßim<:?rt oxüh äu 

unmi otclbeix 
Eii^XdOd. Voii aoro xsu bereits iaxJjshreicruz nach der Auswesung eine Rettangö- 

afction ausgegangen. Verctiilsc durbn ex- e Petition der Londoner Genexae- 
ältesten hatte König Georg den englischen Botaschafter in Wien , Robinson, 
oeaf tragt, oexd der Kaiserin für die oedrügtetj Juden Fürbitte emzul^erj/. 



5.. 

^0 :.K:iiwirj[:ii Qkiyeuci- der- 0ifrfi,öij..Hii-i)e dt»^: eütitboiiHtt^ö. «I ;f■i!^n^'ht2»<!t;'«^c^J 
da5 .^jeüen der cl5r.txsLJli«i3 Judetj iu.iernai-- des d-'U schpu .'.er j-Cr.?-^ j.tj ^/eweltigeri 
.; ü.'icielr^ ;:-cc!"'itr v^vjri, Ijxn üolcht-r yrrsc lila;-', der f;;-rös te von nllen,Jn Leid \02.r(3 
wilüouu^, iüt liucli rj.ic-- aab ue3C':iihcj,Ly der k'VfArc^v r]Uöer:vertrei.Du:_ utiü 

TLqx'.';.j..'^, aacticicM *j t?i Gi.»:i t-'l J.iii'üij Vn'.^r.vy tr-.iu : ilt li eoi t ei'il c'!? c.: tia-dcu Verfolgung 
iij öuü'ora::. ^OAro.Ofcis zu vörr!iistr>i^.ter-/n, j,;:?b p^trr ein ^'-pjeti cd.t Juöci iiT£S 
l'ä^.'^öü<:-u(V-, ' i ö-i'OuctiC^ '..,•; lirt'tiC (Jus .r:'riCt;(A< rir en den. eic: tuf':i-cert zu f'irbsrj^ 
xit. e;i'5<i:i'.,xcr ;'ar£ua«H:i^;KeXr !'e»- Verüocht vp»-. t"*j:r r*JLe juric-'tit'elr'li o-M e 



(1 C: £ i v;il i Ico rai;; cti u-t i Vo rv/of j ü , . ob en 



Viele rrto vei-eiriirjcen sich 



iiuv 'VoitiaUtiiSVoilön x^iitGcliius ejit;-,c: uiiZuwirtCL- : der idüistorid der eie, en 
o-'öcj .'Cü..oC!)fiXL, üic .LriCervü..Cijü ausv.'ürt3.£^er iv'cMte, . ...ober.TMdHrL ni^ir.rids 

^aiideru der .^XBCporcXlit-j ivari jf v/cr lori;, and bitLer, u.'id o,^'t scliieri eb, c4s 

bür eil 3 
ggJ..Liüeü*')ait?löi^onLiMöt&g*fiC ürfcl^los bleioe^i xn."i^i?r-''^atv^^7CT^de ('e^ A»i'3v:eif5Un£?s- 

Defel'JL" farnj**! 5£'xcitri»r3 Verzup'KKKxiKxoo xKOiicar irj Vo'lzvjf; r;ir5et;:t .^v,^-- 

Aber rir- 

t 

xxr^'xx^-'- s?cfhien en, p1?? f5Cll ten p-^llc it^'niiui^'eri isrfol^ot^ ble-.b? , Alluiri 

Juden 
cie $ti^rs.VirMim:-y'^J''V9-^-'^ v^j-rlor-su T:o.:;crr'k)f '.'nudg noch .;usa.?-uer, jXü Lci.n -f teü 

mit Uiib^^zeihubürcj* --^tfuidli. rcit.,iceit 013 rum ^JibCiClicuoii ^mdü, *^ 

ilauaes tkbch (^i:..Gburti vc:>rl^r-;t hcito, war tsenifen, In diesem r os^eti h srosu-hen 



..lüUSts, i.;. an j. stiert -^^ er tl:iü7!X v;extv\'r2\aät^l ;. .^tiou sur i'el .iin^ cJtr 

cij.e '::F=chv: f-ux BPifi',' Vcr^;c^ oten und c^-eUfice, 7<:;ro:") rii: e oxe uii I'rfo ?^;j- ri.:- -ei^ 

i. ro r • er tjcfenz 

ci e r 
\;eciJ£el cvhj woicheu vxerUti^ 3o!'ii;zl,«: j^äüJ:; zaneitissc ^u JXüv.u.sc\«jr »>->rriuii(r 



Dl leben» »i«;? v-urcio ., 1?:üI Z".^; *>::.hruU...Cürlu ^Ocxl^i' vou .-.a. 



,j. \:. •■>; 



V'oi\".i' ."ücatLlxcht 



v,!fi den ; r-.rnoM pk orüeii ürüoeriJ.c;ner ^^ilTf- «ja f (.'. ':-*''?•.: Ov. rv.it ic' r x' . i 
o' V • 1' . ■.11 ! • ! r ' ^ i V 1 1 .) ' 1 '^ e Ol cht,, ■ 



1. 



Iui'i2 \'0'i rr- ; 



U- 



Jul.i "«.olDc.i i..ac;it cicr -..ri 



CiL» Ucij^. üt-;:: .vU.':;-';.^! oUut.-i)Oc;lV,inli^ rjL'jlil ^:. ü ^ • der 



t;yar,_ü_>-j oj.i:'-!:! .;r^';I' ^u: oc-x.iv.ii V ^j.^-^a.iC; Leu -j1 siK, [\e'0 ätier der ■ rneifice 



.jCsid fcn 2Y.-^!;^;i^^'uber 174'+ i^r^i! t. oxc ^Licluacht vo.'i der ad^ordiicleti '/eti-eibuti, 






iv^^Äv; uf;c;!i allei; iachtiii, im i^t", j.rJ^,•r dieser ^^ritj/^ .j .ä.',;^ .u*c c, ..::".t2riusi:: 
c.r ü'Jii ..vi:izljjr von i>n!>.^n, r?:'..;eti iUrjöcy zu f.^ewidüe.i, -ic xi] .iUfe stoft, 
el'i ••?;£■:!::.« * zu sex. i 



i 






o. «.' pri;;;; v ].7'>5 



•-^et ,<;;ro 'fic^'/ 



Z. 



i^ereit^vil Llo:;e ^'elf '.^r 



.' cl t: c 



> 



c > 



yjH'-.sx c: ..oil" ;c Ti^idi ; 1- oeswii, .j u üeu (^^rvlei. ic^^u des 



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Vertreibung 4) 



(b) 



Moses K ann an Wolf Wütieiaier 

"Lieber Sc ft wag er, wie gefälltlhm die ffühtung drr Männer Wiens von 

Gross und Kleio? ... ,e t -.-^/«e 
Mainz, 15. Janua t l^f5 



Seite 47 



4. 



Kritische Lage in W ien 

^BKimt Woir Wetheimers Sohn Sanuel, der Leiter des Wiener Hauses, 

smstlxcn 
wae xzJPxtsx fltmbU^x bestrebt, die Weisungen seines Vaters zu Defolgen. 

dennoch fanden 

jLj^yj'VTitenn ööt Aussen st ehnderl^ wie Moses Kann, -»ÖW^S^SW^ , dass die Wiener 

Juden 34»^ fttr SacheöSrPr«ge3^'^rtieep nicht genü^eud Eli'efauflt«: üüu Ta^ leo^'^^) 
un\.eroc hy/L%^fiO 5äi d-*.ö S wawxerxe>te^ tc»., öxe einer It*xerv ention ia Wee« 
staueen ÄBtxÄXBx: es war Tie^alleiä die persönliche Animosität Maria TheresiaB 

gesen die Prger Juden, die ein unübersta-gbares Hindernis eines Jirfilges 

/ X oerichcieaicdorciberc erstattet daruor 

zu bilden schien. Saiau« Werhifiers iM}exr«i«sxl«xiblie^«»x^«3£«^«xY^^^r 
und üoer den ^uweiieu sGur.-xscheu Vericuf aer Retauugsaiction oxi^iier. 
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utiü fälliger öoyli-bti> E^' schi^aerL mit üraina tische Lebenöigfcceit die 
zynische Haltung /er Kaisetin, ÄX»«cäeocEhargeiLEcaadaie UrieiücgKelt der 
Zwischenhändler, kiä: aoer auch die üLfregung der Wiener Bevöikceiting 
uDer tixe Geourt eines jejrzher.-.ots, Kici-ia Ther^ias zv.eitcrj bohn «»öd 
£RXlisi^t:X Wolf Werthemer mus& msDssirjöer e,i?trtamit baben, als ihn sein 
Sohn ÄÄxr die kachi».aXuon cler kx^^m^X^^'^ Zeik tun^ kbä enthüllte, 



(a) 

::werin^mn_ab€r_sagt_^e_si 

^ aDeni£_was_fcönnen_j[ir_da_x^^ 



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VerteiDuii^ ö) 

- zum er sten Mal i^aor moderneu Geschichte - ein grosse ausländische 
cht zu geiiieiusöüieu Hdüdoin veröiuigt,. Däooif entliche Gewissen, dae sich 



in dieser Solidarxtdt kuud^üb.war öjisptüiütibch^ für die sich regenu^o 

Kräfte aes Humdiiusjnus u.id der AarKäruag. Eitie Zeic schien iieryui'audoiamerrif 

unm et I schliche Vaioto ösuiii» 

iti der die auiruhJ»hrhuadx-oe g^eabt«:^ AfiiJ»£isJfai2.i»JSSttM£ c^ei:: Juden hus ihrer 

{{ugjeiDiiiM^ Umwelt für die Menschheit unertargiicn ^icv/ordön war. In schiuerzlieh. 

fast zveihandert 

£te(S Paraaoxie sollte es sich gen^u nach xxzsIbksxx Jahren er an dem 

Schicke Stil der Juaen Prags und des euro-paischenKontinents diese Annhwe 

als trügerisnceiAvesen. Dcis S^möAl cor Erlösung war zu einer grausamne 

Warnung vor mecischlicher Veririuu^ Uüd Rucfciall in Btirabarei gWfrrrden. 



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Zm S>36a 

17 
Schreibea von Süss an Karl Alexander 

26. März 173^. 
Württ. St.A. Kr. Pr. A. Bd.dO. Concept. 

Bericht« dass ohnerachtet die dahiesige Makler wegen £w* HochT« 
Durchl» Gold«-und Silber Müntz Livranz so wohl bey Christen als 
Juden der Antrag gethan« sich doch niemand auf die gndst* bekannte 
Conditiones wirklicher Engagement die Summe in Gold als Silber 
wöchentlich zu liefern dazu bequemen wollen, so bey meiner An- 
kunft in Stuttg. erforderten Falls mit glaubhaften Attestatis— > 
asserviren werde* Damit ich aber-^be zeigen möge, dass die angeschie« 
nene OhnmOglichkeit ich möglich machen könne: So habe eine Parthie 
Goldes und Silber beisammen, welche künftige Woche, so Gott will, 
Selbsten hinauf zu bringen gedenke, um diesem Werk den Anfang 
zu machen und habe ich dasselbe schon so regulirt, dass die 
wöchentl» Gold-und Silberlieferung zu £w.Hochf» Durchl» gn« Con- 
tento praestiren kann, wann nur den dazu erforderlichen und be- 
reits gndst* stipulirten fond zu Händen bekommen werde, als wes- 
halben ich mich dieses— versehe , dass derselbe bey meiner näch- 
sten Ankunft parat seye, damit man in diesem zu Ew.Hf «D* höch- 
sten Interesse gereichendem Werk alsdann ohne Hindernus fortfah- 
ren könne, zumalen dahier an verschiedenen Plätzen zu ansehnli- 
chen Parthien Goldes und Silbers schon Geld« • «darauf gegeben 
habe- - 



18 

Orig» Schreiben Karl Alexanders 

an Süsst 

20» Juli (ohne Jahr)» 

Württ. StU.Kr^Pr.A^ 



Du musst suchen, mir etliche schöne Brillanten« so ins Gesicht 
fallen und nicht so schwer wiegen« mitzubringen« damit ich 
darxinter wählen kann» Du musst Dich auch nicht lange aufhalten« 
denn ich Dir was vertrauen kann« welches nicht schreiben mag« 
du wirst dich vortrefflich verwundern« diesen Brief zeige nie«» 
mand« wer es auch ist« dann sonst schadest du dir nur Selbsten« 
auch deinen vermeinten besten Freunden nicht« ich verbleibe 



dein geneigter 



Carl Alexander» 



/«,.*■ %■ 



Z\x Seite 36 a. 



19 

Original Handschreiben des Herzogs 
Karl Alexander an Süss* 

Heidelberg» 17. September 1734. 

Württt St#A*Kr.Pap*A.Bdt81, Lit.L* 

•i^ieber Süss» Ich habe meines Herrn Bruders, Prinz Friedrich*) 
Liebd.» die Versicherung gegeben» dass ihr ihm eine Anlehung von 
40/m fl. auf seine aus den Herzogthum Württemberg zu ziehen ha- 
bende jährliche Deputata ohnfehlbar aushelfen werdet. Gleichwie 
Mir nun solches zu einem ganz besonderen Gefallen gereichen wird, 
also lebe ich auch der gänzlichen Zuversicht» Ihr werdet ihm 
darin nicht aus Händen gehen. 



Zu 36 b 
23 



Schreiben von Süss an Karl Alexander • 
Frankfurt I 17 -März 1735. 
«ürtt. St,A.Kr,Pr.A,Bd.80.Copie. 



Ich glaube» wenn ich der grösste Sünder unter der Sonnen wäre» so 
wfire dieses eine eclatante Busse » dass mich beides wegen der mir 
gndst, übertragenen Proviant und Foiirage Lieferung und der Be- 
streitung Ew« Hochf . Durchl. Münzwesens so grosser und nicht zu 
ertragender Patalitaeten unterworfen sehen muss» gestalten ratio- 
ne des ersten (die Anlage) bezeuget was ich anstatt des verhoff- 
ten Gewinns für Verdruss » Hindernus und Schaden durch Bw. Hochf. 
Durchl» Subalterne selbsten erleyden muss, und ratione des andern, 
nämlich des Münzwesens, seynd Höchstdieselbe unthgst* von mir 
versichert» dass ich jene Entreprise nicht übernommen haben 
würde t wann nicht der festen Hoffnung gelebt hätte, Höchstdieselbe 
würden in puncto manutenentiae mir dergestalten gdst. assistireni 
dass so wenig in meinen praestandis als wenig der Zahlung halber 



mir einige Hindernus gemacht werden mögte, 



Aber leyder I Obwohlen ich zu 20 und mehr Centner Gold und Silber 
meine Lieferung gethan und verhofft, zu dessen ferneren KIKKäÄI 
Einkauf die Gelder emploiren zu können, bereits auch aufs neue 
wieder 40-50 Centner an Gold sowohl als Silber beschlag und ab- 
zunehmen mich engagiret, so fehlt es aber an der Y/iedererlangung 
derer neu ausgeprägten Geld Sorten, indem man einen Posten nach 



2u ?6 p 



II. 



dem andern für geliefertes Proviant und fourage auf die Münz an~> 
weiset t mithin den daxinnen steckenden Nervum dermassen schwächt ^ 
dass ich bald von selbsten das Gewehr nieder legen muss und dieses 
causirt einzig ixnd allein die unrichtige Einhaltung derer mir 



stipulirten Zahlungsterminen! 



und über das £w* Hochf • D« eigene Leuthe^ denen bey der gan- 



zen Sache nichts aus dem Beutel gehet« mir Schwierigkeiten machen 
und mef lent gegen mich zu seyn scheinen i dass bey so gestalt der 
Sachen wohl keinen Manschen in Bewunderung setzen dörfe« wann es 
heissen solte, es wäre mir von denenjenigen, welche mir in Ein- 
richt-und Verbesserung Ew.Hochf •!)• Revenuen so schniirgrad zu wider 
leben, gar mit Gift vergeben worden, welches diese sich um so 
ehender unterstehen würden, wann sie erst hören sollten, dass das 
Hochf« Chatoul um jährl» 4 • 300/m fl* zu melioriren mir getraute* 
Ich werde mich also wohl am glückseligsten schätzen müssen, wenn 
auf eine andere Art mein halbes Brot mir zu erwerben gndst« er- 
laubt wird« 

Bw. Hochf* Durchl» geruhen dannexüiero in der Hauptsache diese 
höchste Gnade für mich zu haben, und —das erforderliche gndst* 
zu decretiren, sonderheitl* aber meiner Zahlung halber die nach- 



drückliche Ordre ergehen zu lassen. 



Zu 36 b 

26 



Orig. Schreiben Karl illexanders an Süss. 

Ludwigaburg, 16. Juli 1735 • 
Württ. St. A.Kr.Pr.A. Bd. 79 

Besonders lieber Herr Resident! Der grosse Uhlmännische Brillant 
ist mir gestern per Estaffetta durch den Hoff Pactor Levin Wohl 
zugekommen und habe Ich auch heute dessen Brief samt denen zwe7 
Ohr büke In wohl erhalten, befinde aber HJUSSL solche entsetzlich hoch 
angesetzt« Ich werde demselben 1000 fl. davon bezahlen, aber auch 
keinen Kreuzer mehr. 

Nun gehen Mir auch noch in meinem Stein 2 Steine von gleicher Qua- 
lität wie die letztere ab, diese nun wolle Mir der Herr Besident 
ehestens schicken oder solche bey der Hetour Selbsten mitbringeni 
wie Ich dann auch die 2 Steine zum Toison« wovon Ich vor dessen 
Abreise mit Ihm gesprochen « sehr gerne bald haben möchte und mir 
daher sehr lieb wäre, wann sie derselbe ebenfalls mit obigen 
schicken oder selbst mitbringen könnte. 

Uebrigens will Ich keineswegs hoffen, dass derselbe bey bishero 
bestaendig von mir üMSMjßßLH verspührt und versicherten Gnade einige 
Trohungen achten oder sich deswegen in seinem Thun und Lassen wirr 
machen werde, dann da noc^ niemand von Drohen gestorben, so wird 
er auch dieserwegen noch lang in Meinem Land unbeschädigt leben 
können. Indessen werde Ich vor desseh Retour nichts expediren oder 
vornehmen lassen, sondern seine Hierherokunft abwarten, will aber 
nicht hoffen, dass die Reise ein Jahr dauern wird, vielmehr will 
Ich die Beschleunigung derselben hiermit bestens recommandirt haben» 



Zu 56 c» 

27 

Eingabe von Süss an den Herzog. 
Stuttgart, 17«August 1735« 
Württ. St.A.Kr.Pr.A.Bd.75. 



Ew. Hochf. Durchlaucht habe ich bereits zu Anfang des Monaths 
Junio dieses Jahrs zerschiedene Puncte, so zu Beförderung Ev. 
Hochf . Durchl. hohen Avantage und Interesse als meiner künftigen 
eigenen so nötigen Sicherstellung schriftlich zu behändigen die 
Gnade gehabt und bis anhero geglaubt und gehoffet, es würden Ew. 
Hochf »Durchl. nicht nur darauf gnädigst reflectiret, sondern auch 
vornehmlich den näheren Bedacht dahin genommen haben, wie ich zu 
jener näheren Effectuir und Ausführung durch Ew. Hochf. Durchl. 
genügsames Soutien und Unterstützung um so mehrers habilitiret 
und aufgemuntert werden mögte, als Ew.Hochf. Durchl. am besten be- 
kannt ist, was ich meines treufleissigen Eifers, ohnermüdeter 
Sorgfalt und Application ohnerachtet vor traversen zu surmontiren 
und wie ich fast überall gleichsam Thor und Klingel aufstossen 
muss, um dasjenige zu bewürken und valable zu machen, was Ew. 
Hochf. Durchl. einigen Vorstand und Satisfaction produciren und 
verschaffen kanji. Anstatt jener gefassten Hoffnung aber muss ich 
hingegen zu meiner nicht geringen disconsolation verspüren und 
apyBryyyyirtfif wahrnehmen, wie vornemlich einige abgünstige, unwidrige 
öemüter sich sowohl directogi^ als per obliquum occupiren und bemü- 
sigen, anffint^lich und gleichsam par degres dasjenige gnädige und 
gute VertBauen, welches Ew. Hochf .Durchlaucht bis dahero gegen 



Zu 36 c 



2. 



meine Wenigkeit geäussert | wo nicht gänzlich zu unterbrechen, 
wenigstens doch dergestalt zu schwScheni dass ich nach und nach 
von Selbsten ermüdet und endlich gar, um ihnen völligen Platz 
zu machen, genötigt werde, gänzlich abzubauen und meinen ohne- 
hin anderweith aufhabenden negoces und Engagements mit mehrerer 



Gemüts-und Leibes Beruhigung nachzusetzen« 



Damit aber auch Ew^Hochf »Burchl« genugsam überzeuget werden 
mögen, wie weit sich mein Diensteifer und fernerhin anwachsende 
Fähigkeit zu Augment irung des fürstlichen Interesse erstrecken 
könne und solle, wann änderst Hochs tdieselben mich genugsam an- 
hören und nebst den gnädigsten Vexteauen durch hinreichiges 
Soutien und Protegierung zu bewirken und Erfüllung jenes mich 
in den Stand setzen und erhalten wollen, so bin ich vielleicht 
vermögend, einen solchen Weg zu zeigen, wodurch sowohl Ew*Hochf . 
Dur Chi« ganzes Finanz-und Cameral-Wesen als auch die Militär 
Cassa durch solche einträgliche und verlässige fonds dergestalt 
verbessert und augmentiret werden sollen, dass H Ew« Hochf • 
Durchl« über den bisherigen Puss noch ein 5 bis 6/m regulirter 
Mannschaft weiüers aufzustellen und zu entreteniren, auch ülier- 
dies einen baaren Vorrath von 100/m fl« in Cassa und Reserve zu 
behalten vermögend sein sollen« Doch mit dieser ausdrücklichen 
Reservation und Bedingung, dass, wann ich binnen Jahr und Tag 



Zu 36 c 



3. 



diese An~und Einrichtung einmal gemachet habOi ich nachgehende 
von allen und Jeden übrigen Geschäften und Engagements gnädigst 
überhoben und dispensiret bleiben möge( gestalten d%nn Ew.Hochf« 
Dur Chi. mit JEHKIffiCTiraacgga unter thänigst geziemenden Respekt nicht 
bergen kann« dass wann nach An-und Ausweis meines aufhabenden 
Münz-Contracts die darin bemerkte und stipulirte Zeit expiriret 
sein wird, auch hiervon gnädigst degagirt zu sein mich« ••ver- 
lässig beglaubiget nichts destoweniger dürfte ich vielleicht im 
Stande seyn, bey dem von Bw.Hochf «Durch 1* angetretenen übermach- 
ten Schuldenwesen und dessen schicklicher Abtilgung solche Ausweg 
zu sein und mit bewirken zu helfen, dass Ew.Hochf .Durchl^ auch 
dar6b nicht wenige avantage und Satisfaction zu schöpdTen Ursach 
haben werden» 



Zu 36 d. 



30. 

ScJireibea von Süss an den Gesandten Keller^)« 

Stuttgart, 28 • Dezember 1755, 

Württ. St.A.Kr*Pr.A.Bd.37. 

-«»- Sr« Hochf »Durchl* kat es gndst« gefallen, weilen ich wegen 
der mich befallenen Unpässlichkeit noch das Bett hüten muss, mir 
daraus so viel entdecken zu lassen, dass die Sache grosse Schwie«» 
rigkeiten finde und man sich erstlich und insonderheitl* an mei- 
ner profitierenden Heligion stosse« 2 »ich keine merita vor mir 
hätte, welche Sr.Kais.Maj« zu einer so distincten Gnade gegen 
mich bewegen sollten und dass 3tens die angeführte übcempla in 
lauter Portugesischen Juden bestünden, die sich rühme ankönnten, 
von vornehmen christlichen Familien abzustammen und wobey andere 
besondere Umstände Jedesmahlen mit unterwaltet hätten» Ew.Hochgeb» 
wollen mir gütigst erlauben, denenselben hierüber nochmalen zu 
konte stiren, dass diese ganze Sache niemalen mein, sondern 
Serenissimi eigenes höchstes Werk gewesen und mir dahero vor ih- 
nen sehr leid tue, wann dieselbe sich diesfalls mit einem ver- 
driesslichen Geschäft "be laden sehen muss. Ich werde aber Ew.Hoch- 
edelgeb« davon zu degagiren suchen, wann dieselbe mir nur den 
geringsten Fingerzeig geben wollen, dass es Ihnen einiges embar- 
ras machet, gar gerne. Um nun auf die eingestreute Hindernussen 



*) Württembexgischer Gesandter am Wiener KHof, 



Zu 36 d 



2* 



Selbsten zu konuBeni so hebt sich das erste und das letztere nieis« 



brum MSgtJBüOL zugleich mit dieseBf wann ich Ew.Hochedelgeb» auf 
Dero selbsteigene Wissenschaft und Erfahrung verweiset dass nicht 
nur portufieBischen Juden-sonaern auch andere und in specie erst 
neuerlich des aoswitischen Hof Juden auch viell« ohne Sr.Durehl« 



Kaiserin i^nsinnen diese Gnade widerfahren« Er hat anbey yermuth- 
lich eben so wenig Uer ita als ich vor mir» und besehe ide ich 
mich gar gerne 9 dass meine gegen der Mohrenf eidischen *) Berech- 
nung gethane ohngleich wohlfeilere Lieferung hierbey in keine 
Consideration kommen« dass aber S.Hochf »Durchl.selbsteigene h6ch- 
ste Verdienste nicht einer in einer sonsten zieml« indifferenten 
Sache wflrdlg seyen« wird niemand verneinen kOnnen* Die von £w« 
Hochedelgeb* noch weiters angeführte eingeschrlnkete I^ivilegien 
der Juden in dem Beich lasse ich dahin gestellt sein und habe 
nur die Ehre, ratione meiner darauf versichernt dass ich bis an- 
hero dessen ohngeachtet in ziemlicher Freyheit gelebet habe, und 
sollte ich mir fast vieles auf meine gegenwärtige Religion einbil-» 
den, da man mir so viele Vorteile bei einer Veränderung verheissen 

will. 

Ich meines Orts bedauere am meisten, dass bei einer ohnfehlbar 
erfolgenden allergnädigsten Condescendenz dieselbe alsdann Sex. 
zur Obligation angerechnet werden sollnt di| ich vielmehr geglaubt 1 
dass nach denen aller Orten bekannten principiis solches ohne 

*) Der badische Kammerrat Mohr von Mohrenfeld war in den Jahren 
1709->1735 der bedeutendste Armeelieferant. 



Zu 36 d» 



?• 



so grosse Bewegungen durch die gndst» an Hand gegebene Vorthelle 
wohl ausrichten zu Stand bringen könnte» Ich habe, da ich vor 
einiger Zeith die Gnade hatte i nach W» ^ abgeschickt zu werden« 
Sr» Hochf*D« Gnaden von dieser Proposition weitlKufig was gemeldet 
und gefunden, dass dieselbe solchem gar nicht vor schwer gehalten, 
sondern sich vielmehr zu aller Beförderung anerboten haben, die 
rais&a, die Sr»H,D» bewogen, auf diesem Ansinnen zu bestehen, 
will ich weiter aus Bescheidenheit nicht berühren, noch mich des 
gndsten Vertrauens rühmen, so Hochdieselbe tägl» mehrere in mich 
setzen und durch zerschiedentliche wichtige Abschickungen an hohe 
Fürsten zuerkennen gegeben haben, wann aber solche gegen Sr* Kais« 
MaJ» in devotester Confidence angeführet und insbesondere dabey an- 
gemerket, dass S.Hochf« B, in allen geh.Af fairen die auch directe 
od» indirecte das kays« Interesse selbsten touchiren, mich 
vorzügl* gebrauchen, bin ich versichert, dass sich sodann alle 
entgegengehaltene oder eingestreute Schwierigkeiten von selbsten 
heben«— -^ 



♦) Würzburg» 



Zu 36. d 



4, 



51 



Memorial voa Süss an den Herzog 

Stuttgart, I.Februar 1737# (Copie) 

wSrtt.StlA.Kr.Pr.A.Bd20. 



In Euer Hochfürstl.Dxirchl. Diensten hab ich die Gnade nunmehro 
einige Jahre zu ä^HMiüi stehen und in solcher Zeit biss daher in 
Unter thänigkeit wahrgenommen, dass dieselbe vor andern mich 
nach Dero gnädigstem Wohlgefallen distinguiren und in meine ge- 
ringe Person ein besonders gnädigstes Vertrauen gesetzet haben, 
wovor ich hiermit den gehorsam-schuldigsten Dank erstatte. 
Gleichwie aber Dero mir zugewandte hochfürstl. Neigung und aus- 
nehmende Gnadenbezeugung mich niemalen ohne mempfind lieh gelas- 
sen, sondern vielmehr zu einer beständig unterthänigsten Devotioni 
verbindlichsten Heconnaissance und daraus entsprungenen ohner- 
müdeten Sorgfalt vor Dero höchste Person und Interesse pflicht- 
schuldigst aufgemuntert xAlso hab ich mir auch äusserst angelegen 
eeya lassen, alle Leibes-und Gemüthskräf ten dahin anzuwenden, 
was Deor theuerste Person in eine wahrhafftige Beruhigung immer- 
hin bringen und die Revenuen der Cammer merklich vermehren, so- 
fort Dero Pürstl. Hausse den grössten Splendeur und Lustre ver- 
schaffen, einfolglich dieselbe dardurch zu denenjenigen Glück- 
seligkeiten, welche andere mit der nur ersinnlichsten Mühe, auch 
grossen depensen und äussersten Beschwerlichkeiten suchen, in 



Zu 36d 5 

guter Ruhe fast auf eiximal gelangen mögen. Zu welchem Ende ich 
meiner nieiaalen geschone t^ keine Zeit imd Stunde weder (Dag noch 
Nacht ausgesetzt, sondern von Anfang biss Jetzund mich sehr 
bemühet, Ew.Hochf «Durchl« allervorderistens dasjenige zu ent- 
decken, was Denenselben würde nimmermehr geoffenbaret worden 
seyns Ich widersetzte mich mit grossem Nachdruck und Eifer, was 
Dero Interesse entgegen war und trachtete hingegen beständig 
alles leicht und nach Dero gnädigstem Wunsch auszuführen was 
andern entweder unmöglich oder doch denenselben sauer und schwer 
gemacht und wie mir ein Vergnügen gewesen, Dero Fürstl.Chatoull 
mit importanten Einnahmen, die Euer Hochf .Durchl» aus seinen 
Denenselben selbst gnädigst bekannten Ursachen ohne unterthgste* 
Ruhms be^essung nimmer mehr erhalten haben würden, zu versehen, 
also ermangelte ich auch nicht, den ruinirten Camer al zustand 
mit nicht geringer Mühe und desto mehreren Schaden des Meinigen, 
wovon ich unter Forcht und Angst vieles verlieren müssen, a\if- 



zuhelfen und in andere Wege einzuleiten- 



~— -dahero ich auch durch einen aller Orthen bey Christen und 
Juden habenden Credit, wie Ew.Hochf »Durchl« Selbst gndst» wissen, 
denen Cammex und Casseb mit vielen 100/m fl» subveniret, und 
selbige nunmehro dahin gebracht habe, dass durch obige namhafte 
Mittel und Weege solche in besseren Stand gesetzet und dahin 
gebracht worden, dass insonderheit denen Hof -und Canzley Bedien- 
ten, deren viele biss daher wegen ihrer Dürftigkeit und dass 



Zu 36d 



6. 



ihnen ihre Besoldungen nicht richtig gereicht werden können« ge<« 
seufzet, wiederum besoldet und zufrieden gestellt werden-»*— «*-»-»«•- 



-. •.-.•.-.-./iuf gleiche Arth und Weise wurde ich auch nach Dero 

ghdigstem 'vVohlt>ef allen in Legat ionen und Verschickungen gebraucht, 
in welchen ic]^ es darauf ankommen lassen darf, ob eine von denen«» 
selben fruchtlos und vergebens gewesen, wovon allenfalls zu eini- 
gem Beweise, ohne Euer Hochf »Durchl* hiermit beschwehrlich zu 
fallen, nur das von des Herrn Bischofen zu Würzburg Gnaden mir 
zugestellte recreditiv genugsam zeugen kan und wird« 
^on der Einrichtung des Münzwesens, über welches allein ein ande- 
rer nicht nur die Gesundheit, sondern wohl gar Leib und Leben 
verlohren haben würde, die ich doch mit Erstaunen der benachbarten 
Chur-und Heichsfürsten und Stände dergestalten zu Stande gebracht, 
dass auf Zukunft durch meinen Unterricht das Werk von Dero Poste« 
ritaet mit grossem Nutzen forgeführt werden kan, nicht einmal 
etwQS zu gedenken« Dessen ohngeachtet aber und ob icl^ schon bis 
daher in meinen Actionen und Verrichtungen mich aller ersinnlich- 
sten Vorsichtigkeit bedienet xind noch über diss biss daher alle 
von Potenten Fürsten und Herrn mir gemachten vorträgliche und 
recht avantageuse Vorschläge, ja mein eigen Gut und Blut Euer 
Hochf «Durchl« höchsten Person und Interesse postponirt, Ja um 
obenangezeigter Ursachen und fast ohnermesslichen Mühe und Arbeit 
willen darum ansehnlich negligiret habe, weilen an Denenselben eine 



Zu 36d 7t 

ausnehmende Klugheit und Erfahrung, euch penetrante Einsieht 
gefundeni welohe mich ganz sicher gemacht, es werde sich nie- 
mand unterstehen, nur zu glauben, dass man so kühn und im 
Stande seyn dörffte, dieselbe in etwas zu hintergehen und sich 
daxdurch einen Verdacht zu ziehen, so müsste ich mich doch de- 
nen beständigen Machinationen und Verfolgungen bis daher imter- 
werfen sehen, und immerzu erwarten, was meine Adversarii, die 
mir doch in das Gesicht heuchelten, wider mich versuchen und 
anstellen werden, zu raXCTyyifaifg Ausführung dessen dörfte ihnen 
vielleicht kein besserer und scheinbarer Fraetext dienlich ein- 
fallen, als Euer Hochf • Durchl» den Verdacht wider mich beizu- 
bringen, als wann icii mich auf eine ohnerlaubte Art in dem Lande 
bereicherte, da doch alles von Ihnen ohne Grund auf eitele und 
leere Praesumtionen hinauslaufen wird, ohne dass posit4 auch 
sed non concesso dieselbe überlegen, wovon ich meine bissheri- 
ge, vor JSuer Hochf* Durchl» Interesse gemachte Reiss-Zehrungen 
und Estaffe tten-Gelder, auch dessentwegen nötig gehabte Equi- 
page und viele Haushaltungen nebst Interesse vor meine impor- 
tante Capitalien, die sich wenigstens in kurze Zeit auf 30/m 
erloffen, bestritten, nicht einmal zu gedenken, dass die andere 
nicht einen Ritt vor das Thor hinaus thun, man gebe dann ihnen 
die erforderliche Costen, mir biss daher an dergleichen nichts 
bezahlt worden, will geschweigen, dass ein vor allemal mir kein 
in dem Land aquirirter Reichthum darum erwisen werden kan, indem 
Euer Hochf »Burohl» sich nicht gnädigst erinnern werden, dass ich 



Zu 36d 



8. 



mich entweder um ein Lehen oder aber sonsten grosse Schenkungen 
und Gaben wie andere jemalen beworben« vielweniger solche erhal«- 

•-• .-. Nun kann Euer Hochf •Durchl, ich nicht verhalten, dass 

meine vornehmste Principia, die ich hierinnenfalls habe, darinnen 
hauptsächlich bestehen« dass ich vorderistens den höchsten Be«- 
herxscher Himmels und der Erde förchte und liebe « Euer Hochf« 
Durchl« mit unter thdnigster Treue und Devotion venerlre und so 
dann meinem Kchsten gern, ohne auf Geld und Gut zu sehen, diene, 
welches ich vor die sicherste und beste Religion halte« —— 

~ ~ — So sehe nunmehr o mich bey solcher der Sache Euer Hochf • 

Duxchl* am mehisten, mir aber gleichwolen zA grossem Kachtheil 
gereichenden Beschaffenheit äusserst nothgedrungen entweder mich 
noch in Zeiten, ehe und dann ich vollends gar meinen Widersacher 
zum Opfer werde, mit Dero gnädigsten Erlaubniss zu retiriren, und 
meinen eigenen MjJPHlinH Negotien abzuwarten oder auf den Fall 
Höchstdieselbe mich noch fernerhin in Gnaden beybehalten weiten, 
so aber über 1/4 Jahr längstens, weilen in solcher Zeit alles vol- 
lend einzurichten hiemit unterthänigst promittire, nicht mehr dau- 
ern solle.»., ich per Rescriptum in das künftige dergestalten in 
Sicherheit gestellt werden müsse, dass, da ich biss daher mit Auf- 
setzung meines Guts und Bluts vor Dero herrschaftl. Interesse ohn- 
ermüdet gewesen und viele auf Millionen sich erloffene Entreprisen 



Zu 36 d 



9. 



mit grossem Hazard zu Dero Wolgef allen glücklich aus geführet 
hätte I manchmal aber von privatis, denen ich gleichmässig bedie- 
net gewesen, höchstdenenselben ohne Nachtheil uäd Schaden geringe 
Douceur empfangent von welchen, ob Sie schon von mir zu solchen 
herrschaftl. Ausgeben verwendet worden, von denen Niemand, als 
Eure Hochf «Durchl« Höchste Person zu wissen nöthig gehabt, will 
geschwiegen, dass vile von mir, wie solches Bero Oberhofkanzler 
und Cabinets-Secratarius Knab ^ bekannt ist, besonders in Gratial 
Sachen gleich auf das Chatoul geschlagen worden, Jetzo ein und 
andere ohne Ursach aus habenden, theils passionirten, anderntheils 
aber mehrers interessirten Absichten frey raisoniren und weiss 
nicht, wass damit wider mich aufzubringen vermeinen, solch alles 
aber gegen die von mir obangezeigte Verdienste nichts sejn könne 
noch möge, !&uer Hochf • Durchl* hiermit aus eigener gnädigsten Be- 
wegnuss vor sich, Dero Erben und Nachkommen im Regiment declarir- 
ten und wollen, dass dissfalls ich jetzt und fürohin von aller 
Verantwortung und Ansprach frey seyn, einf olglioh die wegen der 
Verehrungen in das Land ergangene Hochf* Rescripta niemalen auf 
mich verstanden seyn, auch in Zukunft sich niemand unterstehen 
solle, mir hievon nur das mindeste entgegen zu halten, vielweniger 
unbedachtsam mich auf solche injuriöse Weise anzufallen, auf 
keinerley Weiss noch Weege, als lieb einem Jeden seyn werde, zu 



) 



Siehe Drf^rsteilung Kap. IV. 



Xu 36 d 



10« 



vermeiden Dero Ffirstl» Höchste Ungnade und wessen Stands auch 
einer immer seyn möchte« ohnfehlbar zu gewarten habender Cassation* 
Und lass ich im ftbrigen Euer Hochf^Durohl* demodohst auch in 
Unterthäxiigkeit anheim gestellt i was Höchstdieselbe sonsten wider 
mehrerwehnte mich auf eine Äusserst XMJf injxiriöse Art angegrif* 
fene Diffamanten re satisfactionis publicae et privatae gnädigst 
disponiren« damit nicht sowolen dieselbe Selbsten Mnftig nicht 
mehr in Dero so nöthigen Ffirstl* Gemflth beunruhiget « ich aber 
von all dergleichen ohnbefugten Anfillen befreiet werden möge* 



Joseph Süss Qppenheimer an Karl Alexander . 

8. Februar 1737 

Photokopie des Archivs* 



Duixhleuchtigster Herzog 
Gnädigster Fürst und Herr! 



Euer Hochfürstl* Purchleucht haben sich zwar gndgst gefallen 
lassen, nicht nur mein Jüngsthin in Unterthänigkeit übergebe-* 
nes Memoriale verlesen zu lassen, sondern hieraus auch zu 
meiner etwelchen Securitaet allbereits eine gnädigste Beso- 
lution abzufassen« Wann aber Gnädigster Fürst und Herr das 
von meinen Widersachern vermeintlich beschwerlichste Imputatum 
dahingegangen, alswann ich mit Verehrungen in Gratial-Sachen 
die Supplicanten ohne das, was in die firstl« Chatoul gekommen, 
beschwert, und dardurch mein Vermögen um ein Ziemliches ver- 
mehret hätte, davon aber Höchster leucht dieselbe in laudata 
Resolutione dessentwegen das nothwendige nicht gnädigst bey- 
fügen lassen: So bin ich bei diesen obschon exparte Adver- 
sariorum vorgekommenen missgünstig- mir aber dabey empfindl» 
gefallenen Umständen, woraus dieselbe gleichwolen einige 
Reflexion zu machen scheinen, genöthiget Euer Hochfürstl» 
Durchl» nochmalen in Unterthänigkeit anzugehen, und zu bitten, 
mir entweder zu V/idererlangung meiner Gesundheit und in 
Richtigkeit-Stellung der in meinen eigenen Negotien gegebenen 



- 2 - 



Engagements das Gratial neben dem Fiscalat-^Amt abzunehmenf und 
hingegen, da ich biss daher in der gl* vorfallenheiten sowohlen, 
wann es hie und da gefehlet, denen Imploranten und Inquisiten 
importante Posten, damit die fftrvtl* Chatoul gleich Jedesmalen 
eontentixet worden, mit grossen Hazard vorgeschossen, als denen 
Denuncianten auch manchmalen aus neiner eigenen Cass viele, um 
die Wahrheit allen Widerstands ohngeachtet desto ehender zu enui- 
ren und zu behaupten, ansehnliche Douceurs gemacht, 
eine Rechnung abzulegen, und dergleichen Leute nahmhaf t zu machen, 
mir darum nicht zugemuthet werden kan, weilen solche dardurch 
in einen unvergesslichen Haas und äusserste Verfolgung sich set- 
zen und endlich samt ihren Familien wohl gar vollend zu Boden 
stürtzen würden, diese beide Amter in das künftige jemand anders 
zu überlassen, welchen ich nicht sowohlen in kurtzer Zeit allen 
benöthigten Unterricht als insonderheit auch noch, um desto ehender 
darzu zu gelangen, die von den ehemaligen Inquisiten und 
Vogt Zellern zu Bahlingen unter allen Commissionen 

zu Erhaltung meiner Dimission von meinem praesiuntive 
acquirirten Heichthum zu geben vuod zu bezahlen promittiren, oder 
aber gnädigst geschehen zu lassen, dass da ich wieder meinen Willen 
diese 2 Jlmter noch fernerhin über mich nehmen und dabey verharren 
müsste, solche wie biss daher als auch in Zukunft um so ehender 
fortführen dürfte, als sich einestheils Niemand über mich 
beschwehret- anderntheils aber mir ein Gewissen machte, wann ich 



- 3 - 



dergleicilen Leute mit denea mir axif Jedes 100 



aaerbotten 



wieder ihren Willen und Vermögen noch mehreres äff« 
ligiren und und drücken müsste, da mir dernnfichst gefallen lasse^ 
dass wann Euer Hookfürstl« Ihirchl» sich gestern an denen ausge- 
worfenen 1000 gndgst» , solche ad 400 biss 300 
oder wie es sonst gnädigst beliebig, noch weiter reducirt, und 
dergestlaten herunter gesetzt werden mögen, dass ich des ersteren 
halber Yor nichts responsable seyn, was aber sich darflber 
würde, erst alsdann Euer Hochfürstl* Ihirchl« §elbsten die unter- 
thänigste Anzeige davon thun und darüber dero iSMä^JÜt Gnädigste 
Einwilligung erwarten solle und wolle, damit 
et in Futurum meine Feinde gedlmpfet und ich endlich einmal zur 



Ruhe gebracht werde» Wogegen ich 



die unterthänigste Ver- 



sicherung gebe, dass ich in meinem unter thflnigsten 
vor dero Interesse beständig continuiren, und solchefflnach in 
tiefster Devotion ersterben werde« 
Euer Hochfür stl« Durchleucht , 



Stuttgardt, 

den 8.Febr«1737« 



ünth 



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S e 1 Ki a ': t e rn , Jud ' fj. 



E. 133 ^^ie sic'i in i 

den; Staat? i:.ann, der Kric 
f in?jmzpolitiker, d.r Abc 
kreuzt und befehrdr, t, r;o 
d r Orient mit derr. Ckzid 
Judentums mit der .Veit d 
i^^ini' rer, Feldherrn und 
CO korr- " pondiert er mit 
mit üoffaktoren und ii"'nd 



ha; der Kaufniann mit 
grli fcrr^nt mit df:iij 
nteurcr mit dem Bcairit>; 

b-^f^^;hdet sichln ihr: 
cnt, die ^elt dep 

.'■' B{'rock. V'/ie er. mit 
Ffirretn Korrepo ^diert,| 

j üd i r. c he n i:^an ki e r r , 
lorn. >ifKkrxndx:/ 42J/ 



iN-ot- 427 S. 333: Kr. Pr. A. Bd 44. Siohc 
Koi rcf pondcnz mit Koj^ee Clelf i koser. Guir;pertz| 
au fr; Klcj-fee ), m.it Key er Hripc'iel, Kaip. F.-'ktor 
in .ienx.rief v. 26. Jrn 1737« n:lt Bcnj-imin 
Düvid aur' Prap;. 21. Okt. 1736.- Joal Jctt:lba 
auG Frankfurt t. 25. Jan. 173'. --benda m;it ./ol 
A'crtheimer aur- Lunchen, Cccher Arno c hei r.u 
Ccttin;'-en, Lazarus Samuel aus Bruanscnwoil, 
Gebriel L chael aun Mannheim, Jakob Simon aus 
Bi '£cn. 



"iirend er der verw'*hnte Geliebt" adlirr r 
Hofdamen und reicher PatritierÄnnen ist, h^f^r il 
er zup:le. ich di-: Tochctc.T einen orth dcxon Jud >' 
zur Frau 438 ( aur K^tz die Tochter einen 



k i e r s A' a. 1 1 a n C a ^i n Kr . P 



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Jud Süss 




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Die Geschichte vom Aüfstlgg und Sturz des Jud Süsa ist im Wesentlichen 

Beziehung texx Ptfyypry 

die Q-eschichte seJnrB Verhältnisses zumHerzog Karl Alexander. Etwas neues» 

kam durch 
noch nie Dagewesenes »xdtdtKxmzinixttXBtfluuiclcxxxKxx dieses VerhKltbis in die 

ein 
deutschjtidusche beschichte: die Fraendschaf t» Ja» üherachwänglich»ogegeneeit 

igexKaigulgeuhAehkfitMbund zwischen einem regiremeden Fürsten und einem Juden» 
echte 
gegrünet auf gegenaietige nz Neigtxng und gf ruhtet wblT engste Z sammen« 



rtk 



Vi 



arbeit in der höchsten Sphäre der Regierung/ Scho n darin allein lag der 

Keim künftiger tragischer Verwicklung. Dasa sich die Gestalt des Jus Süss 

nicht nur als 
im GrunAedem Typus des Hof Juden zu entwinden schien» dass er als gtetsk- 
privilegierter Diener 
berechtigtes» sondern XB5ctexxt±gax als gleichberechtigter» xaitettxttgcxq^ 

kflnnuidaxtflixx aufrichtig geschätzter und gelAbt^r Gefährte des Herzogs in dess en 



nächst Umgebing aufgenommen wurde» hätte ihm verhägnisvoll eerden müssen» selbst 

i , X rr den Einflus? 

wenn er nicht nooh-^bendre in durch seinen Kampf gegen dft» LanatSlnde 

die Adeligen 
die lixgKtanig gegen sich aufgereizt hätte. 

verband 
ttiKX Oie F^\Ls;ad8chft» die zKtdKkxndDem Herzog und SUs bestand» 




A<:._ ^: ^--1 >-, .^^^y^'-rA.. (''^^/^y^ unzweideutug , t ^ ^_^ 
- J p^ durch die zwischen oedden gew^hselten Brlefebe zeugt« Es gcMxtxznx ist 



ein Ironie der öewchlchte, dass dieser Briefwechslei - oder jedenfalls ein 

gros er Teil davon -durchden nach dem Tode des 'erzogs gegen Süss eingele eten 

indem die '^ 
Prozess erhalten geblieben ist» xAkcxSltsxiKxdaxxMasktj|l9i|iy)l9ijc bei seiner Vehaftung| 

be 8 Chi gmahmt en e n 

^ftmWJni'fl^ Briefschaften keechiagnaluifttyxdiftx dem Kriminalakt angeschlosen 

wurden» Sie katasind dadurch der Vernichtung entgangen Kkxxxmciind haben in diser 
Form auch die lerzte Verfitj6gu;ig überlebt. Noch liegt keine umfassende 



,cA 



ty\^ ~i 




Sammlung der Briefe Jcjseph Oppenheimers vor. Aber die in Geschichtswekren 

und Biographienveröffentlichten Probte» vor allem die von Selma Steim iksxc 
ausgewählren Stücke vermitteln einen klaren Eindruck von Charakter und 
biographischen Studie beigefügte Auswahl gmiüixtxxxcx def brieflichen 
Stil diesr Briefe, 'vach dem Urteil vo Selam Stern» di zu drm geasmten 
AwJtyprtWfJ^fy Korrepo :dmenz Zutritte hatte» shcriebt Süüs n den Herzog 

zwar 
i xamax" ehrerbiet ig» abe noe kriecoend adrr unterwürfig». .Er fällt»»,» 

hi durchschimmert»" Seine Hiögebiung an den ^^rzog kommt Jedoch In der Uner- 
mtldlickeit seiner Berii^erstiattung 



Süss 4) 

Shcrlebn hat der Herzog dAa erwarteten Elnwtod« f s der jüdischen Glazbe 

des S.O seiner 
dis Adelung entgegensehe durch den Hinswels auf doix5lR«KJcBi5Jc««en" 
^■ile den mit verdiesns trollen deutsxhen Jude 
z uerkannten Würden aber auch durch 

auf die den Portugiese , mit denen die verdienstvollen deutschen Juden 

durchaus vergle cheb se en velelrgenn forden zu entkräften versucht« 

Jedoch darüber 

Jütexs In Wien war man den ach andere Mein ujngi wie der Würtemberglsch 

bald darauf 
Gresandte Keller derm^rzog bichtet. DEr Herzog ][±sxx zog rte nicht 
diese Inform weiterzuge zur unmittelbaren Verfe htung der Sach * 

Süsr darpber zu Informieren, um ihn« Gelegenheit zu gegeh. Der von 
daraufhin 
In einem an Keller fgerichten Bre hat nun pss seien Sach selbst 

verfochten. Der Briefzeigt Süss avxxdftxxttCücliieist ein ttpttouiKtigtxkftxM 

dlplomatushces Kablnet s tue , dBFchdas sich Süss dem Leser förmlich 

auf dem Gipfel seinem Karrlere 

leibhaftig presentiert, Mitx Er verwiset mit vornehmer ''este darauf, das 

erklärt seine 
nicht ert sondern der Herzog sein Adelung angeregt hab? und dass er, umd 
Bereitschaft 

weiteren Shwierlgkeitne aus dem Weg zuhen, beueit sei das ganze 

Vorhaben aufzugeben. Ataxxwixxux In der Sa h seihst ver /weist er auf 

Der Brief gipfelt in elnm in einer 
Präzedenzfälle« Juden seic wiedez4iolt gea delt worden. DAa ihm offenbar nahe- 
mit der er y '^ 

gelegtne Re liglonswechesel lehnt er ofct einer/feinen ironischen Wendung ^b: 

zwei Jahre süäter hat er unter den tragischsten Umständen in der gleichen 

Welse gehandelt« 




Die 



ßrief an den Herzog 




5 . Le tztai gKt»3riitmDcmBt »l«it«Pitat8 

Das FflEkiKKUsgflDixdlaxlBiilktaxnHBidtx Ablehnung des Gesuches um Nobiltlerun 

Probe vor die ^üss in den leten Jahre seiner 
war nicht die schwerste SuztaCKkni; die Süs um Jme Zelt erlitt. Neue Kamp 
öffem zl Tätigkeit gest 11t wurde, 

stadne ikuxlDflncarmlt seinen Gegnern standen ihm bevor. Als Süs deuxüftxxg 
dei Württem ergische Munt« in Pacht nahm erbitterten 

diKxXuepKKxtaraxxdtflix Mümze empfahl, sties er auf den Widerstand des Kammer 

haben 
clrekto Geo gii. See ne Sachkenntnis und Berdesamkeit tuet sich nie mehr 

bewährt als bei der Widerlegung? desvon Geotg 1 erstatteten Gutachtenst Als 

das "kühnstein lebendigste fUnd temperamen^lDollste Schrift tück, das wir von 
SUSP Süss besitzen " vbezelchnet Selma stem das Memotial vo, 13, Juli 1736 



Selrca Stern, Jud Süs 



S. 124-, In eixJeiTi pe'ir In'-ere -anten ken:ori£?l 
V. 13. Juli 1736, wolil dem kn-inrtcn, lebe-idlg- 
nt/:n und temperaffientvoll^^ten chrif tctück, d:i^- 
wir von Sü^r^ besitzen, /^r-ift er voller SarkarTLi 



das "wr itl-ufip;s und verMmrtekt^v Gutac'-it: n' der. 



Kamr. c rdirektin f^ in io'nzn -ic'i: '^ 



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Süss 2) 

a}:|iywph gleichwie den He-zog 

m eine» wet über die amtlichen Pflichten hlauegehenden Streben zu belehren 

und zu überzeugen zum Ausdruck. Die persönliche Note wird of bis zum 

^. ^ ^ , gefährliche freundschaftliiiie: 

iseicent tnls gesteigert. Dlelsollerung in der sich der Herzog und sein Bertate 

in deren ^^riefwe hsel deutlich spürbar 
befonden, ist unverkennbar. Wenn diese Korr nden t abschllesst, ist der 

der Katasprophe de Tra ödie 
variKt te Aktsdes blutigen BxKxuxzKxSxde , le d4e ichdeas Lben Joseph 8. 

darbietet zuxtadBxvorangehenden Akt zu Ende. _ _ 

Süss XÄÜtatKgxtberbhtet -«^flr-d^e-^/olT^ingliig des 

^. xfti»rfft3c3cat1aMcgtkM3gi^8**Unme5g;Iichen " 
und schwierogstn 
Eine der wichtigsren Azf gaben, mit denn Süs btreaut war m bestand 

in der Beschaffung des zur Auspr'-gung der Münze erf oderlichen So bers. 
Die Schwiirogkeiten ihr nachzukommne waren xxxuxxx Infog e der 
xxfii höhe der Silberpreseise macht es der Lieferanten nahtzu un möglich , 

*«ÄX die vom Hofe gefprderten Mengen des Mtalls aufzutrieben 

naazu unüberwondlich. sah sich Süsaxaittxlvb»i erfüllung dieser Aufgabe 
Infolge der Höh e de Silberpre siede stlees die Beschaffung der für die 

oft vor fast 
Ausdürgung von Mümzen erfoderli cehn Silbermengen auf fastuAüberwl ■dliche 

Schlerigkeitenx gestellt. Aber er wusste ihrer Herr zu werden. Ein 

eolche ■Kta^gxatshekaum glaublichen Erfolg 
triumphlemeder Bericht über eitLekiBgasUskte Tretnsaktlon zeigt Süüs 

Mit einem Löcheln der öchsteb BfMidli 
in einem seiner glückluchtsten Augenblicke: KxxgftiKSstxJmxlEcxKixs 

gung "so (jott willQ in ddr nächsten Woche 
lacheibnd siht er sich die Schlosstreepe hlanufs telegen, um Kiskxde 

dem Herzog des Silbershatz persöbnlich zu übergeben. 

2> Vertrauliche Wünsche des Herzogs 

ijie Briefe l[aö_.^lex«üidersai^-SüBir^flto einem xÄjctttÄitakm 
pers nlichen, Ja frexmdshcaftlichen 
ujgekfknsteltne gpf gp^jijjpi^^ggj^gggif^^jg^ vg^ verraten das une ngeschränkte 

Vertrauen in Süss üä seinenliüi Fehigkeiterff--"Be sonders lieber Herr 

Ode r 
Resident** spxisxxtalcxdtielciitctxdtlflixABxptXKSkxiKxatxflaixäzitts^ie, .Lieber Süss" 

lahtete die Ansprache in den ^r%en und zweilen tritt das intime Du" an 

stelle d^s Im Verkehr mit Untertanen üblchen Er od r Ihr. ^ dement sprechned 
sind sieJ^b) es sich um den Erwerb von kostbaren Juwelen oder die 

Gewährung persönlicher Darlehen handelt, der Herzog zweifelt nicht das 
Süüs seine Wünsche erfüllen wird. 



A 



n 




wehrt sich gegen selneVldersacher 
Süss iBxXam 
3> Vorstellu ungen und Vor fiihni,incgfttt 

Im laxufe des Jahre I735 hat sich der Widerstand, mtTi^mK auf den 
von Süss elgeführte bei deitr ^eamtensohaft ujf den LandstHnden 
die finanzpolitischen Massnaxhemen BteeBenicxwi(4x(ti«xf«rÄö[xx«r««lite % 

und die felndeselge Haltung, der er slh gegenVberaah deeart varschörft, 

schroftl Chi 
dass Süss IsxKJcxftxxRflci^flixKflaixfixtetflcn liel dem Herzog vostelllÄg wird xisuscr 

und widerholet um seine Entlassiin gxer«nt«lix bittet. In «%1 langen 

an den Herzog gerichteten 

ku rz auf elenaderf olgenden Schr4taiben führt er Klage gegen das Trelbn 

Aber wShewnd er xxxxxx seiner Besorgnis wegen gefährlich 

seiner Widersacher. Er gibt der qualvollen, für Ihne fast unerträglich gewoden 

gibt, aJctxImcaigtnixWBXtBi xyit 

Lage stärksten Arsdruck ssdtxUttctxsBxSxtimajnaig^xKnDixxfifluixdiskxixtxdtiaasK 

dennoch dass er 

kfluexikftxtexvM Ist dei» Tenor der Briefe durch die Hpffnung bestimmt» dem 
werde 

^erzog welter dienen zmxkönneaT 




Schreiten v. I7. März 1735 

S. 213-iA 

Von "loh gkaube" bis /Hindernus gemacht werden mOgte«...." 
Von "Aber Leyderl" bis "Zahlngstermonen. . . "Und über das Ew. Hoohf, 
D, eigene Leute" bis iaxlxslBtxwird Ordre gehen zu lassen. •• 

SchrAAben v. 24, Mal 1735 

In einem wohlwollenden 

S±n bald darauf vuxNavsog an Süs gerichtete Schrieben zcxgt 

mit feiner Ironoe abe*urch die Geschichte gfausa kommentlr|er 
KiKhtxxuxxaRxdBxxfauetgsatBtztaaixJaitBHslicBH setzt sich der Herzog iächein 

von Süs geaiusserte 
aityp9)ipr3(fii$ypber die Bedehke&se hinweg 



itliger Voiiasslcht 



Schrieben des H. vo 18. Juli 1735 S 218-9. 




4, Süss debattiert die Frage seiner Adelung 

Viele Gründe haben den lerzog bewogent belmm Ka&ser um die 

Noblllerung des Süsf^ Openhelemr anzuzusuchen. Die Adelung sollte dem 

u^ystrltteanSlatgebee Ratgebe In Inneren des Landes und Auswärts eine neues 

Ansehen verschaffen, seine Autorität gegenüber den LandstSnden verstärken, 

vor allem Jedoch Ihm sel)?er durch dies e höchste Gunstbezelglng Genugztuung 

1,-S^ U c~ <C.^_ Der entsorach schlles lieh ^n^ 
und Inneren Halt gewähren » GüctgxxtatxlBflii xdtggami Schritt avKhxdtKX Bedürfnis 

des Herzogs, die Fruendschaft mit Süss In feie rlic her Welse zu beslge, nn und 

be wunderten Mann ^^ 

den gftlikten Mann dauernd an sl,ch zu fesseln Xh tee^^^an. sden Kaiser gerichtet n 




Süss 5 ) Aber eelne 

«t«tat«)itxvatxdt«K dlexktetaBus der letzten dem Tode des Herzogs u dffl 

Al»exxli«xKlskxluBiCxxnKkxxKCXdiEkiflDid«ixxibigxitle gleichzeitigen Sturz 

vorangehenden Zelt 
des S,0« stanunendem» an dcaxMuzKarl Alexancer gerlohten Brlefesind 

und 
Dokument^, von ähnlicher IteBktxnd geistigen Schärfe alicx ülDerdles von 

Ein unersohüttrrlches Sellbstbewuss stein gepaart 
grosser leldensohaflicher Wuohtt. teKxitaflCKxxjUKiBlit Die Ahnung des u wrer- 

mit ^^ einem Dleersei» hier 
meldllohen Verh^'ngnisses spricht aus ihen. Und wenn Süs axfliiKflurxataücxsen 
wiedergegebene i>rlefe Israels 

Glaubensbekenntnis ablegtt wmdtx wird er zum Sprecher tasxtaEdentuui^xdcsheitf 
Die Stimme des um Jene ZAit sich mit der Aufklärung vebunden Juedne ist 
der sich im achtsehnten Jahrhundert 
darais vernehmbar« 




einen 
Weniger als als Monat nach Ndersohrlft diese» Zeilen 

ein Gefangener, 
war Joseph Süss OppenheimerxlsxHaft« Der plötzliche Tod des Herzogs Am 

betevtete 
12. März 1737 tadtnjwt auch sein Ende. Ale er sichaus em herzogllchne Schlos 

In Stuttgart 
wo er der Herzogoln die ^^achrlcht von Tode Ih es Gatten püberbraxht hattem 

entfernen wollte, wurde er vom Obersteh von Rorsohaoht akaxtateligcn axkkttx 

xszkUxtvehaftet. Der Pros zesst dessen Ausgang nicht zweifelhaft sein könnt 

zöge sich bis Dezember 1737 hin Nachdem ihii das Todewurteil - am 3 Jan 

Süss 
17^8 - verkündet worden war ahhte u noch den Kampf mit dne chrlstlchen Prieste 

dfte auf den 
zu bestehen» » die Tbls zssxtmge seiner Hi richtung v den 4. Febuar ^ngesttto 

wurd e. Tat fpr bei ihm erschienen um Ihn zur Annahe de Christentums zu 

Jenen 
bekeren. In dicaan Tagne und In den lettten Augenblicken erhpb sich JSO zur 

Höhe lenss Möertyters. Was ©r In seinem Briefe v. 1. Febrau 1937 h kannt hat e 

- das er den höchsten Beher scher des Himees und der Erde fürchte und liebe - 



hat er in bl l^ste Wesie am galgei^ beze ugt. 




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11/6,1952 



Lear Dr.Kobler, 



erolosed -^ s a co-py of a letter wr^tten 
by my late ^randfather ^n 1844 to h-»s brother ^n law 
from mideshe^m to Hamburg. so on after h-^s marr^a^e. 

As you see, I made the copy 50 years ago . 
If yoii think that you can use the letter, you may do so 



With k-^r.d regards to you and/l^rs.Kobler ! 



Yoar 



Encl. 




Uj /a/W^ ' < 



/ 






^JüaiEche Familienf orschung Heft 40 Jahr^^a-n^ Xll 1936, 
Prof .Dr.GuidoMC i s c h TTev.-YorlcPrivatbrief e als quellen 



: / 'I'- 



der jüdi gehen Familienf orfi-chunc, , ': 

S. 702-3 > i^as *'erdienst in neuerer Zeit alte jüdische Privat- 

"briefe al? wichtige jüdische Geschichtsquclle erstmals erkannt und 
vervyertet zü ha"ben, t^-e"bührt Ludwig' Elau, demiaHeruasgeloenr und Bearbei- 
ter dtjr x eichhal ti^^en Korrespondenz von Leon da Moaena(1571- 164B), 
welche bine ^rosse Ausbeutefü« aie Kenntnis des jüdischen Privatle- 
bens und aanit der Kultur- una Sittengeschichte aer Juden in Italien 
von der 'Vende aes 16, bis zur Mitte aes 17.*^ahrhunderts liefert, Un- 
ter den '^Briefen und Schrif tstücken'^Modenas befinden sich solche an 
Verwandte, an verschiedene mehr oder minder bekannte Persönlichkei- 
ten, an Körperschaften, innei-haaib und ausserhalb Italiens .Darunter 
fol^Bnde reine Einladung zu einer Doppelhochzeit , eine Aufforderunt; s 
zur Schlichtung eines Streites , mehrere Panilienbrief e und Briefe in 
Pamilienangelegnehei ten,P eundschaf tsbrief e , verschi eden ISmof ehlunt^s- 
schrei ben,Bi ief e an Schüler und von solchen, Sendschreiben an jüdixK- 
sche ^►eminden, eine Aufforderung an ein l^itc^lied eines Wohltatii^keits 
Vereins, seine seit' drei Jahren rüvkstä.ndigen Beiträge zu zahlen, eine 
Zurechtweisung wegen eines f ehlerhaf t bgeschrieben hebräischen Brie- 
fen nebst Belehrung ,und dergleichen mehr, Die Briefe gewähren reich- 
licri Aufsch3iüsse über jers-ö. .nliche Verhältnisse und Pamilien'tee Zie- 
hungen, über die j olitischen una sozialen Zustände, über Geneinde- 
und private Angelegnehei ten, über religiöses und profanes Leben, über 
Anecheuungen, Bitten und Gebräuche der italienischen Juden, über ihren 
Verkehr untereinander und mit ausländischen Glaubensgenossen sowie 



mit ihrer nichtjüdischen Umgebung,,.,. 

S . 7 04 - L Ghaim .oseph iJavia Azulaj ,Akiba Sger,i'.1ose Sofer und 

aer j-.aGhkoramen der -Familie Sofer ' 

Die ganze jüaische briefgeschichtliche Forschung befindet 



\ 



\ 



sich so erst in aen Anfängen, ^arüber kann auch die Tataache niclit 
hinwegtäuschen, dass kürzlich eine ebßnso geschickt zusaniineng est eilte 

V, wie inhaltlich interessante Anthologie von deutsch-jüdischen Brie- 

\ 

i^SK aus drei Jahrhunderten veröffentlicht vvorden ist, die sich in 
erstei Reihe nicht aiö wissenschaftliche Kreise wendet, An der Hand 
K ausgewählter c Viar ak t er isfi scher Briefe von Juden, an, ^ Juden ri^ 



/ ^ 



-,!,-; 



-^Ct;'-'- ■'^pt'*K' 



OU'^^rV ^flf'x'^■'"^ 



ii QüL&n ter 1 ,; ^ i* sei; 



'" \:X, 



Jüai^Qhe T?amipenf oi-Bchung. 

(■■ 
, Prof.K i s cj jl « Privatbriefe 2 ) ■ - - 

der •Juden irr] Bereiche des deutschen Hprachgehietes während der Letz- 

ten, arei Jahrhunderte gelegt, indem diese persönlichsten Dolcumente Ä 

de0 Innen- 'Jnd Zusamraenlebens von Juden und ITicht Juden vor dem Leßer 

ausgebreitet v/erden. Inf olge der Beschränkung auf bereits bekannte 

und gedruckte Er ef Sammlungen ist jedoch neues Brief , aterial durch 



a 



iese Publikation nicht erschlossen worden, 




S .7Qq/. Dass Briefe eine aufschlussreiche Geschichtsquelle von 

grosser Wichtigkeit bilden könnenidt auch der arperikanisch-j üdi sehen 
G-esühichtsf orschung nicht entgangen, Freilich ist das Material ,v/elc- 
c>ies von dieser histoiischen Huel lengattung in Amerika bisher ans 
fageslicht gekommen ist und dem Forscher auf dem Gebiet der Jimerika- 
lisch- jüdischen Geschichte heute zur Verfugung steht, noch als ausser 
ordentlich spärlich zu bezeichnen. Die Gründe dafür liegen in der IIa- 
tur der Sache. Urkunden haben sich in früheren Zeiten ebenso wie heu- 
te in privaten Händen nur in den seltensten Fällen erhalten, gesch- 
weige denn Generationen überdauern k*ö nnen. Urkunden, una besonders 
solche des täglichen Lebens auf zubev»ahren,war und ist nur dann 



Brauch, wenn es sich um Rechtsakte handelt 



So ist es zu erklären, dass sich schon in Suropa jüdische 



Familienbriefe aus alter Zeit nut in äusserst geringer Zalil erhal- 
ten ha,ben. Dasselbe gilt für Amerika. Hier kommen Fxber noch zwei becon 
dere Gesichtsx)unkte hinzu. 

Das I.Titteilungsbedürfnis Familienmitgliedern gegenüber ist fast 
immer herv rgerufen und bedingt durch räumliche Trennung , durch die 
Verschiedenheit der Aufenthaltsorte des Brief Schreibers und des Ajäx 
Adressaten. Sin solches Bedürfnis , über die Lebenssschickf ale zu beri- 
chten, bestand bei den -"esiedlern Amerikas in früher Zeit meist wohl 
nur gegenber ihren Familien in Europa, weniger jedoch gegenüber Ver-^-- 
wandten innerhalb aer neuen Welt, wo ein solches erst allmählich 
durch aie fortschreitende Ueberspannung des ganzen neuen Kontinen"' 
mit europäischen Anseidlungen entstehen konnte, mit denen die jÄÄ:' 
sehen nur langsam vorrückten. iian s it.. daher versucht »anzunehmen, d 
;:)|^, ^^ in -uropa Btiefe von jüdischen Auswanderern geben ^üssey|ie 
j^,|,Y^B "^^^.^ an ihre Angehörigen in die Heimatländer gesellet- hf 



■-o^v^ 





JüciiBche Pamilienf orschung. 

Prif.^ i s c h > Srivatbrief e, 5) 



Ma,^- pein.daES Bich solche Do^cumente, denen natürlich kul tu r^iie Schicht - 
lieh "bedeutender "ert zulcoramen kann, urschriftlich noch irgendwo 
in jSuriopa in öffentlichen oder Parnilienarchiven oder in Privatbe- 
sitz befinden. In der Literatur ist raemes 7/issens bisher nichts der- 
gleichen veröffentlicht ode auch nur bekannt geworden, obwohl wir 
durch die, verdienstvollen Veröffentlichungen des Department of Hiß- 
torical Research of the Carneii:ie Institution of v/aschington über das 
Material zur amerikanischen Geschichte in den europäischen staatli- 
chen Archiven aufrreichen unterri :htet sind.,,., 

S,7Q7 l^er zwiete Umstand, der dazu bei^:ei tra(jen hat und mit be- 
wirkt hat,da,ss sich Proevatbriefe und besonders jüdische Privatbrie- 
fe aucl: in und c.us Amerika nur so spärlcih erhalten haben, spielte 
bereits in IHIuropa eine ^^rosse Rolle, Die Unzulancslichkeit oer Beförde 
run(_:Emi ttel und die Unsicherheit der Verkehrswege iiessen manchen 
Brief schon vald nach der Niederschrift zugrunde flehen,,,.., 

In der rjanzen Literatur zur Geschichte aer Juden in Amerika 

soweit ich sie überblicken kann, sind denn die weni^jen Privatbriefe 
von Kitcjüedern der Familien Bloch und Gratz arx ihre ant^ehörigen 
nach London die einzij^^en jüdischen Ausv/andererbrief e nach Buropa, 
aie aus früeheren Jahrhunaerten erhalten £jebieiien,bekantgeworden 
und veröffentlicht sind.Insbesonder sind ältere Privatbruef jüdisBii- 
scher Auswanderer ,die von Amerika nach Deutschland gerichtet waren, 
im Original bisher überhaupt noch nicht ans TagesliGhtn(<;ezo4^;en wor- 
den, Nachrichten au3 der neuen Welt sind dorthin lange bloss auf Um- 
wegen gekommen, 5)0 sendete im Jahre 17G3 von London aus Salomon Heni;:,' 
Sohn des Hirsch Zwi Bloch, einen eigenen Bericht über das Schicksal 
seines Bruders Kpppel Bloch, genannt Jacob Henry, über das er durch 
araeri aknische Brief unterrichtet war, an seine iiiltern nach Langendorf 
in Preaissisch-Schlesien.Und nur aurch die Veröffentlichung in der 



3 



erliner jüdischen Zeitschrift Ha-MassephfDer Sammler )ist die brief- 



liche Nachricht eines Mitgliedes der Berliner j?a,mile Bleichröder 
überliefert , de .am 20. Juli 1807 gleich nach aer Ankunft von New-Xork 
aus an die Angehörigen nach Berlin gesendet worden v>^ar,,,,., 

, . . ,'.Vas son t an Briefraaterial jüdischer Herkunft in Amerika aus-j 



■„»j**-- 






■V^i't-'-J 



■tt«^*tim 



,^i Ä;:;.;w:s8irtfs; 'V,^'^;.,^'^* 




;':.\t''ä 






Jüdischf Pamileinf orBchung 
-^2LJLiLcJ2__Privatbriefe 4) 



•'.£'■,^1;. 



f ^- 



geccraben .vorden ist.^^.ehort a].les-mit wenigen Ausnahmen- erst der Mit- 
te des 19. Ja-hr hunder ts an.,,,, 

S . 70&i^Fierkun^:-en, 

Artikel **Letterwriting and Letterwriters^in The Jev/ish lüncyclo- 
pedia Vlll,ITew York und London 1906, S, 15-17 jArtikel*«Biiefliteratur 
hebräische^in Jüsisches Lexikon 1, Berlin 1927 ,S.1167-1170;Artikel 
'*3rief und Briefli ceratur^'in Encycloi^aedia Judaica IV, Berlin 1929 
S. 1065-1072; auch aen an keiner Stelie erwähnten Auf satz^Jews and Let 
ter£'*bei IrraeL Atüaharas ,Tke bock of Delight and Other Pai)ers,Phila- 
delphia 1912,3.273-289, . 
2) Y/illiam ZeitLinBiliio theca EpiF^ol •^:rai)hica,Bobligraphie der helo- 



räiRcher Brief s teller,Zei tsch rift für hebräische Bi'bliograx:)hie 
XXll ,1^193,32-47. 

3) Vjl.^iuc}} zu f olt:'endera:Ludwi(^ Blau, Leo modenas Briefe udn Schrift- 
stücke, ei n ~eitrati- zur Creschichte der Juden in Italien und zur Ge- 
schichte des hebräischen PrivatiiEÄJütXÄÄs tiles , Jah.jL;esberischt der Lan 
aesrabbinerschule an Buda^^est für 1904-5 una 1905-1906, Budax^est 1905 
und 1906, Einlei tung S.3-5;angeaeigt von V.Aptowitzer in aer llonats- 
e hrift für Geschichte und ",7issenschaf t des ^udenturas Llll,1909 
S. 750-52; 

4] Georg Steinhausen ,CJ-esichichte des deutschen Briefes 1,11, Berlin 
1889, 1891;Steinhausen, Deutsche Privatbriefe des Tfi ttel alters l,3eri.- 

lin 1899, 11, Berlin 1907 

10) An Leopold Law gerichtet Brief zahlreicher jüdischer Gelehrter 
auf die ich kürzlich im 5, Bande von Leopold Löv/as Gesammelten Schrif 

ten, pZegedin 1900,3,95-224 zufällig aufmerkaam wurde-J. 

Pres burger Briefe eines Rabbi natskandidaten aus dem ^ahr 1848 (an Ä 
den hervorragenden Trebitscher Talmudgeoehrten Salomon Pollalc, einen 
Lieblingsschüler Mosee Sof ers )he.iausgegeben und eingeleitet von Ber- 
nhard '7riChstein,Bnai Brith la tteilunf-cen für Oesterreich XXX V/i en ^^ 

1930 S.1-9 .10^ -121. 

II'). die kulturgeschichtlich ausserordentlich interessanten ,blen]äB- 
dend .^eschreitenen Brief e des ■beruhten Begründers des nidernen Han 
delsrecb.ts Levin Goldsclinidt .Rates am KecÄchso^^erhandelseericht und 



V 



V 



ßi^Dr.K i s c 



en 



fiuri! 




) zuöetzt -i'd ent liehen Professors der Rech- 






•4^ an der Berll/er Universität jX^evin GolciBchmidt 18;39-.l897, ein LeiJ- 

v^ensbild in 3?/t;fen,riit Vorwort von Adele Goldschmidt (PrivatdruciC:^';: 

in wenigen }!);,0nplaren] ,IJerlin 1898; ' ■ ": 

.|fl2^ jSr.Gen£Z,irüdische Kaufmann"brief e (aus Szkloff loei Mohileff) aus ' 

i den J-ahrer.47ao-1804, Jüdische Familienforschuni^; Y,^^eft ao,19i39S. 2o3 



„■jlWft*^«*«'"»'^' 



■ 14^A.Loev0ntahl ,Die Ouellen der jüdischen Fanilienforschune ,Jüdi- 
■■,:Jp| sehe i'ajjilienforschung l,ITr,3 ,1925,3, 5;^. 

S, 71i,^'avä)d Philii)son,^ome Jn^^uhlished Letters of Reljecca GratZjpul»- 



'■ • ^-'-i^^^i^'u*'' ^■''*'- 



^ications XXIX, 19l:!5,Sb3- 60; David Philpson ,;j_eterjrs of Rebecca 
Grsl^, Philadelphia 1129; ver£];l .neues tens Rollin G. Osterweis »'"ebecca 
GvftZfh Studv in ''härm, TT ew York and London 1935. 

2^')Guido KixPDh ,Gernan .ewa in V/hite Labor Srrvitude in Anerica,iK: 
/ruck, wird im 24. Bande der Publications of che american Jewish Hißto 
' rieal Sociaet^cAnfnag 1936 erscheinen,,..,. 



/ 



SCHRIFTENREIHE WISSENSCHAFTLICHER ABHANDLUNGEN 
DES LEO BAECK INSTITUTE OF JEWS FROM GERMANY 



HANS KOHN 



KARL KRAUS 

ARTHUR SCHNITZLER 

OTTO WEININGER 



Aus dem jüdischen Wien der Jahrhundertwende 



1962. XII, 72 Seiten. Kart. DM 8.40 




J. C. B. MOHR (PAUL SIEBECK) TÜBINGEN 



■^ /l 
f^ li 



KOHN • KARL KRAUS / ARTHUR SCHNITZLER / OTTO WEININGER 

Das Buch behandelt drei markante Gestalten aus dem Wien der Jahr- 
hundertwende. Allen dreien sind gewisse Themen gemeinsam, die um 
die Jahrhundertwende viel diskutiert wurden — das Wesen der Litera- 
tur, die Notwendigkeit philosophischer Besinnung, die Bedeutung des 
Geschlechtlichen, das jüdische Schicksal, die Bezauberung durch das 
Theater. All diese Themen werden in typisch Wiener Weise von jedem 
der drei einzigartig und eigenartig erfaßt. 

Während Karl Kraus heute wieder viel diskutiert wird, ist Weininger 
beinahe vergessen. Doch hat diese genial tragische Jünglingsgestalt 
Kraus wie auch Ludwig Wittgenstein tiefst beeindruckt. Schnitzler 
scheint einer ganz anderen Welt anzugehören, ein eleganter Darsteller 
eher als ein apokalyptischer Prophet. Dennoch verbindet die drei Men- 
schen eine ähnliche Problemstellung, die wohl zeitbedingt ist, die aber 
auch zeitlose Themen zutiefst anrührt. 



Der Verfasser: 1891 in Prag geboren und im alten Österreich aufgewachsen; lebte 
nach dem ersten Weltkriege in Paris, London und Jerusalem; wanderte 1931 nach 
den Vereinigten Staaten aus, wo er Professor der neueren Geschichte am City 
College in New York ist. 

Veröffentlichungen: Die Idee des Nationalismus, 1950, Fischer paperback 1961. 
Propheten ihrer Völker, Mill, Michelet, Mazzini, Treitschke, Dostojewski, 1949. 
Martin Buber, sein Werk und seine Zeit, 1961. Das moderne Rußland. Grund- 
züge seiner Geschichte, 1961. 



J. C. B. MOHR (PAUL SIEBECK) TÜBINGEN 



KELLETAT • HÖLDERLIN 



Soeben erschienen: 



ALFRED KELLETAT (Hrsg.) 



HÖLDERLIN 



Beiträge zu seinem Verständnis in unserm Jahrhundert 

(Schriften der Hölderlin-Gesellschaft 3) 

1961. VIII, 396 Seiten. Brosch. DM 16.—, Lw. DM 19.80 



INHALTSÜBERSICHT: 



Stefan George: Hölderlin 

Friedrich Gundolf : Hölderlins Archipelagus 

Norbert von Hellingrath: Vorreden zu der historisch-kritischen Aus- 
gabe der sämtlichen Werke Hölderlins 

Rainer Maria Rilke: An Hölderlin 

"Walter Benjamin: Zwei Gedichte von Friedrich Hölderlin 

Gustav Landauer : Friedrich Hölderlin in seinen Gedichten 

Ernst Cassirer : Hölderlin und der deutsche Idealismus 

Eduard Spranger: Hölderlin und das deutsche Nationalbewußtsein 

Martin Heidegger : Hölderlin und das Wesen der Dichtung 

Wilhelm Michel: Hölderlin und Diotima 

Karl Vietor: Hölderlins Liebeselegie 

Romano Guardini: Aus dem Buche „Hölderlin, Weltbild und Fröm- 
migkeit" 

Max Kommerell: Hölderlins Empedokles-Dichtungen 

Walther F. Otto : Die Berufung des Dichters 

Paul Böckmann: Hölderlins Naturglaube 

Adolf Beck : „Heidelberg" 

Rudolf Pannwitz: Hölderlins Erdkarte 

Karl Reinhardt : Hölderlin und Sophokles 

Karl Kerenyi: Hölderlins Vollendung 

Emil Staiger: Das diuikle Licht 

Wolfgang Schadewaldt : Hölderlins Weg zu den Göttern 

Wolf gang Binder: Hölderlins „Friedensfeier" 

Eugen Gottlob Winkler : Der späte Hölderlin 

Franz Baermann Steiner: An Hölderlin 



J. C. B. MOHR (PAUL SIEBEGK) TÜBINGEN 



i 



Schriftenreihe wissenschaftlicher Abhandlungen des 
Leo Baeck Institute of Jews from Germany 

Bereits erschienen: 

1. S. ADLER-RUDEL 

Ostjuden in Deutschland 1880 — 1940. Zugleich eine Geschichte der Organi- 
sationen, die sie betreuten. 

1959. XII, 169 Seiten. DM 17.—, Lw. DM 21.— 

2. ERNST SIMON 

Aufbau im Untergang. Jüdische Erwachsenenbildvmg im nationalsozialisti- 
schen Deutschland als geistiger "Widerstand. 

1959. IX, 108 Seiten. Kart. DM 11.— 

3. MARGARETE SUSMAN 

Die geistige Gestalt Georg Simmels. 
1959. IV, 40 Seiten. Kart. DM 4.20 

4. GUIDO KISCH und KURT ROEPKE 

Schriften zur Geschichte der Juden. Eine Bibliographie der in Deutschland 
und der Schweiz 1922 — 1955 erschienenen Dissertationen. 

1959. IV, 58 Seiten. Kart. DM 5.80 

5. MARGARETE TURNOWSKY-PINNER 

Die zweite Generation mitteleuropäischer Siedler in Israel. 

1962. XIV, 136 Seiten, 10 Abb., 1 Karte. Kart. DM 16.—, Lw. DM 19.50 



BESTELLZETTEL 



Ich bestelle bei der Buchhandlung 



aus dem Verlag J. C. B. Mohr (Paul Sieb eck) Tübingen 



.Ex. Bd. 6: Kohn, Karl Kraus 

.Ex. Bd. 5: Turnowsky-Pin^^er, Siedler 

.Ex. Bd. 4: Kisch-Roepke, Geschichte 

.Ex. Bd. 3: Susman, Simmel 

.Ex. Bd. 2: Simon, Aufbau 

.Ex. Bd. 1: Adler-Rudel, Ostjuden 

.Ex. Kelletat, Hölderlin 



Kart. 

Kart. 

Kart. 

Kart. 

Kart. 
Brosch./Lw. 
Brosch./Lw. 



Name: 



Anschrift : 



Datum: Unterschrift: 



* 1961. XII. W 472 



SCHRIFTENREIHE WISSENSCHAFTLICHER ABHANDLUNGEN 

DES LEO BAECK INSTITUTS 

7/8 
(4 Halbbände) 



SELMA STERN 



DER PREUSSISCHE STAAT 
UND DIE lUDEN 



1962. 4 Halbbände cpl. Brosch. DM 152.-, Lw. DM 170. 
Die Bände werden nur geschlossen abgegeben 




J. C.B.MOHR (PAUL SIEBECK) TÜBINGEN 



STERN / DER PREUSSISCHE STAAT UND DIE JUDEN 

Erster Teil: 

Die Zeit des Großen Kurfürsten und Friedrichs I. 

1. Abteilung: Darstellung. XX, 159 Seiten. ^""'^ 
2. Abteilung: Akten. IV, 546 Seiten. ^„^^ 

Zweiter Teil : 
Die Zeit Friedrich Wilhelms I. 

1. Abteilung: Darstellung. VIII, 180 Seiten. 
2. Abteilung: Akten. IV, 804 Seiten. ^^^ 

Von diesem umfangreichen Werk erschien der erste Band 1925. Der zweite 
wurde — vom Verlag Schocken 1938 in Berlin herausgebracht — sofort be= 
schlagnahmt. Nun liegt es zum erstenmal geschlossen als ein bedeutendes Kul= 
turdokument der deutschen und der jüdischen Geschichte vor. 
Das Werk schildert den langwierigen Entwicklungsprozeß, der in der Neuzeit 
zur Emanzipation der Juden geführt hat. Dargestellt wird sowohl ihre all= 
mähliche politische, rechtliche, wirtschaftliche und soziale Eingliederung in den 
Staat ihres Wirtsvolkes als auch ihre geistige und kulturelle Assimilation. Hier 
wird der komplizierteste Vorgang der deutsch=jüdischen Geschichte sichtbar: 
die geistige und seehsche Umwandlung des Ghetto=Juden in den europäischen 
Juden sowie die erste schicksalhafte Durchdringung von Deutschtum und 
Judentum. 

Die Verfasserin macht glaubhaft, daß diese Emanzipation — bis jetzt als ein 
durch die humanitär=tolerante Stimmung der Aufklärungszeit hervorgerufenes 
Ereignis verstanden — nicht so sehr ein Ergebnis der Reformideen des Ratio= 
nalismus als der fürstlichen Judenpolitik ist. Die Herrscher als Vertreter eines 
aufgeklärten Absolutismus und Merkantilismus lösten bewußt das mittel= 
alterliche, auf Kündigung beruhende Vertragsverhältnis mit den Kammer= 
knechten auf. Damit verlegten sie die Judenfrage aus der kirchlichen in die 
staatliche Sphäre und säkularisierten sie damit gewissermaßen. Auf diese Wei= 
se wurde die Judenschaft systematisch in den Staat eingebaut. Indem aus dem 
Hausierer und Krämer der Verleger und Fabrikant, aus dem Geldwechsler und 
Pfandleiher der Bankier und Großunternehmer wurde, war der Weg für die 
bürgerliche Befreiung sowie die kulturelle und geistige Erneuerung der Juden 
bereitet. 

Die Verfasserin untersucht darüber hinaus auch die geistesgeschichtliche und 
soziologische Seite des Problems und geht der Wirkung nach, die reale wie 
ideelle Kräfte auf die Entschlüsse der preußischen Könige, auf die Organisation 
der jüdischen Gemeinschaft und auf den Typenwandel der jüdischen Menschen 
ausgeübt haben. 



J. C. B. MOHR (PAUL SIEBECK) TÜBINGEN 



STERN / DER PREUSSISCHE STAAT UND DIE JUDEN 
INHALTSDBERSICHT 

Band I/i 

I. Staatsform und Judenproblem 
II. Verfassung und Rechtsverhältnisse der Juden 

III. Die Motive der kurfürstlichen Judenpolitik 

IV. Die Handelspolitik des Großen Kurfürsten und die Juden 

V. Ständepolitik und Judenfrage 
VI. Die Judenpolitik Friedrichs I. 

VII. Die Judenkommission 
VIII. Staat und Gemeinde 
IX. Die Juden und das preußische Wirtschaftsleben 
X. Die jüdische Gemeinschaft und die preußische Umwelt 

Band II/i 

I. Die geistigen Strömungen des 18. Jahrhunderts und die Judenfrage 
II. Die Behördenorganisation Friedrich Wilhelms I. und die Juden 

III. Die Juden in der Steuerpolitik Friedrich Wilhelms I. 

IV. Die Juden in der Handelspolitik Friedrich Wilhelms I. 

V. Die Juden in der Industrialisierungspolitik Friedrich Wilhelms I. 

VI. Die Juden im preußischen Geld= und Münzwesen 

VII. Der absolutistische Staat und die Organisation der jüdischen Gemeinden 
VIII. Die Juden und die Umwelt 



J. C. B. MOHR (PAUL SIEBECK) TÜBINGEN 



SCHRIFTENREIHE WISSENSCHAFTLICHER ABHANDLUNGEN DES 

LEO BAECK INSTITUTS 

1. S. ADLER-RUDEL 

Ostjuden in Deutschland 1880—1940. Zugleich eine Geschichte der Organisationen, 
die sie betreuten. 1959. XII, 169 Seiten. Brosch. DM 17.-, Lw. DM 21.— 

2. ERNST SIMON 

Aufbau im Untergang. Jüdische Erwachsenenbildung im nationalsozialistisdien 
Deutschland als geistiger Widerstand. 1959. IX, 108 Seiten. Kart. DM 11.— 

3. MARGARETE SUSMAN 
Die geistige Gestalt Georg Simmeis. 1959. IV, 40 Seiten. Kart. DM 4.20 

4. GUIDO KISCH und KURT ROEPKE 

Schriften zur Geschichte der Juden. Eine Bibliographie der in Deutschland und der 
Schweiz 1922—1955 erschienenen Dissertationen. 1959. IV, 58 S. Kart. DM 5.80 

5. MARGARETE TURNOWSKY-PINNER 

Die zweite Generation mitteleuropäischer Siedler in Israel. 1962. XIV, 136 Seiten, 
1 Karte, 10 Abbildungen. Kart. DM 16.— Lw. DM 19.50 

6. HANS KOHN 

Karl Kraus, Arthur Schnitzler, Otto Weininger. Aus dem jüdischen Wien der 
Jahrhundertwende. 1962. XII, 72 Seiten. Kart. DM 8.40 

J. C. B. MOHR (PAUL SIEBECK) TÜBINGEN 



Bestellzettel 
Ich bestelle durch die Buchhandlung 



aus dem Verlag J. C. B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck) Tübingen 

Ex. Bd. 7/8: Stern, Der Preussisdie Staat 
Kohn, Karl Kraus 
Turnowsky-Pinner, Siedler 
Kisdi-Roepke, Gesdliidite 
Susman, Simmel 
Simon, Aufbau 
Adler-Rudel, Ostjuden 

Name: 

Ansdirift: 

Datum: Unterschrift: 



Ex. 


Bd. 


6 


Ex. 


Bd. 


5 


Ex. 


Bd. 


4 


Ex. 


Bd. 


3 


Ex. 


Bd. 


2 


Ex. 


Bd. 


1 



Brosdi/Lw. 

Kart. 
Kart./Lw. 

Kart. 

Kart. 

Kart. 
Brosch./Lw. 



1962 IV. W S2S 



/ 



\\ 



Der Meistei una sein V/eric. 



Anikässlci ues iOO ten Geburtstages des ersten jiddischen Klassilcers 
Mendel e Mo eher Sforim, 

In allen Teilen der jüdischen Zerstreuung wird jetzt viel über 
dieses epomachende Daturi gesxJrochen.So wird iiniaer betont, das s das Z 
Jahr 1836 das "Geburtsjahr der neujüdischen f:ch'6nen Literatur ist. Sie 
schlug völlig neue und orogonelle Wege ein, dadurch vi/urde auch der 
Leser geschaffen ,aa man vielfach behauptet, das f; zu dieser Zeit gar 
kein Bedürfnis für weltliche Schriften bei den breiten Massen des 
Judentums vorhanden war. 

Wenn auch ditJ wrstere -Behauptung völlig zutrifft, so müssen wir 
aer Meinung, dass _eridele auch das Bedürfnis für Literatur erzeugt iL 
hat, t:nt6chieden entc^egentreten^Eher hat aas tief im Juden verwurzel- 
te Bedürfnis für ^.-lles Anschauliche die Vorasusetzurig für die Entste 
hung einer Klassischen Literatur geschaffen, Denn es gibt kaum ein 
Volk. bei dem die Freude an aer Vervmndung und nAus schmückung von SXm. 
Gleichnissen so beliebt, hochgewertet und verbreitet ist. Sogar der 
kleine Mann beaient sich seiner, weiss es zu schätzen und zu pflegen 
erst recht der Schrif tgelehrte,dei sich ständig in aer Sphäre der 
abstralcten Kalacha bewegt, sucht eine geistige Entspannung in dem bil 
derreichen und lebensnahen Mi drasch, Auch aie * Unterhaltung der Wei- 
sen* fSichath Chulin schel Talmide-Chachaim)^, diti schöngeistige Ges- 
präche, Gleichnisse und Aphorismen en thal ten, werden mit den ersten tl 
wissenschaftlichen Disputationen gleichgestellt» 

Aach vor Mendele haben einige Schriftsteller diesen '.'eg einge- 
schlagen, doch haben sich diese, wie Ettinger und Ochsenfeld, nicht so- 
weit durchgesetzt, Sie blieben ohne Schuöe und Nachfolger, die keine 
literarische Bewegubg geschaf f en,bereinzelt, ohne Anklang gefanden zu 
haben, Objekte literarischer Archivare und Fachgelehrter. Sie nehmen 
einen ehrenvollen ?latz in der beschichte unseres Schrifttums ein, 
üoch in aer Lebensgeschichte unseres Volkes fehlt ihr Käme. Das Schidc 
sal Äbraraovitsch wollte es,dass er gerade in die Zeit, wo die Haskai.- 
Iah ihren Glanz und Zauber einzubüssen begann, seine schrif tstelleri- 
s'che Tätigkeit anfing. Diese beaeutungsvolle Bewegung, die wenn auch 
verspätet, von grosser Tragweite war ,gingnihrem Ende zu, Ihre Anhänge?|| 



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A'brgJaam Ya.cal » s "Briefe aus Israel** bespirodien von Dr, 
Kurt mihelm in u.cr Jidish HitteilungsblattS.lO« 1943. 







• •o.Die Briefsaiiunlung ueginnt mit jenem MbliE^chen Sendschreiben des 
Propheten Jeremias an die Gola in Babel und schließt mit einen Brief 
an die Juden Jemens aus unseren Tagen, Die Briefe aus Erez Israel so 
verbunden, werden zu einer Geschichte Erez Israels durch die Jahrhun- 
derte und Jahrtausende, oder besser, sie vereinigen sich zu einem bunten 
Bilderbuch der Geschichte des niemals linterbrochenen jüdischen Lebens 
im Heiligen Lande. Sie schildern uns den schlichten Juden von Erez 
Israel, der seinem hand..erk und Gewerbe nachgeht, der sein Haus baut und 
äas seines Gottes errichtet, um an heiliher Stätte ein heiliges Leben m 
führen. Alte Ueberlief erungen,die an Gräbder und andere geweihte Plit2B 
geknüpft sind^,j/erden mitgeteilt, Glauben und Aberglauben wohnen dicht 

trocr 
ten, 

.... - _ ^ ' „-.„gen uro. 

enttauschten Hoffnungen, die "wegen unserer gro l^^n Sünden" resi. niert 
hingenommen werden, wir sehen den Juden von ErSz IDarael aus allen Län- 
dern der Gola nach Zion wandern, aus Babel, Af rika, Spanien, Italien, FrarLkJ- 
reich, Deutschland und Böhmen, aus Polen, der Krim,RuiSland und Jemen^Gelh- 
Gelehrte. Kauf leute,Eorar Ollenschreiber, Handwerker, gebildete und ein- 
fältige Juden aller Länder begegnen einander in Zion ubd schriben an 
die fernen Liexben ,die sie in ihre innigen Gebete einschließen. Die 
Beschwernisse der Reise werden in diesen Briefen lebendig, die Gefahren 
der Seefahrt, Sorge um Hab und Gut bei der ]i]im7anderung,und aus der ei^ 
nen Erfa.hrung ergehen gute Ratschläge an die Angehörigen daheim für jda 
ihre dereinstige Reise nach Erez Israel. Denn die Aufforderung zur 
AlijaÄ geht durch diese Briefe in allen Zeiten. Die Heilighkeit ujd der 
Segen des Landes v/erden hoch gepriesen, danit auch der Smpfänger erweckt 
wird, sich nach dem Leben von ^!]rez IDsrael zu sehnen und sich dort mit 
den ihm vorangegangenen Lieben wieder zu vereinigen. 

Yaari fand die Pal.stinabrief e an den entlegensten Stellen unsere: 
Literatur, in Handschriften, seltenen Drucken, in Saromelwerken, Zeitschrif- 
ten, Jahi^büchern. Ueberall entdeckte sein bibliographischer Spürsinn 
längst Vergessenes und immer wußte bei mehreren Hecensionen eines Brie- 
fes zur ursprünglichen Passung vorzustoßen. So ist diese Ausgabe auch 
deshalb wertvoll, weil sie eine Anzahl von bisher nur in mangelhafter 
Porm bekannten wichtugen Briefen nunmehr mit li^esseren Lesarten bietet» 
Es handelt sich vor allem ;:ium die berülimten Briefe des Obadja Bertinory 
die bei Yaari in einer Passung mitgeteilt werden, die Rabbiner Artom 
für seine bisher nicht publizierte Dissertation verwendet hat. Yaari 
schickt jedem Brief eine Einleitung über die Person des Absenders vor- 
aus und teilt ferner mit,v;as sachlich zun Brief und seiner Abfassungs- 
zeit bemerkenswert ist. Bibliographische Notizen zu den einzelnen Brie- 
fen folgen am Ende des Buches. Die Briefe selbst sind mit knappen Kotea 
versehen, die Abkürzungen auflösen oder Bibelzita.te feststellen. 

Es v/ar ein glücklicher Geda.nlce des Sammlers die vorzionistische 
und zionistische Bev/egung in die Antologie einzubeziehen. So bleibt 
die Sammlung ohne Abschluß; der Leser der Briefe fühlt sich aufgerufen 
selbst in dieses V/erk der Zionsliebe einzutreten, denn es ist sein eige- 
nes Erez Israel, das ihm aus den Briefen von Arlosoroff ,Trumpeldor,A.D» 
Gordon und Rabbiner Kük entgegenlcommt.Und Rivlin,Lunz,Pines,Ben-Jehuda 
und die**Biluim" lehren ihn das heroische Kapitel zionistischer Vorge- 
schichte und die Verwirklichung des vorzionistischen Ideals auf unseren 
Boden. Die vier Briefe von Louis Loewe aus Zülz in Oberschlesien, dem 
bedeutenden Orientalisten und Begleiter llontefiores auf dessen philan- 
tropischen Reisen geben uns vielfache Vergleichungsnöglichlceiten zv/izBS- 
sehen Pal.stina von vor hundert Jahren und He te. 

Man fühlt beim Lesen der Brief e,wEi dem Herausgeber bein Einsam- 
meln der zu bewäktigendenStoff unter der arbeitenden Hand vmchs. Viele 
Briefe konnten nur auszugsweise verwendet werden, viele Briefs ender 
raui^ten sich mit einer kleinen Auswahl aus dem vorhandenen Material be- 
gnügen. Vielleicht h.tte aber Yaari dennoch dem kuriosen Simon von Gel- 
dern und seiner kphnen Prophezeiung von vor achtzig Jahren, daß in fünf 
Jahrzehnten kein A-Schlcenasi mehr in d esem Lande leben wird, einen be- 
scheidenen Platz einräumen sollen, und ebenso Abrah.am Rafael Trabot(ed: 
Ileubauer im Sajimielband Mekize ITirdanim IT ,der zu Bqginn des 16.Jahrh. 
vom Auftreten David Eeubenis berichtet. 

Die Pali stinabriefe seinen bes^-^nders dem Menschen unserer Alijah s 
zum Lesen find Lernen empfohlen. Dieses Buch der Zionsliebe v/eckt di«^) 
LieTi?e zu unserem Land und der Gerchichte des Jischuw; die Sprache ist 
durchweg /einfach, und wo sich Schwierigkeiten aj ftun, hilft die Ani'ierkure 



Aus wachsteins Sonderabdrücken 



fe 



/, 



•"isik Hirsch **ei8B 



(15. Februar 1815-31^Mai 1905) 
von B.Wachszein» 






■r^-f.-.'/ntm»'^^''''''' 



Nation schien nunmehr, wie wir heute sagen, Privatsache zu 



werden, ""s galt nun,aie **rbeit nach innen und aussen auf zunehmen, ^nö' 
so gingen sie alle, ohne Mandat ,ohne äussere Belohnungen, mit dem ^1 
Glücksgefühle aer ersten, die einer grossen Idee zum Leben verhel-^ ' 
fen.in den ^''arapf ,von dem Fleischaufseher und .„eschichtsphiloeophcn 
t*achman Krochraanl an bis zum Korrektpr und Historiker läH.Weiss.ünd 
glücklich waren sie alle, denn sie kannten keinen Riss in ihrer Per- 
sönlichkeit.Das Judesein war ihnen, den Ghettoabkömmlingen und Vertre 
tern der liberalen Weltanschauung, etwas so Selbstverständlichee^dsiss 
sie nicht einmal den ^egrdtff aes ^ationaljuaentums kannten.Es ist 
sicherlich ein geschichtlicher IIrrtuum,in ihnen die bewussten Erzejj;^ 
ger aes Verscbmel^ungSeiedankens zu sehen.Die ganze Diaspora, insofeai. 



sie sich von anderen Kulturkreisen anregen liess, kannte keine bedeu- 
tenderen Voll Juden, als diese ii Vertreter der wissenschaftlichen Hask« 

1 

la es waren. -^-hr Kampf gegen das T3estehende trug ungefähr denselben ^ 
häuslichen Charakter, wie etwa der '^ampf der griechischen Auf]clärung 






gegen die Volkssitte, der doch sicherlich nicht gegen das griechische / 



/ 



Nationalwesen geri htet war.Dass sie sich aber selbst keine Frage 
stellten, hierin liegt ihre Beschränkung. Die Freiheit des Indivi4u*]t[^ 
in seinen wirtschaftlichen und geschichtlichen Traditionen zu lebep 
war ihnen ein natar rechtliches Postulat, das, einmal eingesehen, immc?' 
praktische Geltung haben müs8tx«Die Bedeutung des aufstrebenden 
gemeinen Nationalismus, des moaernen Wirtsahaftskampf es, erkannte 
nicht und übersahen deshalb die sich daraus ergebenden Möglic 
für ein unter den abnormalsten Bedingungen auf dem ganzen Er 




zerstreut lebendes Volk, 



S9,5« 



Geschichte zu schteiben war nun den Hasialamensjt- 



f 



■ sehen nichts anderes als geschichte zu machen, das Juaentum zu verw^t^ 
l *rt«eltlichen und es auf eigene Füssemzu stellen, Die Historie soll ^Afle l:'\ 
neue Weltanschauung beibringen..... 



Ein BriejT »ach DeutSGhl^and 
Von üexnaim Hesse^ 



.^.ii.*'i 



V 



Merlcwürdig ist das mit den Briefen aus Ihrem Lande! Viele 
ppi'^^La''''^" ;bedeütete für mich ein Brief aus Deutschland ein Überaue 
ßeltenee und -beinalie iimiier ein freudiges Ereignis. Er brachte die 
Hacliricht, daü irgend ein Freund noch lebe, von den ich lin'-^e nicht 
mehr erfahren, und uin den ich vielleicht gebangt hatte. Und er bedeu- 
tete eine icleine, freilich nur zufällige und unzuverlasrige, Verbin- 
dung mit den Lande, das meine Sprache ßj^n^Gh, dem ich iiein Lebenswerk 
anvertraut hatte, das bis vor einigen Jahren mir auch mein Brot und 
die moralische Rechtfertigung für meine Arbeit gegeben hatte» Ein 
solcher Brief kam immer überraschend, iimuer auf vjundcrlichen Ump/egen 
er enthielt kein Geschwätz, nur Wichtiges, war oft in großer llatt * 
während der Minuten .jeschrieben, in denen ein Rotkreuzwagen oder ein 
lUiclcwanderer sarauf wartete, oder er kam, in Hamburg, Halle oder 
Nürnberg geschrieben, nach Mona.ten auf dein Umweg über Franlcreich oder 
Amerika, wohin ein freundlicher SoMtt ihn bei seinem Pleimaturlaub 
mitgenommen hatte. 

Dann wurden die Briefe häufiger und länger, und hinzu kamen sehr 
viele aus den Kriegsgefangegenifeagern aller Lander, traurige Papier- 
fetzchen aus den Stäche Idrahtla^ern in Aegypten uiidSyrien, aus v r%iia, ^ r^ M 
Frankreich, Italien, Sngland, Amerika, und unter diesen Briefen waren 
schon viele, die mir keine Preude machten und die zu beantworten mir 
balÄ die Lust verging. In den meisten dieser Gefangenenbriefe wurde 
sehr geklagt, es v/urde auch bitter geschimpft, es wurde unmögliches 
an Hilfe verlangt, es wurde höhnisch an Gott und Welt FIritik geübt, 
und zuweilen geradezu mit dem nächsten Krieg gedroht. Ein Gefangener 
in Frankreich, kein Kind mehr, sondern ein Indus tri ekler und Familien- 
vater, mit Doktortitel und guter Bildung, stellte mit die Frage: 
was denn nach meiner Meinung ein gutgesinnter, anständiger Deutscher 
in den Hitlerjahren hätte tun sollen? Kichte habe er verhindern, nichts 
i^egen Hitler tun kömien, denn das wäre V/ahnsinn gewesen, es hätte ihn 
Brot und Freiheit gekostet, und am Dnde noch das Leben, Ich konnte 
nur antwarten: sie Vewüstung von Polen und Buiiland , das Belagern 
und dann das irrsinnige Halten von Stalingrad bis zum bitternen Ende 
sei vermutlich auch nicht ganz ungefährlich gewesen, und doch hätten 
es. die deutschen Soldaten mit Hingabe getan. Und warum sie denn Hitler 
erst von 1935 an entdeckt hätten? Hätten sie ihn nicht zum Liindesten 
seit dem Münehencr Putsch kennen müssen? V/arum sie denn die einzige 
erfreuliche Ftucht des ersten Weltkrieges, die deutsche Republik, statt] 
sie zu stfizen und zu pflegen, fast einmütig sabotiert, einmütig für 
Hindenburg und später für Hitler gestimmt hätten, unter dem es dann 
allerdings lebensgefährlich gev/orden sei, ein anständiger Mensch zu 
sein? Ich erinnerte solche Briefschreiber auch gelegentlich daran, daß 
das deutsche Elend ja nicht erst mit Hitler begonnen habe, und daß 
schon im Sommer 1914 der trunlcene Jubel des Volkes über Oesterieichs 
gemeines Uitiniatum an Serbien eigentlich Manchen hätte aufwecken 
könne. Ich erzählte, was Roman Rolland, ntefaji Zweig, Frans Maserrel, 
^netter Kolb und ich in jenen Jahren durchzukämpfen und zu erleiden 
hatten. Aber darauf ging keiner ein, sie wollten überhaupt keine 
Antwarrt hören, keiner wollte wirklich disputieren, wirklich an irgend 
ein Lernen und Denken gehen. 

Oder es schrieb mir ein^ehr^r/ürdiger greiser Geistlicher aus 
SüddeutHchiand, ein fromraer Mann, der unter Hitler sich tajfer 
gehalten und viti^BB erduldet hatte: erst jetzt habe er meine vor 
25 Jaliren geschriebenen Betrachtungen aus dem ersten "eltkrieg gelesen 
und müsse ihnen als Deutscher und Christ \7ort für '7ort beistimmen, Abe; 
ehrlicherweise müsse er auch sagen; würen jdam diese Schriften ihm 
damals, als sie neu und alctuell waren, unter die Augen gekommen, go 
hätterer sie entrüstet weggelegt, denn er sei damals, wie jeder 
ansti^ndige Deutsche, ein straiiüner Patriot und ITationalist gewesen. 

Häufiger und häufiger wurden iteiro die Briefe, und jetzt, seit 
sie wieder mit der gewöhnlichen Post kommen, läuft mit Tatg um Tag 
ein kleine Sintflut ins Haus, viel mehr als gut is und als ich lesen 
kann. Doch sind es zvmr Hunderte von Absendern, aber im Grunde doch nu 



;3' 



fünf oder sechs Arten von Briefen. Mit Ausnatae lümlich der wenigen 

ihrlL^o^^^L; """f/!^ ^^^^^^ wenigen gehört als iner der besten 
Ihr UtlDQT -5iief - ämd diese vielen schreiben Ausdruck bestirnter, 
sich wieaerholender, oft allzu leicht erkennbarer Haltungen und 
r.eduri.niߣe. sehr viele von ihren Verfacrern ?/ollen bewußt oder 
unbewuiit teils dem Adresaten, teils der Zensur, teils sich selber 
ihre Unschuld im deutschen Elend beteuern, und nicht wenige haben 
ohne ZY/eifel gute Ursache zu diesen Anstrengungen, 

Da eind nun zuii Beispiel alle jenen alten Bekannten oder 
Leser, die mir frülier jahrele-ng geschrieben, döiait aber in dem Augen*^ 
blick aufGehört haben, wo sie rierkten, dao man sich durcii Briefweclisel 
mit mir, einem wohlüberv/achten, recht Unangenehmes zuziehen könne. 
Jetz. teilen sie inir irdt, dai^ nie noch leben, daji sie stets warm 
an i-icli gedacht und m.ich 'um mein Gluck, im ParadiesK der Schv/eit 
zu leben, beneidet hätten. Es sind aber vile dieser Hekenner jahre^ 
lang Mitglieder der Partei gewesen. Jetzt erzählen sie au^jf Lhtlich,; 
daß Sic in all diesen J^^ren stets iiit einen £'uü im IConzentrations-^ 
lager gewesen seien, und ich ::iu.o ihnen antworten, daü icii nur jene 
HitlergegKner gc.nz ernct nehmen könne, die mit beiden FiUen in jenen 
Lagern waren, nicht mit den einem im Lager, mit de . andern in der 
Partei, Auch erinnere ich r;ie daran, da^i wir hier im Paradies der 
Schweiz wälirend dex^ ICriegsJ^ahre jeden Tag mit dem freundnachbarlichen 
Besuch der braunen Teufel habe rechnen müssen, und daii in unserem 
Paradiese auf uns Leute von der schv/arzen Liste schon die Gefängnisse 
und Gc^lgen warteten, Ii:mierhin gebe ich zu, daii je u. d je die ITeuordne: 
Europas uns scliwarzen SchL';£'en c. -..h lockende Köder hingehalten haben, ; 
60 wurde ich zu einer ^eit, als ich beiGocbbels und Rosenberg schon i 
ganz unten durch war, zu meinem Erstaunen durcli einen Iliteidgenossen 
eingelafien, auf seine Kosten nach Zürich zu kommen, um mit ilim meine 
Aufnaiine in den vom Hinistarrium Hosenberg gegründeten Bund der 
europäischBB Kollaborationisten zu besprechen» 

]}ann gibt es troulicrzige alte ^'.'andervögel, die schreiben mir, 
sie seien daanals, so etwa um 1-54, nach schwerem innerem Eingen in 
die 'r-'artei eingetreten, einzig, um dort ein heilsames G-egengewicht 
gegen die allzu wilden und brutalen Elemente zu bilden usw. 

Andere wieder haben mehr private Komx^lexe und finden, w:.Jirend tk 
sie in tifen islend leben und von wichtigeren Sorgen umgeben sind, 
Papier und Tinte und ^^eit und Temperc^ment im Ueberfluü, um mir in 
sehr langen Briefen ihre tiefe Verachtutig für Thomas i^iann cius:::u- 
sp rechen und ihr Bedauern oder ihre Entrüstung darüber, dajj ich 
mit einem solchen ^aniie bcj'reundet sei. 

Und wie er eine Grugpe bilden jene, die offen und eindei^tig 
all die Jalire mit an Hitlers Triumphwagen gezogen haben, einige 
Kollegen und jB'reunde aus rriiheren Zeiten her, i)ie schrei jcn mit 
jetzt riilirend freundlicie 33riefe, erzähl..n Liir eingehend von ihrem 
Alltag, ijiren 3ombenschclden und häuslichen Sorgen, ihren uindern und 
ijniccln, al53 wäre nichts gewesen, al wäre nichts .^v/ischcn uns, als 
hätten sie nicnt mitgeholfen, die Angehörigen mj^lmyr/Wx^u und ii*reunde 
meiner Frau, die Jüdin ist, umzubringen, und mein Lebensweric zu 
diskreditieren und schließlich zu vernichten. ITicht Biner ss^oasxjxt 
von ihnen aclireibt, er ^ei "^^azi gewesen und werde eßi^bleiben, er 
bereuen, er selie die Dinge jetzt anders, er sei verblendet gewesen^ 
Vnd auch nicht einer schreibt, er sei ITazi gewesen und werde es 
blei.en, er bereue nichts, er stehe zu seiner Sache, "Vo wäre je ein 
lifazi zu seiner Sache gestände, wenn diese Sache schief ging?! Ach, es 
ist zun üebeirwerden. 

Eine kleinerer Zahl von Briefs chreibem erwartet von mir, ich 
solle mich heute zu Deutschland bekennen, solle hinüberkon en, solle 
an der Umerziehung mitarbeiteil. Weit gröüer aber ist die ZaLil derer, 
die micli auffordern, draußen in der Welt ö±e meine Stir.L.e zu erheben 
und als Neutraler und als Vertreter der Henschliclilceit gegen lieber- 
griffe oder lachlässigkeiten der Besetzungsarmeen zu protestieren. 
So weltfremd, so ohne iUniung von der Welt und der Gegen?/art, so 
rülirend und beschämend kindlich ist das! 

Walirscheiruich kommt Ihnen all dieser teils kin liehe teils 
bösartige ünsinn gar nicht erstaunlich vor, wahrscheinlich kennen 
Sie all das besser als ich, Sie deuten ja an, daü Sie mir einen 
langen Brief über die geistige Situation in Ihrem armen Lande 
geschrieben haben, ilin aber aus Zensurgründen zurückbehielten, ITmn, te| 



'7, 
W 



ich wollte Ihnen nur einen Begriff davon geben, womit jetzt die gröieas 
Ilalfte meiner Tage und Stunden ausgefüllt ist, und wollte damit auch 
erklaren, warum ich diesen Brief an Sie druclc^n lasse. Ich kann 
niDjalici die Haufen von Briefen, von denen die meisten olinehin 
Unmögliches verlangen und erwarten, natürlich nicht "beantworten, und 
doch sind unter jenen Briefen solche, denen mich ganz .^u entziehen 
mir nicht erlaii'bt schiene, Ihren Verfassern -warxde ich nun diesen 
gedruckten Brief schicken, schon weil iBie alle 00 wohlnieinend und 
besorgt nach meinem Ergehen fragen, 

Ihr lieher Brief nun ist in i;:einer Kategorie unterzubringen, 
er enthielt niclit ein einziges schahloniirtes Wort, und enthält - 
wunderbar im heutigen Deutßchlandl - nicht ein Wort der Klage oder 
Ankletge« Er hat mir auüerordentlicliK wolilgetyn, Ihr guter, klußer:j: 
und tapferer Brief, und was er über Ihr eigenes Schicksal enthalt, 
hat mich tief bewegt. So Bind also auch Sie, wie unser treuer Preund 
Sihrkamp, lange Zeit bewacht, bespitzelt, in die Kerker der Gestapo 
gestackt und sogar zum Tode verurteilt worden. Ich bin heiii Lesen tief 
erschrocken, um so mehr als auch meine Briefe, trotz aller Vorsicht 
Sie mitbelastet haben, aber eigentlich übe rrae Iaht haben mich Ihre 
Hachrischten nicht. Denn ich hatte Sie mir Bie niemals mit dem einem 
Fuß iri Gefängnis oder i»ager, mt dem anderen aber in der Partei 
vorgestellt, sondern habe nie daran gesweifelt, daß Sie tapfer und 
wach, wie es Ihren hellen -^gen und Ihrer Kluglieit zukommt, auf der 
reehten Seite standen. Und da waren ^ie freilich in schwerdter Gefahr. 

IBlre Frage nach meinem Ergehen ist rasch beantwortet. Ich bin 
alt und müde gev/orden, und die {Zerstörung meines 'Ä^erkes, begonnen 
durch Hitlers Ministerien und restlos vollendet durch die amerikani- 
schen Bomben, hat meinen letzten Jahren den Grundton Yon Enttäuschung 
und Kummer gegeben, l^aß über diesem Grundton dennoch manche kleine 
Melodie noch möglich ist mnd Ich xsaäsxpsts± zu manchen Stunden auch ^ 
jetzt noch im Zeitlosen zu leben verklag, ist mein Trost, Damit etwas 
von meinem ^,Yerk übrig bleilie, mache ich von Zeit zu ^eit von irgend- 
einem seit Jahren fehlenden Buch einen rchv/eizer Feudruck: es ist 
nicht viel mehr als eine Gerte, denn diese Drucke existieren natürli' 
nur für die rchweiz, 

Alter und Verkalkung machen 2'ortschrltte, manchmal will das 
Blut nicht mehr so richtig durchs Gehirn laufen. Aber diese üebel 
haben schließlich auch ifere gute Seite: man nimmt nicht alles mehr 
so deutlich und heftig auf, man hört an vielem, luan s^iirt manchen Hieb 
oder Nadelstich überhaupt nicht. mehr, und ein Teil de§5 ':'esens, das 
einst Ich hieü, ist schon dort, wo bald das ^anze sein Vvird, 

Zu den guten D-.ngen, für deren iiufnaJiem und Genui ich noch 
Organe habe, die mir noch Preude machen und das Bunlcle üliertönen 
können, gehören die seltenen, aber noch vorhandenen .'eichen für das 
weiterloben eines echten geistigen Deutschlands, die ich nicht in der 
Betriebsamkeit der jetzigen Kulturmacher unC*IDail>ö'iiilfe*o^Ä6-tiOhraten 
Ihres Landes suche und finde, sondcxzc in soivhen beglückenden 
AeuUerungen der ünschlossenheit, ^'aciiiieit und Tapferkeit, der 
y-Äisionslosen Zuversicht und Bereitschaft, T;ie Ihr Brief eine ist* im 
Dafür sage ich Ihnen meinen :Canl:, ]:ütet den iCeim, bleibt dem Licht 
und Geiste treu, Ihr seid sehr wenige, aber vielleicht das Salz 
der Erde, 



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'•)e 1«A"^0L'^^-IE de ^-pinoza par \ "^exier 



Le rejour d'Azulai a Parir 



JUST PUBLISHED 



Important Volume of Original 
American'- Jewish Historical Research 



Early History 

oi 

Zionism m Amenca 

ISIDOM » """ 



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Cloth bound $5.00 



EARLY HISTORY OF 
ZIONISM IN AMERICA 

Edited by ISIDORE S. MEYER 

Papers prcscntcd to the First Conference on the History of 
Zionism in America, convened by the American Jewish 
Historical Society and the Theodor Hcral Foundation. 

gl 



Published hy the 

AMERICAN JEWISH HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

and the 
THEODOR HERZL FOUNDATION 



Table of Contents 



WWWW^^^P^W^S^^^^^J^^^W^J^^^ftAÄ^^rtrt^i^ift^ft^ArtAninin^'iÄ 



"Resources for American Zionist History in the Jefusalem 
Archives" — 

DocTOR Alex Bein, Director, The Central Zionist Archives, 
Jerusalem. 



"The Impact of Zionism upon American Political Thought up to 
the End of World War L"— 
Irwin Oder, Esq., Brooklyn College. 



"Methodological Problems in the Writing of American Zionist 
History" — 

Abraham G. Düker, Esq., Hebrew Union College — Jewish 
Institute of Religion, School of Education. 

"Orthodox Judaism and Zionism in Americd* — 
Professor Hyman B. Grinstein, Yeshiva University. 



"The Federation of American Zionists" — 
Rabbi Herbert Parzen, Director, Jewish Reconstructionist 
Foundation. 



"Palestine and Jewish Restoration in the American Press during the 
Nineteenth Century" — 

Doctor Milton Plesur, Univetsity of Buffalo. 



"The Beginnings of Hadassah" — 
Mrs. Rose G. Jacobs, New York City. 

"The 'Zionism of Warder Cresson" — 
Rabbi Abraham J. Karp, Kansas City, Missouri. 

"The Resources of the Zionist Archives and Library" — 
Mrs. Sylvia Landress, Director, Zionist Archives and Library. 



"Zionism Comes to Chicago" — 
Mrs. Anita Libman Lebesqn, Winnetka, Illinois. 



"Zionism as a Factor in Allied and Central Power Policies in World 
War I."— 
Doctor Joseph Rappaport, American Jewish History Center. 



"The Beginnings of Labor Zionism in Americd' — 

C Bezalel Sherman, Esq., Labor Zionist Organization of 
America. 



"Zionism and Hebraism in America" — 
Doctor Eisig 5ilberschlag, Dean, Hebrew Teachers College, 
Brookline, Massachusetts. 



"Palestine in the Literature of the United States up to 1867" — 
Doctor Samuel H. Levine, Brooklyn, New York 



"Zionism Comes to Philadelphia" — 
Maxwell Whiteman, Esq., American Jewish Archives, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 



'Zionism in the American Yiddish Press" — 
Doctor Shlomo Noble, Yiddish Scientific Institute (YIVO). 



"Zionism and Emma Lazarus" — 
Doctor Arthur Zeiger, The City College of New York. 



lVn^^\i^^^vwv^i^^ftA^vw^rfV^n^J^^AnÄ/vvvu^wv^rt/^rtA/v^^wvw^J^rfv^irtJ^Artrf^^vv1J%i 



/4HHMCHCiK^ ^ , , 



A ISew Series of Pocket-size Pamphlets 
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Books in General 



ROM one narrow area — the borderlands of 
Arabi.a and Palestine — three great religions have 
been carried abroad. What peculiar character 
gave to one corner of the earth such spiritual 
concentration? For answer we must look not 
to history, but to geography, or rather to his- 
torical geography. In particular we may look 
to that great work, George Adam Smith's 
Historical Geography of the Holy Land. No 
otter'^ook'^S^'v'Iviiil^*^ re-a:eate3 ttie character of 
that eventful country or so skilfuUy calls in the 
rocks and Valleys to explain its three thousand 
years of history. For the Scots professor was 
no acadernic observer : he had not only read but 
ridden his way through every corner of his sub- 
ject. And in the end it was not only past his- 
tory that he explained. Twenty years later 
Palestine became once more a battleground of 
great armies, and the ]book which was written for 
scholars became the manual of statesmcn. The 
Prime Minister, Lloyd George, was "absorbed" 
by it; the victorious General AUenby carried it 
with him on his campaign; it was used at the 
Peace Conference; and the first High G)mmis- 
sioner, before taking up the government of the 
new Mandate, sought out, as his adviser, the 
Hebrew scholar from Abeirdeen. 

What is the essential, the permanent character 
of Palestine? From the first it has been double : 
Palestine is both " the bridge between Asia and 
Africa " and " the refuge of the drif ting popula- 
tions of Arabia." Great armies have passed 
through it to baide : the armies of Sennacherib 
and the Pharaohs, of Cambyses and Alexander, 
of Ptolemies and Seleucids, of Pompey and 
Caesar, the Caliphs and rhe Crusaders, Sultan 
Selim and Mehemet Ali, Napoleon and AUenby. 
Monotonously they have followed the same great 
high way s, picked up in the Serbonian Bog the 
same fearful plague, and fought their crucial 
battles in the same natural theatre, the passage 
and gateway of Jezreel. There Sisera and Saul 
were dcstroyed; there, at Megiddo, Josiah was 
destroyed by Pharaoh Necho; and the greatest 
batde of all, where the Kings of the Earth are 
to be destroyed, was naturally placed, by the 
heated Zealots who imagined it, at Megiddo, or 
Arniageddon. 

But v/hat were these Kings of the Earth and 
their great transient armies to the mountain 
tribes of Israel? Like the Beduin of the desert 
in cur wars, they looköd down upon the passing 
chariots from above and only descended after- 
wards, for the leavings. For the Hebrews were 
a highland people : their very language shows it. 
Thv-ir Word for valley is *' depth," their visitors 
" come up," even their hilltops are viewed from 
above. To them horses and chariots were exotic 
beasts and unfamiiiar machines. All the great 
chariot-rides in the Bible take place m the north, 
in Samaria. The horse, until Solomon, was not 
used; if captured, it was hamstrung; and the 
Prophets, those die-hard conservatives,continued 
to frown upon it as an irreligious novelty. It was 
in " the high places of Israel " that the Hebrews 
setded; it was there that their own unique his- 
tory took place; they left the Valleys to Foreign 
armies and caravans, the sea coast to the sea- 
faritig Phoenicians and sea-borne Phihstines. 

Furthermore, these drifting tribes of Arabia 



who had settled in Palestine were both wedged 
in and spHt up by the shape of the land. Cn 
the east the Jordan, sunk in its tropical valley, 
is not, like other rivers, a trade-route: it is a 
barrier. On the west the inhospitable sea coast 
was not, like the tempting archipelago of the 
Greeks, a highway to other continents: it was 
"a stitf , stormy line," a border, a horizon. There 
is no Word in Hebrew for a bridge — no bridge 
over their only river; nor for harbour eidier — no 
harbour in their only sea. And between these 
two barriers the country is furdier broken up into 
"shelves and coigns" into which the swarming 
clans of Arabia fitted themselves by tribes and, 
thus fitted, preserved, as in Alpine cantons, their 
different cultures. 

Thus when history first lights up within 
Palestine, what we see is a confused medley of 
clans — all that crowd of Canaanites, Amorites, 
Perizzites, Hivites, Girgashites, Hittites, sons 
of Anal^nd Zamzummim which is so perplex- 
ing to mfe' Student and yet in such thorough 
harmony with the natural condilions of the 
country and with the rest of the history . , . 
Palestine, formed as it is, and surrounded as 
it is, is emphatically a land of tribes. 

At first it was these Canaanite tribes, scattered 
and sedentary, an agricultural and cominercial 
people dwelling in strong places and practising, 
like all primitive agricultural peoples, orgiastic 
rites. Each tribe had its tutelary deity, like local 
Madonnas in Italy : they " practised abomina- 
tions " and worshipped Baal " on every high hill 
and under every green tree." Later, when the 
Hebrews conquered and absorbed thern and 
became, like them, aiV agricultural people, they 
fitted as naturally, tribe by tribe, into the same 
local niches and adopted as naturally the same 
local cults. They " went a-whoring after stränge 
gods." 

And yet, in the end, they were not seduced. 
Why not ? Once again geography offers an answer. 
For over and above the local subdivisions of 
Palestine Stands a greater, more fundamental 
division : the division between Arabia and Syria, 
between the Desert an i the Sown. The Hebrews 
were not, hke their predecessors, a sedentary, 
agricultural people : they were Beduin from the 
desert and their religion was the religion of the 
desert, " the sour Wahaby fanaticism " and yet 
also " the great antique humanity of the Semitic 
desert " which Doughty afterwards found in his 
soHtary Arabian wanderings. From the nomadic 
Kenites, the outcast tinkers of the desert, they 
had learned their grim religion, the worship of 
Yahveh, the god of the volcano in Sinai; and 
now they carried it frorn " the waste, the howling 
wilderness " into " the land of com and wine" 
which they had conquered. Then the miracle 
happened. Absorbed, Canaanised, civilised, they 
yet contrived to retain their desert religion with 
its violence and its humanity. The Old Testa- 
ment, in so far as it is history, is the history of 
a great ideological struggle: a struggle between 
the invading gods of the Desert and the native 
gods of the Sown. 

How splendid are the stories of its human 
agents! Politic kings, setting up their nev/ 
regality with its officers and tax-gatherers and 
incorporated court-chaplains, might seek to 
tarne the old aristocratic anarchy of the deseit; 



The New Statesman and Nation, August 7, 1954 

but always the Beduin with their marabouts, the 
Prophets, intervened. Sometimes their inler- 
vention was disastrous. The greatest of all the 
kings of Israel, Ahab, by his foreign allianccs 
and religious toleration, might have saved his 
country, had not the terrible Elijaii, the mad 
raullah from the mountains of Gilead, swept 
up from the wilderness of Jeshimon to mobilise 
the fanatics against him. Sometimes it was 
heroic. In the last Century of Hebrew inde- 
pendence, while bulwark after bulwark 
crumbled before the revived empires of the 
East, the great prophets preached again their 
gospel of primitive equality. The liberties of 
Israel were gone, they repeated with grim relish, 
irretrievably gone; and why? Because the old 
equality of the desert had been sacrificed. The 
luxurious royal court, the court of Solomon, 
that ancient Ismail or Farouk, had replaced tlie 
patriarchal tent, and the latifundia of the nesv 
pashas had swallowed up the land of tne 
peasant. The shepherd democrat Arnos and 
the metropolitan aristocrat Isaiah speak die 
same language: the new landlords "join house 
to house and lay field to field"; they "oppress 
the poor and crush the needy"; and the oniy 
hope is in the repudiation of urban civilisation. 
a return to the desert, so that "the eitles be 
wasted without inhabitant and the houses with- 
out man and the land be utterly desolate." ll 
was among the Kenites, the original founders 
of Yahvism, that the austere Rechabites pledgcd 
themselves to retain for ever, even in civilised 
Palestine, the old nomad simplicity which wi^ 
alone agreeable to their desert god. 

Israel foundercd, wd with it Judai:m which 
retuined from the Babylonian Exile a fossil of 
itself. Ezekiel, the pedagogue cf the Exile, had 
hardened it into a dreary ritualism; the prophet 
had yielded to the scribe and the high priest; 
the simple religion of the old Prophets was now 
cncrustcd with a luxuriant Persian apparatus. 
The voice of the desert had become the votce 
now of the Zealot, the rebel, the heretic. John 
the Baptist, that jakir of the wilderness, pro- 
tested against the Hellenised court of the 
Herods and was beheaded. Christ, the prophet 
of cosmopolitan Galilee, whom the spirit how- 
ever had driven into the wilderness for his 
Inspiration, protested against the ritualism of 
the high priests and was crucified. Israel had 
repudiated the desert. Palestine might remain 
the highway of great armies, but it was no 
longer the westward receptacle of the Arabian 
tribes : it was an eastern province of rhe 
Mediterranean empire of Rome. 

Nevertheless, the rejected inheritance ulti- 
mately found another heir. In due time the 
voice of Moses and Elijah, of Arnos and Isaiah 
and John the Baptist was raised again. The 
Mosaic monotheism, the Rechabite austerity, 
the prophetic intransigence (and the patriarchal 
polygamy) of the Old Testament were resumed 
not by the now Westernised Jews, the commer- 
cial travellers of a cosmopolitan empire, but 
once again in desert Arabia, to inspire a new 
Exodus and a new conquest. In the seventh 
Century of our era, Palestine was reconquered 
for the East; and the true heir of Moses, of 
Joshua and of the Prophets was not among the 
rabbis of Safad or of the ghettoes in the West; 
it was the Arabian conqueror, the fanatic of 



The Nezo Statesman and Nation, August 7, 1954 

of Commons Library is afforded by the libraries of 
Government Departments, which deal with similar 
inquiries and work under the same sort of atmosphere 
of urgency. Since 1949, when the Treasury estab- 
lished a class of professional librarians, more than 
half these libraries have appointed Professionals, and 
there are now 65 posts designated as professional. 
Nobody has yet ventured to suggest that the experi- 
ment has not been a success. 

Two Government Department Librarians 



LEN HUTTON 

Sir, — In the interesting study of "The Master 
Craftsman " there are some assumptions that seem 
open to question. 

Is the long preference for amateur captains of 
county and England teams due solely to unreflecting 
snobbery, real as that dement is? A dictum of 
Lord Hawke was quoted. It has this behind it, that 
the transmutation of the Yorkshire eleven from a 
coUection of brilliant individuals, of erratic and fre- 
quently disappointing Performance, to the greatest 
of county teams was due to the introduction and 
work of an amateur captain, Lord Hawke himself. 
Today in the same county, the one player who can 
be consistently relied upon for resolute run getting, 
not when runs are easy, but when they are of double 
value, is the amateur captain, Norman Yardley. 
Between the two lie many amateur captains whose 
inspiring influence is known to any foUower of York- 
shire cricket. Even Mr. D. C. F. Burton, singled out 
for special mention, learned (like Hutton) the tech- 
nique to score centuries and achieve a batting aver- 
age in the twenties. 

A study of the records of the counties this season 
will not show a notable superiority for those cap- 
tained by Professionals, and there are several. 

It is pertinent to ask the writer how often has a 
captain of England been chosen because he was " just 
an amateur." Reflection on the names of England 
captains and on their Performance is sufficient 
answer to his implication here. 

But ihe prejudice against Hutton has not been 
simpJy as against a professional captain. It has been 
also against a Test Match technique — with which 
righdy or wrongly he has been associated — of 
Puritan bleakness, whereby English batsmen have 
scored at half the speed of Australian, sometimes not 
cven at that, and, turning a sport into a masochistic 
exercise, finally achieved a drab victory over oppo- 
nents to whom it was left to show that batsmanship 
is a Creative art and a pleasure. 

And to revert to the amateur-professional issue, 
there may be something to be said for those who 
feel obscurely that from various circumstances an 
amateur is more likely, is freer — however unfairly — 
" to count the game above the prize." Yorkist 

SCOTCH 

Sir, — To us in the Highlands, the important 
ihing about "Scotch" is that it should continue to 
h<i made here and should not become something 
which can be made anywhere — even in some 
Japanese town rechristened Inverness! So long as 
it was pot-still whisky depending on local conditions 
for its flavour, it was completely protected. But the 
present-day blends have become more and more 
international and without local character, increasingly 
easy to copy. It seems only a matter of time before 
any desired " peat fiavouring " can be put in at the 
central distillery in Glasgow— or farther yet from 
ihe Highlands. 

Other countries take some trouble to fester local 
products which are really distinctive and a contribu- 
tion to the world. In other countries, too, the vin 
du pays is somewhat cheaper in its place of origin; 
this too should not be beyond the undoubtedly clever 
brains in the Excise department. What is wanted is 
the will to help. Naomi Mitchison 

Carradale, Argyll. 

"BLANK" OF THE YARD 

Sir, — I should be grateful if you would allow me 
10 correct a small, but not unimportant, inaccuracy in 
Mr. C. H. Rolph's interesting article "Blank of the 
Yard." 



Mr. Rolph States that I recently asked the Home 
Secretary to make available the official papers relating 
to the trials of Oscar Wilde. This is not so. My 
question concerned the official correspondence relat- 
ing, not to Wilde's trials, but to his imprisontnent, 
which, as I pointed out at the time, is of considerable 
interest to students of penal history and prison con- 
ditions in the last Century. (See Hansard, June 26, 
Cols. 588-590.) 

So far as any official papers relating to the trials 
are concerned, I applied for, and obtained, permis- 
sion to abstract these from the records of the Central 
Criminal Court. They will be found in my book, 
The Trials of Oscar Wilde, which forms part of the 
Notable Trials series, and was published in 1948. 

H. Montgomery Hyde 

House of Commons. 

GIORGIO MORANDI 

Sir, — I have read with the utmost interest John 
Berger's criticism of the exhibition of Giorgio 
Morandi held at the New Burliiigton Galleries. 
Although Mr. Berger's article guides the reader to an 
understanding of Morandi and describes certain 
aspects of his art in a manner worthy of praise, I 
would disagree with him in a few points of his article 
where other aspects, indispensable, for a füll compre- 
hension of Morandi's art seem to have escaped him. 

In the first place, referring to the presumed influ- 
ence of De Chirico and the Metaphysical School, I 
would say that such an influence, if even " slight ", 
did not cxist; Carfa, De Chiraco and Morandi have 
contributed to the formation of the Metaphysical 
School, each in his own way and equally important. 
In spite of the fact that De Chirico began painting 
his metaphysical canvases before Morandi, his works 
of that period could be considered an aspiration of a 
hybrid surrealism, an aspiration eiaborated by Carra 
but on a superior pictorial level. The metaphysical 
paintings of Morandi were born from a spontaneous 
and original act, necessarily, ia the philosophical sense 
— in consequence of a constant research of phantasy 
and reason in perfect equilibrium. 



159 

In continuouf coni^üct with a natural environment, 
the artist, in ordtr to crefüe u new vision and a new 
formal eleganct, after a complete personal meditation 
of the contribution of Ctzanne — this can well be seen, 
looking ai Morandis paintings of 1911-1916 and 
1918-1920 — where the "moral impact" described by 
Bloch is beginnjng to be so evident, Morandi with his 
means searches to convcy by his rules, that which is 
irregulär in naturt; and the fact that these rules are 
dictated by his deeply feit experiences doesn't imply 
that the artist is cJosing himself in an ivory tower. 
Precisely because bis works derive from a new 
assimilation of experiences, we see that in his land- 
scapes no one better than Morandi has been able to 
depict the Italy which is not the rhetoric and folk- 
lore of Naples, Capri, or Sicily, whiie his still lives 
reflect the architecturt of our city landscapes made 
up of the Jaytis, juxtaposed by the centuries of 
civilisation. 

In the choice of his subjects, Morandi has chosen 
to represent the hght, the form of his environment. 
He has thus accepted, and not rejected, the world 
around him — with a rappel ä Vordre, necessary for a 
return to a concrete and material study of nature. 

LiDIA PUGLIOLI 

San Lazzaro, Bologna. 

MAHLER AND BEETHOVEN 

Sir, — Mr. Edward Sackville West, in your issue of 
July 10, blames Mahler for instituting the deplor- 
able custom of playing Leonora No. 3 between the 
two scenes of Act II of Beethoven's Fidelio, 

I had seen this Statement in print time and again, 
and had accepted it without question. The other 
day, however, I was reading Lilli Lehmann's auto- 
biography, and found that she condemns the custom 
too, but speaks of its. being done at Leipzig in 1869, 
when Mahler was only nine. It looks, therefore, as 
if the custom started much earlier than is usually 
thought. I would be interested to discover who first 
thought of it. T. H. Shearer 

65 Bushey Way, 
Beckenham, Kent. 



^^^^j(^;^^j„/^.^^V^»^^.^.^>..,^^ .^^^ A:-\- ■}.■<■ 'V -k -t- •*,• •*• vV '\- 'k'h"\- -k-K-jk3ck±±Jö::k3!3M 



AUGUST 



THE RIDDLE OF THE SANDS 

Sonic try to do it by standing on one leg md wiggling their spare foot about in the sca. Then tliey 
hop, pondcrously, a yard or two Inland and thrust the foot thus piirificd into a sock. Provided they do 
not lose their balancc they are soon half-shod. But now they face the even more delicate probleni of 
reiiioving the sand from their remaining tocs without wctting the foot which ihcy have just accoutrcd. 
A ballet danccr could do it, an acrobat could do it on his head. The averagc holiday-makcr fiiils. 
A more sultanic technique is favoured by those who send sniali childrcn to fet< h watcr in their little 
buckets. These Citizens carry out their ablutions in comparativc conifort ; but the buckets represent 
what planncrs call an administrative bottleneck, and sometimes, when the tidc is out and the childreii 
are fractious, this fcrmula will not work. Even when it docs, there are still deposits to be removcd 
from between the chiidren's toes. 

Wc are a maritime nation, the heirs of Drake and Frobisher and Nelson. Ihc sea, wc are often loosely 
but cmphatically told, is in our blood. How is it that, down the cxntories, we Lnve never evolved a 
satisfactory niethod of cxtricating ourselves from this small predicanient ? Of what flaw in our national 
character is this failurc a Symptom ? No one knows, and rcgrettably flw caie. 




The Midhvid Bonk prides itself oti tlie help it _<>h>cs to its nistoincr.<;. Yet it coiifcsses ivith 

regret that, among all the many scrvices which the Boiik prot'idcs for holiday-makers, 

there is tioiie which solves this riddk of the sotids. 

MKDLAND BANK 



The New Statesman and Nation, August 7, 1954 

THE INVETERATE RATIONALIST 

Human Society in Ethics and Politics. Bv 

Bertrand Russell. Allen & Unmn. I5s, 
It is natural to think that a philosopher and 
mathematician will over-estimate the part which 
reason can play in practical aft'airs. This has 
been the easy criticisni of Russell's political 
writing, and in this book he tries to rebut the 
Charge. He agrees with Hume that reason is, 
and ought only to be, the slave of the passions. 
Reason is calculation, and calculation is of means 
to ends. Reasoning is problem-solving, and our 
desires set us the problem of finding means to 
reconcile the conflicts between them. We cannot 
reason about ends; we can only distinguish rhe 
harmless and compatible desires from those 
which lead to conflict. The first part of the 
book is a discussion of the oldest questions of 
moral philosophy : Can " right " and " vvroiig," 
" good " and " bad " be dcfined in terms of tlesire 
or of satisfaction, or in any other terms? Can 
moral judgments be properly called true or false, 
or are they a species of command or expressions 
of feeling? It is clear that a world without 
sentience would be a world without value; so 
human feelings must be the starting-point in 
ethics. Russell detests cruelty and believes 



The New Statesman and Nation, August 7, 1954 

the desert, the new " Prophet," Mohammed. 
In our day the desert has once again been 
driven back by the West. Ironically it is the 
exiled Jews who have done it. Having first 
entered Palestine as the tribesmen of llie 
Eastern desert, they now return to it as the 
spearhead of the avenging West. Ironically too 
they find facing them the truer heirs of their 
own lost tradition. For history is only acci- 
dentally the continuity of peoples: funda- 
mentally it is the continuity of countries — and 
ideas. The modern Jews who have re-created 
Israel may please themselvcs with the fancy that 
they are resuming a lost inheritance. In fact 
they can hardly be surprised if the Arabs of 
Palestine, still poised upon the historic hüls of 
Judaea, lock down upon these sea-borne 
invaders of the coastal piain as the ancient 
Hebrews looked down, in their day, upon the 
encroaching setders from the West, the 
Philistines. 

H. R. Trevor-Roper 



R 



An Autobiography of the Jewish people 



With an Introduction^ Index 
and Bibliography 



750 pagcs . 20 illiistrations 
In two volumes 



VOLUME TWO 

Front the Renaissance to the Emancipation 



LETTERS OF JEWS 
THROUGH THE AGES 

EDITED BY 

FRANZ KOBLER 

This first comprehensiue selection of 
Jewish letters, published in two volumes, 
illustrates every aspect of the Jewish genius, 
as displayed in oßcial, learned and private 
correspondence. The hook ^urveys Jewish 
letter-writing from hihlical days to the 
dawn of the emancipation era, it ranges 
over nearly all the countries where Jeu/s 
have lived, over all the languages in which 
they haue written, and over correspondents 
of all categories. Tims, this work is a 
treasury hoth offamoiis Jewish letters and 
of numerous precioiis gems which had 
remained hidden in the historical sources. 
Each letter or groiip of letters is placed in 
its proper setting hy means of a briej 
historical or hiographical introdiiction , in 
some cases also hy a postscript recording 
the efject ofthe letter. In this way the letters 
and the accompanying texts form a suffi- 
ciently connected narr ative, infact an arrest- 
ing Autobiography ofthe Jewish people. 



Edited by FRANZ KOBLER 



TWO VOLUMES 



42 s 

NET 



Contents of Volume 'öne 

INTRODUCTION 

The Story of Jcwish Letter- Writing 

PART ONE 

LETTERS FHOM THE TIMES OF THE KINGS 

PROPHETS, PRIESTS AND MAKERS OF THE TALMUD 

(eIGHTH CENTURY B.C.E TO FIFTH CENTURY C.E.) 

King l^ezekiah invites the childrcn of Israel to a solemn Passover 

at Jerusalem - The Prophet Jereiniah opcns a new epoch in Jcwish 

history by his epistle to the exiles in Babylon - The Lachish Letters: 

an original correspondcnce from the last days of Solonion's Temple 

- Persian State papers which changed the course of Jcwish history - 

The Elephantine Letters: News of Egyptian Jews froni the closc 

of the bibhcal cra - From the Letter of Aristeas -Jerusalem invites 

Alexandria to celebratc Hanukah -Jerusalem grcets Sparta - Jcru- 

salem's call to the exilcd tcacher of the Pharisees - Rabban Gapialicl y 

sends mcssages fixing the Calendar to the Jews far and ncar -r King ^A^ . v r ^/y, . ,,'^^ 

Agrippa II, the last Jcwish King, praiscs the History of the Jcwish ' * * ' 

War by Flavius Joscphus - The Byzantine Eniprcss, Eudocia, 

rouses the Messianic hopcs of the Jews. 



PART TWO 

LETTERS FROM THE TIMES OF THE GEONIC AND 

SPANISH PERIODS 

(eIGHTH TO FIFTEENTH CENTURY) 

The rise of the Gconic Responsa - Gaon Amrain sciids the niodol 

of the first praycr book to Spain - Saadia of Fayuni fights for the 

rulcs of the Calendar and for the Ethics of Judaism - Karaitcs versus 

Rabbanitcs: the cpistlc of Sabal ben Mazliah - An carl